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TECNIA 2006 VOL 16 Nº 2 JULIO –DICIEMBRE
REVISTACIENTIFICA TECNIA
                                             Indizada a LATINDEX
                                    Julio – Diciembre 2006, VOL. 16 N° 2

                                                 CONTENIDO

Optimización e implementación de un sistema reconocedor de rostros
JORGE ALBERTO DEL CARPIO SALINAS, JOSÉ ANTONIO HUAMÁN LAYME

Estimación de la irradiancia solar total extraterrestre en función del número de manchas solares
EDSON PLASENCIA SÁNCHEZ, ADOLFO POSADAS, CARLOS CABRERA

Predicción de la densidad de gases naturales usando las ecuaciones de estado de Soave-Redlich-Kwong,
Peng-Robinson y AG8-DC92
JACK ZAVALETA ORTIZ, ALEX PILCO NÚÑEZ, SERGIO VILLANUEVA GUZMAN

Preparación y caracterización superficial de electrodos de espinela de cobalto dopados con cobre, CUX
CO3-X O4, 0 ≤ X ≤ 1.5
A. LA ROSA TORO, R. BERENGER, C. QUIJADA, F. MONTILLA, E. MORALLON, L VASQUEZ

Escala de actitud hacia la investigación, estudiantes y carreras profesionales de ingeniería y ciencias de la
UNI
LUIS E. HUAMANCHUMO DE LA CUBA

Diseño y simulación de un circuito integrado para el control de un motor PAP utilizando programación
VHDL
Darío Utrilla Salazar

Modelamiento de los parámetros de funcionamiento de la turbina hidráulica de flujo cruzado aplicando el
método de elementos finitos
SALOME GONZALES CHÁVEZ, ROMMEL BENJAMIN COTALLAPA VERA

Diseño y construcción de una aerogenerador de 500 W con imanes permanentes para pequeñas demandas
eléctricas de zonas rurales
SALOMÉ GONZÁLES CHÁVEZ, JOSÉ CHIROQUE BALDERA TEODORO


Estudio de la resistencia del álabe de una turbina a gas para avión
UBALDO YANCACHAJLLA TITO

Desarrollo de un programa de cálculo térmico de un motor gasodiesel con formación interna de la mezcla
aire gas y validación mediante comparación con resultados experimentales
ARTURO MAZA RUBINA, LUIS LASTRA ESPINOZA
TECNIA 2006 VOL 16 Nº 2 JULIO –DICIEMBRE

     OPTIMIZATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SYSTEM RECOGNITION OF FACES

                                                  ABSTRACT

The Security systems controlled by characteristics of biométrico type as opposed to experience an increasing
interest traditional alternative. This success must to a great extent to that, when a person tries to accede to
a system, the decision is taken on the basis of specific characteristics of that person, and on the basis of
which does not know or which has (Magnetic cards, key, etc..); In the last years the great development of the
information systems together with the reduction in price and masificación of computers and censors has
caused an increasing interest by systems that allow to establish the identity of an individual in automated
form. As opposed to this, in this work a recognition of faces is described and implemented using the most
successful techniques in the field of the biometry based on methods Statistical as they are: Decompositions
of the type Eingenface and Hidden Model of Markov Embedded (HMME). The first method generates linear a
representation reduced of the images of faces so that each face is projected in a space reduced where the
recognition was carried out. The second method generates a model of states, based on the correspondence
between sequence of observation and sequences of states. For it use a data base of faces with students of
the UNI, a camera, card digitizer and was developed software in C++.

Key words.- Statistical data base, Biometry, Camera, Sensors, Eigenfaces, Statistical methods, Model of
markov.

                    ESTIMATION OF THE EXTRATERRESTRIAL TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE
                               IN FUNCTION OF NUMBER OF SUNSPOTS

                                                  ABSTRACT

The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) is the total amount of solar energy present per square unit every moment
beyond the atmosphere, so, it’s changing every time along the year, although for many practical purposes its
average is taken and has been called : The Solar Constant (1367 W/m 2). In this paper, the historical efforts
made to quantificate the TSI are reviewed, the latest advances in this matter are presented and a new
method to calculate its monthly average based on the SunSpot Number is proposed to approach to its value
as close as 0.05 W/m2 ( RMS = 0.002 ).

