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The Direct Method and Natural Approach


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The direct method of English as a Second Language

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The Direct Method and Natural Approach

  1. 1. METHODS AND APPROACHES OF A SECOND LANGUAGE Unit 2. Oriented Methodologies for Second Language Teaching Text: The Direct Method and Natural Approach Professor: César Hernández May, 2010 MAESTRIA EN EDUCACION BILINGÜE MEB
  2. 2. The Direct Method Background <ul><li>Berlitz and Jespersen XIX century. </li></ul><ul><li>Student learn to understand the language. </li></ul><ul><li>- Listening large quantities. </li></ul><ul><li>- Speaking associate and appropiate. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the way children learn their native language. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct association: </li></ul><ul><li> words vs phrases objects vs actions </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Direct Method Major Characteristics 1. Here and Now 2. Constructed pictures depicting 3. Sentences in simple discourse 4. Correct Pronunciation 5. Grammar rules are not explicitly taught 6. Read text
  4. 4. The Direct Method Proficiency Orientation <ul><li>Student engage in oral language. </li></ul><ul><li>- Contextualized. </li></ul><ul><li>- Personalized. </li></ul><ul><li>Class is spend to responding to teacher question. </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally oriented pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>- vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>- survival situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use paraphrase encorage students. </li></ul><ul><li>Affective happens in group activities. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Direct Method Potential Drawbacks <ul><li>Phenomenon of Fossilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient Provision. </li></ul><ul><li>- Systematic Practice. </li></ul><ul><li>- Structures in a </li></ul><ul><li> coherent sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Adaptations. </li></ul><ul><li>Short Translation. </li></ul><ul><li>Why the direct method is an eclecticism? </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Natural Approach Background <ul><li>Krashen Theory of SLA. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative Competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate Proficiency in the Second Languague. </li></ul><ul><li>- Oral skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Higgs and Clifford emphasis on teaching and practice vocabulary and structural accuracy. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Natural Approach Major Characteristics 3. Response in both L1 and L2 <ul><li>Distribution of </li></ul><ul><li>learning and acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>activities </li></ul>communication Foreigner talk instructions 2. Error correction
  8. 8. The Natural Approach Major Characteristics <ul><li>Immediate communication competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction, should be directed to modifying and improve. </li></ul><ul><li>Student opportunity. (acquire and learn) </li></ul><ul><li>Affective. </li></ul><ul><li>The learning of vocabulary is the key. </li></ul>Terrell main principles
  9. 9. The Natural Approach Proficiency Orientation <ul><li>Survival-Level Communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn language in context in personalized activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Warm, affective atmosphere in class. </li></ul><ul><li>Group practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Student create with the language. </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective feedback. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Natural Approach Potential Drawbacks <ul><li>Low range of perfomance. </li></ul><ul><li>Student do not obtain the corrective feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Higgs and Clifford: Fossilization can be in the first years if… </li></ul><ul><li>Terrell: corrective feedback on written work. </li></ul><ul><li>Student may not be motivated to produce the target language. </li></ul>