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VU University Amsterdam - The Social Web 2016 - Lecture 3


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Lecture 3 of The Social Web Course 2016

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VU University Amsterdam - The Social Web 2016 - Lecture 3

  1. 1. Social Web
 2016 Lecture 3: What DATA looks like on the Social Web? Davide Ceolin (credits to: Lora Aroyo) The Network Institute VU University Amsterdam
  2. 2. PSA - Assignment 1 • Your own vision based on your analysis of what are the prime privacy- related issues & initiatives on the (Social) Web. • Summarise all the legal contexts for privacy & ownership. • Compare initiatives according to their advantages & disadvantages. Include also your own advise to policy makers (position). • Write for people who didn’t attend the course • Attach all the mind maps from lecture 1 and 2. • All visuals, e.g. screenshots, diagrams should be included in appendix • Submit only 1 file in PDF Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  3. 3. PSA - Assignment 1 • Grading: • Part I - 35% • Part 2 - 55% • Preparatory assignments - 10%
  4. 4. PSA - Final Assignment • Final assignment • Group feedback sent • The theme is the Network Institute
  5. 5. PSA - Deadlines • Friday February 19th, 10:00 - Post your questions • Friday, February 19th, 17:00 -Vote your questions • Friday,February 19th 23:59 - Assignment 1
  6. 6. History of Blogs • evolved from online diaries in 1980’s • ‘weblog’ Jorn Barger (1997) & ‘BLOG’ Peter Merholz (1999) • used to share the result of Web searches • one of the first ways to contribute (unstructured user- generated) content on the Web • Justin Hall recognized as pioneer blogger (1994) • Nature: political, technical, art, journalistic, cultural, personal • Software: WordPress, Blogger, LifeJournal Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  7. 7. • single- or multi-authored • photo-blog,Video-blog, Audio-blog • life (b)log, now - microlifeblog (twitter) • lifecasting: in 2007 by Justin Kan: webcam on a cap • Gordon Bell MyLifeBits: Microsoft SenseCam Types of Blogs Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  8. 8. • Wiki in Hawaiian meaning fast/quick • "the simplest online database that could possibly work" (Ward Cunningham)1995 • first wiki software: WikiWikiWeb (the QuickWeb) • first example for a large scale collaborative editing = software + process • commonly implemented software package is MediaWiki (known from Wikipedia) • pages structure & formatting: simplified markup language - wikitext, or HTMLtags, WYSIWYG editing Wikis Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  9. 9. Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  10. 10. Exploiting the crowd • in wiki applications crowd contributes with collective intelligence (primarily textual) • later also other media & recourses emerged, e.g., photo video, music • crowdsourcing Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  11. 11. Mechanical Turk • 1760 Wolfgang von Kempelen: TheTurk • 2005 Amazon: Amazon MechanicalTurk • marketplace for work; people perform tasks computers are lousy at, e.g. identifying items in a photo/video, writing product descriptions, transcribing podcasts • HITs = human intelligence tasks • require little time & offer little compensation • workers & requesters Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  12. 12. Crowdsourcing Science Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  13. 13. Crowdsourcing History Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  14. 14. Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  15. 15. Was the $ million Netflix prize a victory for crowdsourcing? Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  16. 16. Folksonomy • On the social web the user-generated content is organized in light-weight ontologies, i.e., folksonomies • Community-based semantics = a relationship between Users,Tags & Resources • user-created, bottom-up classification/categorization of (domain) terms / user-labels, e.g., tags • tagging = the social process where lay users attach labels to resources (as opposed to annotation by professional experts) Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  17. 17. Folksonomy Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  18. 18. Folksonomy Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  19. 19. • cleaning messy data • transforming data from one format to another • fetching missing data Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  20. 20. Questions How critical is the quality of the data on theWeb? Does structured mark-up help? How do we measure the quality? Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  21. 21. Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  22. 22. Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  23. 23. Vocabularies on the (Social) Web • to create interfaces or exchange data between applications the software needs to know the terms in the data • vocabularies define set of terms in a certain domain, e.g., describing people, relationships, content of different type Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  24. 