Organ system for internal transport (circulatory system)


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Organ system for internal transport (circulatory system)

  2. 2. Overview: Transport and Exchange  Every organism must exchange materials with its environment  Exchanges ultimately occur at the cellular level  In unicellular organisms, these exchanges occur directly with the environment  For most cells making up multicellular organisms, direct exchange with the environment is not possible  Internal transport and gas exchange are functionally related in most animals
  3. 3. Open and Closed Circulatory Systems In an open circulatory system, there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid, and this general body fluid is more correctly called hemolymph In a closed circulatory system, blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid Closed systems are more efficient at transporting circulatory fluids to tissues and cells
  4. 4. Heart Hemolymph in sinuses surrounding organs Heart Interstitial fluid Small branch vessels In each organ Blood Dorsal vessel (main heart) Auxiliary hearts Ventral vessels (b) A closed circulatory system(a) An open circulatory system Tubular heart Pores
  5. 5. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM  Definiton It is a fluid-filled network of tubes (or vessels) through which materials move between the environment and the cells of a multicellular animal.
  6. 6. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM  Characteristic It connects all parts of an organism in a way that allows individual cells to thrive as well as for organisms to function as a unit. It is an entirely closed system.
  7. 7. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM  Function Transport materials needed by cells Oxygen Glucose Remove waste materials from cells Carbon dioxide urea
  8. 8. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM  Main Component Pump (heart) Continuously circulates blood Network of tubes Arteries- blood away from heart Veins- blood back to the heart Blood Fluid that fills the circulatory system
  9. 9.  It is the main organ of the Circulatory System, which is located between lungs and diaphragm.  It is so powerful that it can pump blood 10, 000 liters of blood daily.
  10. 10. Parts of the Human Heart  Heart is actually made up of two pumps placed side by side: - onto your right - onto your left pericardium- protective membrane which surrounds the whole muscular organ
  11. 11. Heart Wall  Three layers of tissue : This serous membrane of smooth outer surface of heart : Middle layer composed of cardiac muscle cell and responsibility for heart contracting : Smooth inner surface of heart chambers
  12. 12. Four Chambers of the Heart 1.Right and Left atria (sing.,atrium) - the upper thin walled chamber - collecting chambers of the heart a. Right atrium(RA)- collects venous unoxygenated blood from your body b. Left atrium(LA)- right atrium left atrium
  13. 13. 2. Right and Left ventricles - lower thick-walled chambers - the pumping chambers of your heart a. Right ventricle(RV)- pumps blue venous blood out of your heart and into the lungs for oxygenation b. Left ventricle(LV)- pumps oxygenated right ventricle left ventricle
  14. 14. Heart Valves 1.Tricuspid valve- between the right atrium and right ventricle 2. Bicuspid or mitral valve- between the left atrium and left ventricle
  15. 15. 3. Pulmonary semilunar valve- between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery 4. Aortic Semilunar Valve- between the left ventricle and aorta
  16. 16. A muscular wall, or septum, divides your heart into its right and left side. Superior Vena Cava(SVC)- located at the upper part of your heart and brings blood from your head and arms. Inferior Vena Cava(IVC)- located at the lower part of your
  17. 17. Pulmonary Artery(PA)- carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of your heart to the lungs. Pulmonary Vein(PV)- brings back oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of your heart. Aorta- it is the
  18. 18. From lungs After passing through the capillaries of the lungs, the blood which is now oxygenated returns to the heart in the pulmonary veins.
  19. 19. The left atrium receives blood from the pulmonary vein.
  20. 20. Blood passes through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.
  21. 21. To rest of body Contraction of the left ventricle pushes blood through the aortic semilunar valve into the aorta. Blood travels to all regions of the body where it feeds cells with oxygen picked up from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract.
  22. 22. Deoxygenated blood returns from the rest of the body through the superior and inferior vena cava.
  23. 23. The right atrium receives the deoxygenated blood.
  24. 24. Blood then enters the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve.
  25. 25. To lungs Contraction of the right ventricle pushes blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary arteries in which it travels to the lungs. Then cycle repeats again....
