Italy is one of the world leader on energy production from geothermal sources and a pioneer country, as it hosted the first world plant at the beginning of last century. As it possible to observe looking at the heat flow map, the areas of major potential are in the Tuscany and Lazio regions. The total capacity installed of 810 MW allows for an annual energy production of 5GWh, accounting for 31 plants all over the territory.
Has the map shows, the Mediterranean sea which surround Italy holds less potential compared which other areas affected by more powerful waters, as the Atlantic Ocean. This is due to the fact that a limited basin is characterized proportionally by lower values concerning tide effects, water motion force due to superficial winds, differential in water salinity and temperature gradient, which are all considered potential factors able to generate energy with a proper technologies applied. Has you can imagine this is still generally a future tech: with the exception of few northern Europe countries and US, most of the countries are in development phases, arranging prototype projects. Nonetheless such tech seems to have great potential: globally it has been assumed that currents have the capacity of 1TW of power. Actually in Italy particular attention is devoted to the Messina Strait where thank to the strong currents which feature the sea, has been estimated a potential of 15000MW. Other interesting area is the west coast of Sardegna, where the waves are considered to have good potential to produce energy.
In Italy we mostly refer to direct regulatory price-driven strategies to promote renewables, which makes the process investment focused, and refer mostly to the feed-in tariff. In 2010, 24% of the total subsidies (3400 million Euro) has been allocated into photovoltaic(which enjoys a special and better feed in tariff, turning the technology into the more relieved as the more expensive. The related major problem is that the cost of the subsidy is absorbed by consumers who experience increases in energy bills to sustain the transition. Other mechanisms of sustainment are the Tradeable Green Certificate (TCG) which creates a sort of emissionmarket to transfer the cost of polluting to the conventional forms thanks to a Quota obligation, an obligation for electricity generators to feed a given proportion of RES-e into the power system which binds them to deliver an increasing percentage of energy from renewables.
The total primary energy consumption graph (above) shows a promising trend but it is still not enough.The production of electricity looks better (below, green), but still the percentage is not really the best of the world.
Pros:Great increase in PV recently, estimated to be + 8 GW, enabling to be second in EU after Germany and achieving more than 11GW of capacity installed. (more o less 3 times Spain)The trend has been increasing constantly and more effectively recently (but remember, big subsidy).Still potential to exploit (ocean, concentrated solar power, waste biomass overall)Cons:Still high dependence of fossil fuel, imported(Deficit into balance of payment)Co2 emissions: in 2010 Italy emitted 430,10 Mt of Co2 equivalent to half Africa, more than Brazil. World total was 29381.Italy has still consistent gap to close, even in an optimistic scenario production of renewable energy will be less than 20% of Total Primary Energy Consumption by 2020.
Renewable energies italy prez
Production (Mw) 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000Wind speed•Blue: < 3.5 m/s 1000•Green: 3.5 – 4.5 m/s 0•Yellow: 4.5 – 5.0 m/s 2004 2005 2007 2001 2008 2010 2000 2002 2003 2006 2009
Electricity production fromhydroelectric sources (% of total)