24. FOAF • FOAF = Friend of a Friend, http://www.foaf-, • a machine-readable ontology describing persons, their activities & their relations to other people and objects • an open, decentralized technology for connecting social Web sites, & the people they describe • Since mid-2000 • Stable core of classes & properties • New terms may be added at any time • FOAF RDF namespace URI is fixed • • model for publishing simple factual data via a networked of linked RDF documents • FOAF is an attempt to use the Web to: • integrate factual information with information in human-oriented documents (e.g. videos, books, spreadsheets, 3d models) • and info that is still in people's heads • linking networks of information with networks of people Linked Data & FOAF Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  25. 25. FOAF Example • there is a foaf:Person • with a foaf:name property of 'Dan Brickley' • in foaf:homepage and foaf:openid relationships to a thing called • in foaf:img relationship to a thing referenced by a relative URI of /images/me.jpg Create your own FOAF file: Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  26. 26. foaf:depiction Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  27. 27. FOAF Auto-Discovery • If you publish a FOAF self-description (e.g. using foaf-a-matic) you can make it easier for tools to find your FOAF by putting markup in the head of your HTML homepage • Common filename foaf.rdf is a common choice Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  28. 28. SIOC • Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities • ontology for representing rich data from Social Web in RDF • a standard way for expressing user-generated content • methods for interconnecting discussions, e.g., blogs, forums & mailing lists; and enable the integration of online community information • used in conjunction with FOAF vocabulary for expressing personal profile & social networking information • Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  29. 29. <sioc:Post rdf:about=""> <dc:title>Creating connections between discussion clouds with SIOC</dc:title> <dcterms:created>2006-09-07T09:33:30Z</dcterms:created> <sioc:has_container rdf:resource=""/> <sioc:has_creator> <sioc:UserAccount rdf:about="" rdfs:label="Cloud"> <rdfs:seeAlso rdf:resource=""/> </sioc:UserAccount> </sioc:has_creator> <foaf:maker rdf:resource=""/> <sioc:content>SIOC provides a unified vocabulary for content and interaction description: a semantic la that can co-exist with existing discussion platforms. </sioc:content> <sioc:topic rdfs:label="Semantic Web" rdf:resource=""/> <sioc:topic rdfs:label="Blogs" rdf:resource=""/> <sioc:has_reply> <sioc:Post rdf:about=""> <rdfs:seeAlso rdf:resource=" sioc_type=comment&sioc_id=123928"/> </sioc:Post> </sioc:has_reply> </sioc:Post> • A post (1) titled "Creating connections between discussion clouds with SIOC" (2) created at 09:33:30 on 2006-09-07 (3) written by user "Cloud" (4) on topics "Blogs" and "Semantic Web" (5) with contents described in sioc:content. • (6) More information about its author at sioc_type=user&sioc_id=1 • The post has (7) a reply and (8) detailed SIOC information about this reply can be found at sioc_type=comment&sioc_id=123928 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 7 Social Web 2015, Lora Aroyo and Davide Ceolin
  30. 30. Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  31. 31. Semantics in Facebook Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  32. 32. Activity Streams • A list of recent activities performed by someone on a website • Example: Facebook News Feed • Activity Streams project aims at an activity stream protocol to syndicate activities across socialWeb applications • Major websites with activity stream implementations have already opened up their activity streams to developers to use, e.g., Facebook and MySpace • Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  33. 33. Activity Streams Specification • an actor, a verb, an object and a target • person performing an action on/with an object • Geraldine posted a photo to her album • John shared a video • activity metadata to present to a user in a rich human-friendly format, e.g. constructing readable sentences about the activity that occurred, visual representations of the activity, or combining similar activities for display • Activities are serialized using the JSON format • There is also an ATOM-oriented specification Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  34. 34. Verbs, Objects, Mapping Verbs Objects Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  35. 35. XFN • Xhtml Friends Network • defining a small set of values that describe personal relationships In HTML and XHTML, these are given as values for rel attribute on a hyperlink. XFN allows authors to indicate which weblogs belong to friends, whom they've physically met, and other personal relationships. XFN values allow to humanize blogrolls and link pages. • using XFN can easily style all links of a particular type, e.g, friends could be boldfaced, co-workers italicized, etc. • Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  36. 36. XFN Example • Joe has a set of five links in his blogroll: his girlfriend Jane; his friends Dave and Darryl; industry expert James, who Joe briefly met once at a conference; and MetaFilter. • MetaFilter gets no value since it is not an actual person Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  37. 