<ul>Aspects of openness </ul><ul>• economic openness – available for free • technical openness – accessible to humans and machine readable („if it's not online, it does not exist”) <li>• legal openness – freedom to use, reduced intellectual property rights protection </li></ul>
<ul>Open licensing </ul><ul>All Creative Commons licenses </ul><ul>= Public <li>Domain </li></ul><ul>= Some rights <li>reserved </li></ul>
<ul>Creative Commons provides licenses in three layers </ul><ul>XHTML code „ human readable” (commons deed) „ legal code” </ul>
<ul>Degrees of openness </ul><ul>• Not available online / all rights reserved • Open access </ul>• Some rights reserved • No rights reserved / public domain
Fun facts #1 Doctorow - two books on the bestseller list New York Times, published in over 60 countries Nine Inch Nails - Ghosts album is available for free with CC license, in 2009 was also the best selling album in MP3 format at Amazon.com
Open Resources <ul>accessibility flexibility durability low costs of creating </ul>
Open Source... Term open source describes practices in production and development that promote access to the end product's source materials (not only in programing)...
<ul>Open source </ul><ul><li>Not just programming tools and code
Rules and cooperation mechanisms, Non-market incentives
Specificity of digital production: public good, marginal copying and distribution costs </li></ul>
<ul>Open source </ul><ul><li>Copyright licenses : GNU General Public License
4 freedoms: run the program, study how the program works, redistribute copies, improve the program </li></ul>
<ul><li>The freedom to run the program, for any purpose ( freedom 0 ).
The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish ( freedom 1 ). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor ( freedom 2 ).
The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others (freedom 3 ). By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this. </li></ul>
<ul>Open source </ul><ul><li>Steven Weber: success of open source - as a model
“ open source is not necessarily good or morally beneficial”
… but we tend to underestimate value of openness (James Boyle) </li></ul>
A sustainable ecology of actors and institutions, with established methods of work </li></ul>
What does it mean? <ul>Community support, knowlegde and usage Lower cost = higher accessibilty Every need can be satisfied, even unprofitable If you use it or creatre new you also share it and help next users </ul>