Key Words.- Solar irradiance, SunSpot number, Solar energy.

   PREDICTION OF NATURAL GAS DENSITIES USING EQUATIONS OF STATE OF SOAVE-REDLICH-KWONG,
                              PENG-ROBINSON AND AGA8-DC92

                                                  ABSTRACT

In this work the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK), Peng-Robinson (PR), and AGA8-DC92 (AGA) equations of
state have been used to predict the density of different natural gas mixtures. As a result, SRK and PR are
strongly recommended for temperatures within the range 240-350 K. As for the pressure, SRK yielded better
results within the range 1-8 MPa, whereas PR was more accurate for pressures ranging from 1 to 15 MPa. The
errors obtained were smaller than 3% for all the 613 experimental points taken from the literature, which is
convenient due to the fact that AGA is not easy to handle. Nevertheless, AGA displayed the best performance
in every calculation and proved to be superior to either SRK or PR in the whole range of conditions used in
this investigation. Finally, a computational tool has been developed to calculate density (  ) and
compressibility factor ( Z ). Such a tool incorporates an experimental database of  for different gas natural
mixtures.

Keywords.- Natural gas, Equation of state, Compressibility factor, Density.

  PREPARATION AND SUPERFICIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF DRUGGED COBALT SPINEL ELECTRODES WITH
                               COPPER, CUXCO3-XO4, 0 ≤ X ≤ 1.5

                                                  ABSTRAT

Cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and copper-doped cobalt oxide (CuxCo3-xO4) films supported on titanium have been
prepared by the thermal decomposition method. The electrodes have been characterized by different
techniques like scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and X-Ray photoelectron
spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS spectra correspond to a characteristic monophasic Cu-Co spinel oxides when x is
below 1. However, when the copper content exceeds that for the stoichiometric CuCo2O4 spinel, a new CuO
phase segregates at the surface. The analysis of the surface cation distribution in spinel structure indicates
that Cu(II) cation are preferently located in octahedral sites of higher electrochemical activity.

Keywords.-Cobaltspinel,Co3O4 electrode, Surface characterization.

                   ATTITUDES TOWARD RESEARCH SCALE, STUDENTS AND ENGINEERING
                                PROFESSIONS AND SCIENCES AT UNI

                                                  ABSTRACT

An understanding of attitudes is important to help teachers facilitate the learning of research for their
students, by enabling them to create more positive attitudes toward research. The fact shows that attitudes
toward research scales in students of Engineering Professions and Sciences at Universidad Nacional de
Ingenieria are multidimensional in nature. They are based on three factors that explain 49.2% of total inertia:
(1) Life relevancy of research to the Society and students’ daily lives, (2) Institutional environment, and (3)
Modeling and statistical data analysis. The sample of the study consisted of 382 students. It was necessary
developed tools of gathering data on latent structures.

Key words.- Principal components analysis (PCA), VARIMAX rotation, Cronbach´s alpha.

     DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUIT FOR CONTROL OF MOTORS PAP, WITH VHDL
                                   PROGRAMATION VHDL

                                                  ABSTRACT

In the present report the design of an integrated circuit is described developed to control motors step by step
(PAP), by means of a device FPGA, obtained by means of programming VHDL and techniques of advanced
digital design, In the first place the basic characteristics of the motors appear step by step, soon the made
procedures, beginning by the description of the surroundings of used control. Next, one step by step details to
the design of the integrated circuit for the control of the motor and its implementation in a FPGA through
tools of advanced digital design. Finally they are to the obtained simulations of the design showing his
operation.