37. Open Graph • protocol originally developed in Facebook,“Like” button • enables web pages to become a rich object in a social graph, i.e. any web page to have the same functionality as any other object on Facebook • prefix="og:" specifies the OGP vocabulary Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  38. 38. Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  39. 39. Microformats • Simple, open data formats built upon existing widely adopted standards • Designed for humans first & machines second • Highly correlated with semantic XHTML (aka the real world semantics, lowercase semantic web, lossless XHTML) • “An evolutionary revolution”, by ryan king • It attempts to re-use existing HTML tags to portray meta information and other attributes in website pages. Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo!Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  40. 40. Your First Microformat • You can put a microformat on your website in less than 5 mins • Example: putting an hCard (online business card) on your site 1. Find your name somewhere on your website 2. Wrap your name in an fn (formatted name) <span class="fn">Jamie Jones</span> 3. Wrap it all in a vcard (declares that everything inside is the hCard microformat): <span class="vcard"><span class="fn">Jamie Jones</span></span> <address class="vcard"><span class="fn">Jamie Jones</span></address> The address element indicates that the person in the hCard is the contact for the page <p class="vcard">My name is <span class="fn">Jamie Jones</span> I dig microformats!</p> Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  41. 41. HTML Microdata • Allows machine-readable data to be embedded in HTML documents in an easy- to-write manner, with an unambiguous parsing model • Compatible with numerous data formats, including RDF and JSON • Consists of a group of name-value pairs. the groups are called items, and each name-value pair is a property • itemscope is used to create an item • itemprop is used to add a property to an item • Microdata DOM API • • It is used to incorporate semantics into existing microformat content on web pages. Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  42. 42. • Google,Yahoo!, Bing • a common vocabulary for structured data markup on web pages • improve how sites appear in major search engines • Google rich snippets of reviews, people, recipes, events in 2005 • superseded Microformats Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  43. 43. Add to HTML using Microdata <div> <h1>Avatar</h1> <span>Director: James Cameron (born August 16, 1954)</span> <span>Science fiction</span> <a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-trailer.html">Trailer</a> </div> <div itemscope itemtype =""> <h1 itemprop="name"&g;Avatar</h1> <div itemprop="director" itemscope itemtype=""> Director: <span itemprop="name">James Cameron</span> (born <span itemprop="birthDate">August 16, 1954)</span> </div> <span itemprop="genre">Science fiction</span> <a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-trailer.html" itemprop="trailer">Trailer</a> </div> Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  44. 44. RDFa • Another syntax for RDF • HTML5 extension for People, Places, Events, Recipes, Reviews markup specify that a text is the name of a product, or person, or event = “adding semantic markup”. • RDFa 1.1 = specified for XHTML and HTML5 (for any XML-based language, e.g., SVG) • RDFa Lite = “a small subset of RDFa consisting of a few attributes that may be applied to most simple to moderate structured data markup tasks.” • Publish your data as Linked Data through RDFa --> link to other URIs (others can link to your HTML+RDFa) Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  45. 45. Quick Structured Data for Your website Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  46. 46. Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  47. 47. Knowledge Graph • graph that understands real-world entities and their relationships to one another: things, not strings • more than 500 million things • more than 3.5 billion facts about and relationships between these different things • tuned based on what people search for • features/search/knowledge.html results in 2013 Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  48. 48. Knowledge Graph results in 2014 Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  49. 49. Knowledge Graph results in 2014 Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  50. 50. results in 2013 results in 2014 Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  51. 51. results in 2014 results in 2013 Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  52. 52. Question? For which things on the social web would more vocabularies for embedded semantics be needed (besides what we have already seen)? Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin
  53. 53. image source: Hands-on Teaser • mining data in various social web formats • see the differences in what each of the formats can contain & what purpose they serve • start: simple search where we pull in some XFN data and visualise a graph of people that we find on a website • check: software you will be working with on the website Social Web 2016, Davide Ceolin