  27. 27. BLOOD VESSELS  Are hollow tubes that carry blood through in a never ending stream.  Responsible in carrying blood between the heart, different tissues and organs of the body  Have the ability to expand to allow more blood to flow  Can also contract to help control blood flow
  28. 28. BLOOD VESSELS Three types: Arteries Capillaries Veins
  29. 29. BLOOD VESSELS  Arteries Elastic, muscular tubes that carry the blood away from left ventricle to the capillaries Have thicker walls 3 layers thick: Tunica intima Tunica media Tunica externa Arteries that connect to the capillaries DID YOU KNOW THAT... •All arteries carries oxygenated blood except pulmonary arteries
  30. 30. BLOOD VESSELS  Capillaries Smallest working unit in the blood vessel that connects arterioles and venules Walls are only one cell thick to facilitate exchange of nutrients and oxygen Forms a network called capillary bed Have sphincters that regulates the flow of blood.
  31. 31. Fig. 42-15 Precapillary sphincters Thoroughfare channel Arteriole Capillaries Venule (a) Sphincters relaxed (b) Sphincters contracted Arteriole Venule
  32. 32. Capillary Exchange 35 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. venule arteriole water oxygen glucose salt water wastes osmotic pressure blood pressure to heartfrom heart Arterial end Blood pressure is higher than osmotic pressure. Net pressure out. amino acids carbon dioxide Venous end Osmotic pressure is higher than blood pressure. Net pressure in. plasma protein smooth muscle fiber Tissue fluid
  33. 33. BLOOD VESSELS  Veins Carry blood from capillaries to heart Veins that connects to capillaries are called venules Are not thick as arteries Have also three walls Contains valve unlike arteries
  34. 34. Fig. 42-10 Artery Vein SEM 100 µm Endothelium Artery Smooth muscle Connective tissue Capillary Basal lamina Endothelium Smooth muscle Connective tissue Valve Vein Arteriole Venule Red blood cell Capillary 15µm LM
  35. 35. Circulation
  36. 36. CIRCULATION  Pulmonary circulation Carries the blood to and from the lungs
  37. 37.  Right heart Oxygen-depleted blood from the body leaves the systemic circulation when it enters the right heart, more specifically the right atrium through the superior (upper) vena cava and inferior (lower) vena cava. The blood is then pumped through the tricuspid valve (or right atrioventricular valve), into the right ventricle. Blood is then pumped through the
  38. 38.  Arteries From the right ventricle, blood is pumped through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the left and right pulmonary arteries (one for each lung) and travels through the lungs.
  39. 39.  Lungs The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs, where it releases carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen during respiration. Arteries are further divided in to very fine branches called the capillaries.
  40. 40.  Veins The oxygenated blood then leaves the lungs through pulmonary veins, which return it to the left heart, completing the pulmonary cycle. This blood then enters the left atrium, which pumps it through the bicuspid valve, also called the mitral or left
  41. 41.  Left heart The blood is then distributed to the body through the systemic circulation before returning again to the pulmonary circulation.
  42. 42. CIRCULATION  Systemic Circulation  refers to the part of the circulatory system in which the blood leaves the heart, services the body's cells, and then re-enters the heart
  43. 43.  Arteries  Oxygenated blood enters the systemic circulation when leaving the left ventricle, through the aortic semilunar valve. The first part of the systemic circulation is the aorta, a massive and thick-walled artery. The aorta arches and branches into major arteries to the upper body before passing through the diaphragm, where it branches further into arteries which supply the
  44. 44.  Capillaries  Arteries branch into small passages called capillaries. The capillaries merge to bring blood into the veinous system.