Key words.- Digital design, FPGA, VHDL.
MODELLING OF CROSS FLOW HYDRAULIC TURBINE PARAMETERS APPLICATION USED
                       THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

                                                 ABSTRACT

We shown a Computing Fluid Dynamics (CFD) application using the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the
modeling of a 50 kW (Q = 120 l/s, H = 50 m y = 124.6055 rad/s) Cross Flow Hydraulic Turbine, trying to
explain with the numeric methodology the principles and supposes of the classic turbine design and the
optimization. The results are pressure and velocity fields for different operation conditions (Q = 0 – 203.61
l/s, H = 9.40 – 580.71 m y = 25, 50, 100 and 125 rad/s) and different regimens (laminar, transition and
turbulent), we use this results to estimate some operation parameters (velocity distribution on the inlet flow
to the runner, nozzle efficiency and nozzle coefficient, 50 kW turbine characteristics curves and unity turbine
characteristics curves). Finally we assess the turbine operation parameters for the design conditions
considering the flow modeling.

Key words.- Hydraulic turbine, Cross flow, Michell – Banki, Flow modeling, Supply nozzle, Runner, CFD, FEM.

  DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF WIND TURBINE 500 W WITH PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATOR FOR
                         SMALL ELECTRIC DEMANDS OF RURAL AREAS

                                                  ABSTRACT

The present work is about the design, construction and characterization of Wind Turbine 500 W prototype,
using national technology; it is the design and production of the wind turbine components - permanent
magnet generator, rotor and auxiliary elements-, as well as the performance evaluation in field. The Wind
Turbine 500 W application will be an energetic and socioeconomic solution of the rural areas with wind
resources. With field tests results we carry out the verification of design conditions, as well as the operation
of wind turbine according to wind resource. Although the system was designed for 500 Watts nominal power
and 8 m/s wind speed, in field this power has been obtained to 8,3 m/s wind speed, and a stable behavior
under the other conditions

Key words.- Wind turbine, Permanent magnet, Rural areas, Socioeconomic, Clean energy.

                       TUDY OF THE STRENGTH OF THE BLADE OF AIRCRAFT TURBINE

                                                  ABSTRACT

The work consists of demonstrating the possible utilization of the methods of the finite elements for the
case of calculation of a blade of a turbine of plane by the method of the finite elements, first we find the
critical stress in the blade due to the solicitations of the centrifugal force and the gas-dynamics, these
generate stress of traction and flexion principally. Comparing these results with the obtained ones previously
for traditional methods, managing to validate our results for the method of the finite elements. Finally we
will find the manners of vibrating and natural frequencies of the blade of the turbine, coming to conclusions
that they reconcile to the published ones in the literature. The method of the finite elements represents a
powerful tool that can be used satisfactorily for the optimization of the such complex designs as of the
turbine.

Key words: Blade, Strain, Turbine, Stress, Vibration.
DEVELOPING OF THE THERMAL CALCULATION OF THE GASODIESEL ENGINE WITH
       INTERNAL FORMATION OF THE MIX AIR GAS AND VALIDATION BY THE
                            EXPERIMENTATION

                                                   ABSTRACT

 The present work treats, on the performance of a mathematical model of simulation of the different processes
   that take place in the motors, which allow to establish the foreseeable indices of the cycle of operation of a
  motor of internal combustion of type gasodiesel, the methods of simulation of the operational cycle used in
    this work have been taken from recognized authors Soviet. This I calculate thermal fundamental has been
  made having in account that the combustible mixture this composing of GLP D2 in proportions of 40% and
     60% respectively, whereas the GLP this compound of 50% of propano and 50% of Butane, to obtain the
 operation characteristics, has been developed a computacional program denominated Ajesa2004. The method
   of GLP provision is through the line of high pressure, which is made due to the hydrodynamic phenomena
 type water hammer which they are originated in this line, when the propelling valve, during the unloading of
 the provision of fuel when falling in its seat due to its belt of unloading forms a rarefaction wave; this wave
  makes open the valve of denominated retention RND. We made the grafico comparative analysis for which
the obtained experimental values in the proving stand have been taken Newage, mounted with a diesel engine
supercharged Perkins, such which they are necessary to optimize the indicated diagram and the characteristics
of load and speed, obtained by means of a computacional program, table 1 y 2.

