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16 complication of blood t.ppt last


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Meeqat Hospital,Madina

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16 complication of blood t.ppt last

  1. 1. Blood…?? • RED BLOOD CELLS (Erythrocytes) – The most abundant cells in our blood; they are produced in the bone marrow and contain a protein called hemoglobin that carries oxygen to our cells. • WHITE BLOOD CELLS (Leukocytes) – They are part of the immune system and destroy infectious agents called pathogens.
  2. 2. Blood …?? PLASMA – This is the yellowish liquid portion of blood that contains electrolytes, nutrients and vitamins, hormones, clotting factors, and proteins such as antibodies to fight infection. PLATELETS (Thrombocytes) are carried in the plasma; they clot together in a process called coagulation to seal a wound and prevent a loss of blood.
  3. 3. The average adult has about FIVE liters of blood which makes up 7-8% of their body weight. Blood is living tissue that carries oxygen and nutrients to all organs and carries carbon dioxide and other waste products back to the lungs, kidneys and liver for disposal. It also fights against infection. Coagulation.
  4. 4. Genetics of Blood Types blood type is established by specific GENES inherited from parents. one gene from MOTHER and one from FATHER. •These genes determine your blood type by causing proteins called AGGLUTINOGENS to exist on the surface of all of your red blood cells.
  5. 5. blood types There are 3 alleles or genes for blood type: A, B, & O. Since we have 2 genes, there are 6 possible combinations. •Blood Types AA or AO = Type A BB or BO = Type B OO = Type O AB = Type AB
  6. 6. •How common is your blood type? •46.1 % •38.8 % •11.1 % •3.9%
  7. 7. Rh Factors The presence of the protein, or lack of it, is referred to as the Rh (for Rhesus) factor. Rh positive (Rh+). If your blood Rh negative (Rh-). A+ AB+ BAB+ ABO+ O-
  8. 8. Blood Transfusions •Who can give you blood? •People with TYPE O blood are called Universal Donors, because they can give blood to any blood type. •Universal Donor •People with TYPE AB blood are called Universal Recipients, because they can receive any blood type. •Rh +  Can receive + or •Rh -  Can only receive - •Universal Recipient
  9. 9. Blood Transfusions • Blood samples – Can be analyzed to determine blood type and DNA, which can be matched to possible suspects.  For a blood transfusion to work, the donated blood must match that of the recipient’s. If the blood is not matched properly, then the immune system of the recipient will attack the donated blood.
  10. 10. • Immune System Response . After birth the immune system makes antibodies that act against the antigens not found on the RBCs. Antibodies are present on the white blood cells (WBCs).
  11. 11. Blood Types
  12. 12. Blood Transfusion Who When Where Why
  13. 13. Patient Details required on form • • • • • • Full names DOB Hospital Number Location Blood Group (if known) Previous transfusion and obstetric history Transfusion details • • • • Reason for request; Present Hb (if known) Location, Date and Time of expected transfusion Date of request Type of blood (Packed cells, whole blood, G&S only); Number of units. • Name, Bleep number and Signature of person requesting the blood
  15. 15. Sample Collection • Check patient details on wrist band vs form. • Use Pink cross match bottle (In use nationally) • Details required on Blood Sample tube - Full names of patient - DOB; Gender; Hospital number - Signature of person taking blood - Date and Location • Take blood tube down to the blood bank if required urgently – you will also meet the cross match team. PATIENT LABELS WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED!
  16. 16. Setting up the Transfusion • Units of blood are stored in the ‘blood bank’ fridge or theatre fridge. • You will need all the patient’s details prior to going to collect any blood products • Check details of blood report form against unit of blood. • You will need to sign for the unit in blood bank register. • Start transfusion within 30 minutes of blood being removed from the fridge.
  17. 17. Blood Bank •
  18. 18. •The Wright, Wright ,Wright Rule •The Right Blood, •The Right Patient, •The Right Time!
  19. 19. Most haematology labs can cross match blood in 20 minutes
  20. 20. Blood Transfusion TWO to check details of blood unit Check details on the unit of blood against those written on the form against patient’s wrist band. ALL MUST BE CORRECT.
  21. 21. Check •
  22. 22. Blood Transfusion
  23. 23. Prescribe Transfusion on IV chart Rate of each unit (slowest approx 4 hours) Saline (100ml+) Before – After Laxis (40mg) is often given with each or every other unit (IV or PO) to stop potential fluid overload. Not required when patient is hypovolaemic.
  24. 24. Blood Transfusion •
  25. 25. START
  26. 26. Allergic reactions Allergic reactions to an unknown component in donor blood are common, usually due to allergens in donor plasma or, less often, to antibodies from an allergic donor. These reactions are usually mild. Simultaneous fever is common
  27. 27. Time…??? During or immediately after the transfusion.
  28. 28. Allergic Reactions
  29. 29. CHECK
  30. 30. Febrile Nonhemolytic Reaction Febrile reaction without hemolysis. Antibodies directed against WBC from otherwise compatible donor blood are one possible cause. This cause is most common in multitransfused or multiparous patients.
  31. 31. •Blood Transfusion complication . The most common Complications of transfusion are Febrile Nonhemolytic & ChillRigor Reactions.
  32. 32. Clinically, febrile reactions consist of a increase of T ≥ 1° C, chills, and sometimes headache and back pain. Simultaneous symptoms of allergic reaction are common. Because fever and chills also herald a severe hemolytic transfusion reaction. All febrile reactions must be investigated as above, as with any transfusion reaction.
  33. 33. Febrile Nonhemolytic Reaction Occurs towards the end of Paracetamol and Cooling. or up to hours after transfusion
  34. 34. Blood Transfusion complication The Most serious complications Aacute Hemolytic Reaction due to ABO incompatible transfusion and transfusion-related acute lung injury, which have very high mortality rates
  35. 35. most common cause is transfused of non-matched blood mostly to clerical error
  36. 36. How …??? • The most common symptoms are chills, rigors, fever, dyspnea, lightheadedness, urticaria, itching, and flank pain. • If any of these symptoms (other than localized urticaria and itching) occur, the transfusion should be stopped immediately and the IV line kept open with normal saline. The remainder of the blood product and clotted and anticoagulated samples of the patient's blood should be sent to the blood bank for investigation
  37. 37. Occurs within a few mls of starting transfusion (Mortality 10%) STOP THE BLOOD! Supportive treatment Treat complications – ARF and DIC
  38. 38. What is the action ? Early Recognition of symptoms suggestive of a transfusion reaction & Prompt Reporting to the blood bank are essential. •.
  39. 39. The remainder of the blood product and clotted and anticoagulated samples of the patient's blood should be sent to the blood bank for investigation.
  40. 40. Acute lung injury TRALI Volume Overload
  41. 41. Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (usually in 1 to 4 wk) and cause a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction.
  42. 42. Infectious Complications
  43. 43. Lastly- malaria • Malaria is transmitted easily through infected RBCs. Many donors are unaware that they have malaria, which may be latent and transmissible for 10 to 15 yr. Storage does not render blood safe. Prospective donors must be asked about malaria or whether they have been in a region where it is prevalent. Donors who have had a diagnosis of malaria or who are immigrants, refugees, or citizens from countries in which malaria is considered endemic are deferred for 3 yr; travelers to endemic countries are deferred for 1 yr. Babesiosis has rarely been transmitted by transfusion.