  45. 45.  Veins  After their passage through body tissues, capillaries merge once again into venules, which continue to merge into veins. The venous system finally coalesces into two major veins: the superior vena cava (roughly speaking draining the areas above the heart) and theinferior vena cava (roughly speaking from areas below the heart). These two great vessels empty
  46. 46.  Arteries  Oxygenated blood enters the systemic circulation when leaving the left ventricle, through the aortic semilunar valve. The first part of the systemic circulation is the aorta, a massive and thick-walled artery. The aorta arches and branches into major arteries to the upper body before passing through the diaphragm, where it branches further into arteries which supply the
  47. 47. CIRCULATION Other types of circulation:  Coronary Circulation Blood circulation in the heart  Renal Circulation  involves the blood flow through the kidneys  Portal circulation Refers to the blood flow involving the liver
  48. 48. BLOOD
  49. 49. Blood Composition and Function  In invertebrates with open circulation, blood (hemolymph) is not different from interstitial fluid  Blood in the circulatory systems of vertebrates is a specialized connective tissue  Blood consists of several kinds of cells suspended in a liquid matrix called plasma  The cellular elements occupy about 45% of the volume of blood
  50. 50. Blood: Homeostasis Functions  Transports substances to and from capillaries for exchange with tissue fluid  Guards against pathogen invasion  Regulates body temperature  Buffers body pH  Maintain osmotic pressure  Clots prevent blood/fluid loss
  51. 51. Plasma  Blood plasma is about 90% water  Among its solutes are inorganic salts in the form of dissolved ions, sometimes called electrolytes  Another important class of solutes is the plasma proteins, which influence blood pH, osmotic pressure, and viscosity  Various plasma proteins function in lipid transport, immunity, and blood clotting
  52. 52. Cellular Elements  Suspended in blood plasma are two types of cells:  Red blood cells (erythrocytes) transport oxygen  White blood cells (leukocytes) function in defense  Platelets, a third cellular element, are fragments of cells that are involved in clotting
  53. 53. Composition of Blood 56 B lood Pla sma 46-63% Formed Ele me nts 37-54% Pla sma Pro te in 7 % W ater 92% O ther So lute s 1% Pla te lets RBC 99.9%W BC A lb umin Fib rino ge n G lob ulin Re gula tory Pro te ins Eg. Elec tro lytes M onoc ytes Basop hils Eosinop hils N eatrop hils Lymp hoc ytes
  54. 54. Fig. 42-17 Plasma 55% Constituent Major functions Water Solvent for carrying other substances Ions (blood electrolytes) Osmotic balance, pH buffering, and regulation of membrane permeability Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium Chloride Bicarbonate Osmotic balance pH buffering Clotting Defense Plasma proteins Albumin Fibrinogen Immunoglobulins (antibodies) Substances transported by blood Nutrients (such as glucose, fatty acids, vitamins) Waste products of metabolism Respiratory gases (O2 and CO2) Hormones Separated blood elements Cellular elements 45% Cell type FunctionsNumber per µL (mm3) of blood Erythrocytes (red blood cells) 5–6 million Transport oxygen and help transport carbon dioxide Leukocytes (white blood cells) 5,000–10,000 Defense and immunity Basophil Neutrophil Eosinophil Lymphocyte Monocyte Platelets Blood clotting250,000– 400,000
  55. 55. RED BLOOD CELLS  Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, are by far the most numerous blood cells  They transport oxygen throughout the body  They contain hemoglobin, the iron- containing protein that transports oxygen Erythrocytes
  56. 56. WHITE BLOOD CELLS  There are five major types of white blood cells, or leukocytes: monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes  They function in defense by phagocytizing bacteria and debris or by producing antibodies  They are found both in and outside of the circulatory system
  57. 57. PLATELETS  When the endothelium of a blood vessel is damaged, the clotting mechanism begins  A cascade of complex reactions converts fibrinogen to fibrin, forming a clot  A blood clot formed within a blood vessel is called a thrombus and can block blood flow • Platelets are fragments of cells and function in blood clotting
  58. 58. Collagen fibers Platelet plug Platelet releases chemicals that make nearby platelets sticky Clotting factors from: Platelets Damaged cells Plasma (factors include calcium, vitamin K) Prothrombin Thrombin Fibrinogen Fibrin 5 µm Fibrin clot Red blood cell Fig. 42-18-4
  59. 59. Stem Cells and the Replacement of Cellular Elements  The cellular elements of blood wear out and are replaced constantly throughout a person’s life  Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets all develop from a common source of stem cells in the red marrow of bones  The hormone erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates erythrocyte production when oxygen delivery is low
  60. 60. Fig. 42-19 Stem cells (in bone marrow) Myeloid stem cells Lymphoid stem cells Lymphocytes B cells T cells Erythrocytes Platelets Neutrophils Basophils Eosinophils Monocytes
  63. 63. ATHEROSCELEROSIS  What is atherosclerosis?  Hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to growing plaques These plaques can behave in three different ways: •They can stay wihin the artery wall •They can grow in a slow manner eventually causing significant blokage •They can rupture, allowing blood to clot.