 Key words.- Performance, Simulation, Pressure, Water hammer, Propelling, Valve, Engine, supercharged .

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4 2006 vol16_n2

  • 1. TECNIA 2006 VOL 16 Nº 2 JULIO –DICIEMBRE
  • 2. REVISTACIENTIFICA TECNIA Indizada a LATINDEX Julio – Diciembre 2006, VOL. 16 N° 2 CONTENIDO Optimización e implementación de un sistema reconocedor de rostros JORGE ALBERTO DEL CARPIO SALINAS, JOSÉ ANTONIO HUAMÁN LAYME Estimación de la irradiancia solar total extraterrestre en función del número de manchas solares EDSON PLASENCIA SÁNCHEZ, ADOLFO POSADAS, CARLOS CABRERA Predicción de la densidad de gases naturales usando las ecuaciones de estado de Soave-Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson y AG8-DC92 JACK ZAVALETA ORTIZ, ALEX PILCO NÚÑEZ, SERGIO VILLANUEVA GUZMAN Preparación y caracterización superficial de electrodos de espinela de cobalto dopados con cobre, CUX CO3-X O4, 0 ≤ X ≤ 1.5 A. LA ROSA TORO, R. BERENGER, C. QUIJADA, F. MONTILLA, E. MORALLON, L VASQUEZ Escala de actitud hacia la investigación, estudiantes y carreras profesionales de ingeniería y ciencias de la UNI LUIS E. HUAMANCHUMO DE LA CUBA Diseño y simulación de un circuito integrado para el control de un motor PAP utilizando programación VHDL Darío Utrilla Salazar Modelamiento de los parámetros de funcionamiento de la turbina hidráulica de flujo cruzado aplicando el método de elementos finitos SALOME GONZALES CHÁVEZ, ROMMEL BENJAMIN COTALLAPA VERA Diseño y construcción de una aerogenerador de 500 W con imanes permanentes para pequeñas demandas eléctricas de zonas rurales SALOMÉ GONZÁLES CHÁVEZ, JOSÉ CHIROQUE BALDERA TEODORO Estudio de la resistencia del álabe de una turbina a gas para avión UBALDO YANCACHAJLLA TITO Desarrollo de un programa de cálculo térmico de un motor gasodiesel con formación interna de la mezcla aire gas y validación mediante comparación con resultados experimentales ARTURO MAZA RUBINA, LUIS LASTRA ESPINOZA
  • 3. TECNIA 2006 VOL 16 Nº 2 JULIO –DICIEMBRE OPTIMIZATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SYSTEM RECOGNITION OF FACES ABSTRACT The Security systems controlled by characteristics of biométrico type as opposed to experience an increasing interest traditional alternative. This success must to a great extent to that, when a person tries to accede to a system, the decision is taken on the basis of specific characteristics of that person, and on the basis of which does not know or which has (Magnetic cards, key, etc..); In the last years the great development of the information systems together with the reduction in price and masificación of computers and censors has caused an increasing interest by systems that allow to establish the identity of an individual in automated form. As opposed to this, in this work a recognition of faces is described and implemented using the most successful techniques in the field of the biometry based on methods Statistical as they are: Decompositions of the type Eingenface and Hidden Model of Markov Embedded (HMME). The first method generates linear a representation reduced of the images of faces so that each face is projected in a space reduced where the recognition was carried out. The second method generates a model of states, based on the correspondence between sequence of observation and sequences of states. For it use a data base of faces with students of the UNI, a camera, card digitizer and was developed software in C++. Key words.- Statistical data base, Biometry, Camera, Sensors, Eigenfaces, Statistical methods, Model of markov. ESTIMATION OF THE EXTRATERRESTRIAL TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE IN FUNCTION OF NUMBER OF SUNSPOTS ABSTRACT The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) is the total amount of solar energy present per square unit every moment beyond the atmosphere, so, it’s changing every time along the year, although for many practical purposes its average is taken and has been called : The Solar Constant (1367 W/m 2). In this paper, the historical efforts made to quantificate the TSI are reviewed, the latest advances in this matter are presented and a new method to calculate its monthly average based on the SunSpot Number is proposed to approach to its value as close as 0.05 W/m2 ( RMS = 0.002 ). Key Words.