• Motivation is defined as the processthat initiates, guides and maintainsgoal-oriented behaviours.Motivation is what causes us to act,whether it is getting a glass of water toreduce thirst or reading a book to gainknowledge.• It involves the biological, emotional,social and cognitive forces thatactivate behaviour.In everyday usage, the term motivationis frequently used to describe why aperson does something.What is Motivation
There are three majorcomponents to motivation:1. Activation2. Persistence3. IntensityActivationPersistenceIntensityThe 3 Components
The 3 ComponentsActivation involves the decision to initiate a behaviour,such as enrolling in computer class.Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal eventhough obstacles may exist, such as taking more computercourses in order to get a promotion in company although itrequires a significant investment of time, energy andresources.Intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor thatgoes into pursuing a goal. For example, one student mightcoast by without much effort, while another student willstudy regularly, participate in discussions and takeadvantage of research opportunities outside of class.An example….
Psychology of NeedsMaslows TheoryMotivation Theories
Implications of Maslow’s Theory(1) Not all employees are driven by thesame needs and(2) the needs that motivate individuals canchange over time.Managers should consider which needsdifferent employees are trying to satisfy andshould structure rewards and other forms ofrecognition accordingly.Question: What implications does Maslow’stheory have for business managers?Brainstorming.…
Brainstorming.…Question: Are the needs of gen X,Y,Z the same?Gen Xborn in 60s to 70sGen Yborn in 80s to 90sGen Zborn after 2000
Motivation TheoriesSatisfaction & DissatisfactionHerzberg’s 2 Factors Theory(Motivation vs Hygiene)
Implications of Herzbergs TheoryHygiene factors (Not happy factors) Are salariesreasonable? What about working conditions? Does eachemployee have his or her own workspace, or are theycrammed into tiny workrooms? Are they being properlysupervised or are they left on their own to sink or swim?Motivation factors (Happy factors) Is the work itselfchallenging and stimulating? Do employees receiverecognition for jobs well done? Will the work that theemployee does help him or her to advance in the firm?Question: What implications does Herzberg’stheory have for business managers?Brainstorming.…
Motivation TheoriesEfforts vs RewardsVroom’s Expectancy Theory
Focus on self-interest individualsHow they value the rewards or pay-offs
1. The employee would have to believe that his or her effortswould result in (that, in other words, there’s a positive linkbetween effort and performance).2. The employee would have to be confident that if he or she soldmore than 5 customers in a given month, there would indeed bea bonus (a positive link between performance and reward).3. The commission of $500 per customer would have to be ofvalue to the employee.You are the manager or boss and let’s say you pay a basic salary of$1500 a month, plus a $500 commission for each new customersbut must be above 5 new customers a month.Question: Under what conditions would your sales staff bemotivated to sell more than 5 customers a month?Brainstorming.…
According to expectancy theory, motivation will suffer if the salestaff believed that he/she is less confident that their efforts willlead to satisfactory performance.Question: What if you increase the selling prices, thus making itharder to sell. How will the sales staff’s motivation be affected?Brainstorming.…Question: What if you increase minimum target from 5 newcustomers to 20 new customers? How will the sales staff’smotivation be affected?According to expectancy theory, motivation will suffer if the salestaff believed that the new minimum target is too high, that theyare not confident to achieve the new minimum target.
Now employees may be less confident that they’ll get commissionseven if they do sell more than 20 new customers.Motivation will decrease because the link between performance andreward has been weakened.Question: What if you introduces a policy that employees getcommissions only if customers don’t cancel services within ninetydays? How will this policy affect motivation?Brainstorming.…
Obviously, the reward would be of less value to the employee and,again, motivation will suffer.Question: What will happen if you cut commissions from $500 tojust $100 but the minimum target of 20 remains the same?Brainstorming.…Question: What do you learn from the expectancy theory?Managers should offer rewards that employees value, setperformance levels that they can reach, and ensure a strong linkbetween performance and reward.
Intrinsic vs Extrinsic(Self-determination Theory)Modern Theories
Motivation in Practice1.) The different needs of different individuals2.) Happy (feel good) and Not Happy (not feel good) factors3.) How the individual view the value of the rewards4.) Are goals perceived to be achievable and realistic5.) The link between performance and rewards
Motivation in PracticeHowcan I do it?(Methods)Whatmust I do?(Objectives)WhyI want to do?(Purpose)The most effective method