  64. 64. ATHEROSCELEROSIS  What are its causes?  Smoking  High cholesterol  High blood pressure  Diabetes  Abdominal obesity  Stress  Not eating fruits and Vegetables  Excess alcohol intake  Not exercising regularly
  65. 65. ATHEROSCELEROSIS  What are the treatments for atherosclerosis?  Lifestyle changes  Medication  Bypass surgery
  66. 66. ATHEROSCELEROSIS  How can we prevent atherosclerosis?  Avoid Smoking  Avoid stress and depression  Eat fruits and Vegetables  Exercise regularly
  68. 68. HEART FAILURE  What is heart failure?  Condition wherein the heart is unable to to provide sufficient pump action to maintain blood flow required by the body
  69. 69. HEART FAILURE  What are its symptoms?  Heart failure on the left side of the body  Breathlessness  Frothy spit with cough  Heart failure n the left side of the body  Swollen ankles  Swollen legs  Enlarged liver  Enlarged stomach
  70. 70. HEART FAILURE  What are its symptoms?  Heart failure on both sides of the body  Dizziness and/or confusion  Nausea  Constipation  Loss of appetite
  71. 71. HEART FAILURE  What are its causes?  Diabetes  Obesity  Smoking  Hypertension  Heart attack  Depression among heart disease patients  Inherited heart disease  Congenital heart defects  Anemia  Faulty heart valves  Heart arrhythmias
  72. 72. HEART FAILURE  What are the treatment for heart failure?  Medications  ACE inhibitors  Diuretics  Digoxin  Surgery  Pacemaker that uses heartbeat  Surgery that reshapes scarred left ventricle  Exercise training
  73. 73. HEART FAILURE  How can we prevent heart failure?  Give up smoking  Eat sensibly  Exercise regularly  Consume alcohol within recommended level  Get at least 7 hours of sleep  Avoid mental stress
  74. 74. SEPSIS
  75. 75. SEPSIS  What is sepsis? Condition when the body is fighting a severe infection
  76. 76. SEPSIS  What are its symptoms? Chills and severe shaking Very fast heartbeat Low blood pressure Dizziness and decresaed urination Skin rashes Fever May develop pain in the joints of the wrists, elbows, back, hips, knees and ankles
  77. 77. SEPSIS  What are the causes of sepsis? Bacteria Viruses and fungi Pneumonia Urinary tract infection Appendicitis Infection that develop after surgery
  78. 78. SEPSIS  What are the treatment for this? Medications given intravenously IV salt solution If result show an infection in the abdomen, either drainage of the infection by the placement of tubes or surgery may be necessary
  79. 79. SEPSIS  How can we prevent sepsis?  Following recommended immunization schedules may reduce risk in children  Hospital-related infections leading to sepsis may be decreased by strictly following hand washing and hygiene protocol.
  80. 80. ANEMIA
  81. 81. ANEMIA  What is anemia?  Condition wherein the blood does not carry sufficient amount of oxygen due to iron defficiency
  82. 82. ANEMIA  What are the causes of anemia? Blood loss Decreased or faulty red blood cell production Destruction of red blood cells
  83. 83. ANEMIA  What are its symptoms? Easy fatigue and loss of energy Rapid heartbeat Dizziness Leg cramps Insomnia
  84. 84. ANEMIA  What are the treatments for anemia? Creating a check-up schedule with doctor Follow doctor’s medication Supplement your oxygen Schedule blood transfusion at the advice of your doctor
  85. 85. ANEMIA  How can we prevent anemia? Check if your at risk Eat a diet rich in iron and vitamin C Take iron supplement to make sure your getting enough Avoid excessive dieting and over- exercising Avoid donating blood
  86. 86. STROKE
  87. 87. STROKE  What is a stroke?  happens when blood flow to a part of the brain stops. A stroke is sometimes called a "brain attack."  If blood flow is stopped for longer than a few seconds, the brain cannot get blood and oxygen. Brain cells can die, causing permanent damage.
  88. 88. STROKE  What are the causes of stroke? Blood supply to brain is interrupted or reduced A blocked artery (ischemic stroke) or a leaking or burst blood vessel (hemorrhagic stroke)
  89. 89. STROKE  What are the treatment for stroke? Medical treatment Aspirin Stroke recovery and rehabilitation
  90. 90. STROKE  How can we prevent stroke? Healthy diet Antiplatelet therapy Control of sugar Avoid smoking Management of high blood pressure
  91. 91. STROKE  What are its symptoms? Sudden numbness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, or loss of balance and coordination Sudden severe headache with no known cause Sudden confusion or trouble in