- Solar irradiance, SunSpot number, Solar energy. PREDICTION OF NATURAL GAS DENSITIES USING EQUATIONS OF STATE OF SOAVE-REDLICH-KWONG, PENG-ROBINSON AND AGA8-DC92 ABSTRACT In this work the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK), Peng-Robinson (PR), and AGA8-DC92 (AGA) equations of state have been used to predict the density of different natural gas mixtures. As a result, SRK and PR are strongly recommended for temperatures within the range 240-350 K. As for the pressure, SRK yielded better results within the range 1-8 MPa, whereas PR was more accurate for pressures ranging from 1 to 15 MPa. The errors obtained were smaller than 3% for all the 613 experimental points taken from the literature, which is convenient due to the fact that AGA is not easy to handle. Nevertheless, AGA displayed the best performance in every calculation and proved to be superior to either SRK or PR in the whole range of conditions used in this investigation. Finally, a computational tool has been developed to calculate density (  ) and
  • 4. compressibility factor ( Z ). Such a tool incorporates an experimental database of  for different gas natural mixtures. Keywords.- Natural gas, Equation of state, Compressibility factor, Density. PREPARATION AND SUPERFICIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF DRUGGED COBALT SPINEL ELECTRODES WITH COPPER, CUXCO3-XO4, 0 ≤ X ≤ 1.5 ABSTRAT Cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and copper-doped cobalt oxide (CuxCo3-xO4) films supported on titanium have been prepared by the thermal decomposition method. The electrodes have been characterized by different techniques like scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS spectra correspond to a characteristic monophasic Cu-Co spinel oxides when x is below 1. However, when the copper content exceeds that for the stoichiometric CuCo2O4 spinel, a new CuO phase segregates at the surface. The analysis of the surface cation distribution in spinel structure indicates that Cu(II) cation are preferently located in octahedral sites of higher electrochemical activity. Keywords.-Cobaltspinel,Co3O4 electrode, Surface characterization. ATTITUDES TOWARD RESEARCH SCALE, STUDENTS AND ENGINEERING PROFESSIONS AND SCIENCES AT UNI ABSTRACT An understanding of attitudes is important to help teachers facilitate the learning of research for their students, by enabling them to create more positive attitudes toward research. The fact shows that attitudes toward research scales in students of Engineering Professions and Sciences at Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria are multidimensional in nature. They are based on three factors that explain 49.2% of total inertia: (1) Life relevancy of research to the Society and students’ daily lives, (2) Institutional environment, and (3) Modeling and statistical data analysis. The sample of the study consisted of 382 students. It was necessary developed tools of gathering data on latent structures. Key words.- Principal components analysis (PCA), VARIMAX rotation, Cronbach´s alpha. DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUIT FOR CONTROL OF MOTORS PAP, WITH VHDL PROGRAMATION VHDL ABSTRACT In the present report the design of an integrated circuit is described developed to control motors step by step (PAP), by means of a device FPGA, obtained by means of programming VHDL and techniques of advanced digital design, In the first place the basic characteristics of the motors appear step by step, soon the made procedures, beginning by the description of the surroundings of used control. Next, one step by step details to the design of the integrated circuit for the control of the motor and its implementation in a FPGA through tools of advanced digital design. Finally they are to the obtained simulations of the design showing his operation. Key words.- Digital design, FPGA, VHDL.
  • 5. MODELLING OF CROSS FLOW HYDRAULIC TURBINE PARAMETERS APPLICATION USED THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ABSTRACT We shown a Computing Fluid Dynamics (CFD) application using the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the modeling of a 50 kW (Q = 120 l/s, H = 50 m y = 124.6055 rad/s) Cross Flow Hydraulic Turbine, trying to explain with the numeric methodology the principles and supposes of the classic turbine design and the optimization. The results are pressure and velocity fields for different operation conditions (Q = 0 – 203.61 l/s, H = 9.40 – 580.71 m y = 25, 50, 100 and 125 rad/s) and different regimens (laminar, transition and turbulent), we use this results to estimate some operation parameters (velocity distribution on the inlet flow to the runner, nozzle efficiency and nozzle coefficient, 50 kW turbine characteristics curves and unity turbine characteristics curves). Finally we assess the turbine operation parameters for the design conditions considering the flow modeling. Key words.- Hydraulic turbine, Cross flow, Michell – Banki, Flow modeling, Supply nozzle, Runner, CFD, FEM. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF WIND TURBINE 500 W WITH PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATOR FOR SMALL ELECTRIC DEMANDS OF RURAL AREAS ABSTRACT The present work is about the design, construction and characterization of Wind Turbine 500 W prototype, using national technology; it is the design and production of the wind turbine components - permanent magnet generator, rotor and auxiliary elements-, as well as the performance evaluation in field. The Wind Turbine 500 W application will be an energetic and socioeconomic solution of the rural areas with wind resources. With field tests results we carry out the verification of design conditions, as well as the operation of wind turbine according to wind resource. Although the system was designed for 500 Watts nominal power and 8 m/s wind speed, in field this power has been obtained to 8,3 m/s wind speed, and a stable behavior under the other conditions Key words.- Wind turbine, Permanent magnet, Rural areas, Socioeconomic, Clean energy. TUDY OF THE STRENGTH OF THE BLADE OF AIRCRAFT TURBINE ABSTRACT The work consists of demonstrating the possible utilization of the methods of the finite elements for the case of calculation of a blade of a turbine of plane by the method of the finite elements, first we find the critical stress in the blade due to the solicitations of the centrifugal force and the gas-dynamics, these generate stress of traction and flexion principally. Comparing these results with the obtained ones previously for traditional methods, managing to validate our results for the method of the finite elements. Finally we will find the manners of vibrating and natural frequencies of the blade of the turbine, coming to conclusions that they reconcile to the published ones in the literature. The method of the finite elements represents a powerful tool that can be used satisfactorily for the optimization of the such complex designs as of the turbine. Key words: Blade, Strain, Turbine, Stress, Vibration.
  • 6. DEVELOPING OF THE THERMAL CALCULATION OF THE GASODIESEL ENGINE WITH INTERNAL FORMATION OF THE MIX AIR GAS AND VALIDATION BY THE EXPERIMENTATION ABSTRACT The present work treats, on the performance of a mathematical model of simulation of the different processes that take place in the motors, which allow to establish the foreseeable indices of the cycle of operation of a motor of internal combustion of type gasodiesel, the methods of simulation of the operational cycle used in this work have been taken from recognized authors Soviet. This I calculate thermal fundamental has been made having in account that the combustible mixture this composing of GLP D2 in proportions of 40% and 60% respectively, whereas the GLP this compound of 50% of propano and 50% of Butane, to obtain the operation characteristics, has been developed a computacional program denominated Ajesa2004. The method of GLP provision is through the line of high pressure, which is made due to the hydrodynamic phenomena type water hammer which they are originated in this line, when the propelling valve, during the unloading of the provision of fuel when falling in its seat due to its belt of unloading forms a rarefaction wave; this wave makes open the valve of denominated retention RND. We made the grafico comparative analysis for which the obtained experimental values in the proving stand have been taken Newage, mounted with a diesel engine supercharged Perkins, such which they are necessary to optimize the indicated diagram and the characteristics of load and speed, obtained by means of a computacional program, table 1 y 2. Key words.- Performance, Simulation, Pressure, Water hammer, Propelling, Valve, Engine, supercharged .