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Smart waste management in Schiedam

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2016
May
David Rodríguez Relucio
Universitat de Girona
Smartcities master
Smart waste management in Schiedam
Smart waste management in Schiedam.
David Rodriguez Relucio
2
1. Introduction ...............................................
Smart waste management in Schiedam.
David Rodriguez Relucio
3
7.5. More about processing data ...............................
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Smart waste management in Schiedam

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(David Rodriguez). This project, on the collaboration agreement framework between the University of Girona and the Schiedam municipality, will try to analyze the current status of the waste collection in residential areas and propose some solutions in the smart city vision. The main goal is to improve recycling and reduce waste volume in a more sustainable city.

(David Rodriguez). This project, on the collaboration agreement framework between the University of Girona and the Schiedam municipality, will try to analyze the current status of the waste collection in residential areas and propose some solutions in the smart city vision. The main goal is to improve recycling and reduce waste volume in a more sustainable city.

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Smart waste management in Schiedam

  1. 1. 2016 May David Rodríguez Relucio Universitat de Girona Smartcities master Smart waste management in Schiedam
  2. 2. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 2 1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 4 1.1. Schiedam smart city ...................................................................................................... 4 1.2. Future in waste management ....................................................................................... 4 1.3. Basic rules in this project............................................................................................... 5 1.4. Mantra........................................................................................................................... 5 2. Definition of the problem...................................................................................................... 5 2.1. Management framework .............................................................................................. 5 2.2. Containers scheme........................................................................................................ 5 3. Behaviour analysis................................................................................................................. 7 3.1. Introduction: ................................................................................................................. 7 3.2. Existing data .................................................................................................................. 8 3.3. Other analysis................................................................................................................ 8 3.4. Data analysed and results: ............................................................................................ 8 3.5. Resulted......................................................................................................................... 9 Area analysed........................................................................................................................ 9 Deposits distribution by week and neighbourhood............................................................ 10 Average deposits per flat-home in a week per neighbourhood ......................................... 11 Deposits and demographic data ......................................................................................... 12 4. Proposed solution description ............................................................................................ 16 5. Implementation of the solution.......................................................................................... 17 5.1. Schiedam zero waste................................................................................................... 17 5.2. Schiedam compost...................................................................................................... 17 5.3. By current collection methods.................................................................................... 18 Underground container....................................................................................................... 18 Chute system....................................................................................................................... 18 Mini containers ................................................................................................................... 18 Above ground containers.................................................................................................... 19 5.4. Others.......................................................................................................................... 19 6. Conclusions ......................................................................................................................... 20 7. Annex................................................................................................................................... 21 7.1. Variables involved the behaviour of citizens in waste management.......................... 21 7.2. Proposals to analyse discarded................................................................................... 24 7.4. Existing data ................................................................................................................ 26 Data received: ..................................................................................................................... 26 Open data............................................................................................................................ 29
  3. 3. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 3 7.5. More about processing data ....................................................................................... 30 Woningkartotheek.csv ........................................................................................................ 30 WM5 waste deposits per neighbourhood jan14-jun15.csv................................................ 31 7.6. Age targets at the neighbourhoods ............................................................................ 34 7.7. Basic ideas about waste management........................................................................ 36 7.8. Unrealized Ideas.......................................................................................................... 37 8. Proposed solutions.............................................................................................................. 38 8.1. SCW1 Schiedam zero waste ........................................................................................ 40 8.2. SCW2 Comunity manager. Feedaback. ....................................................................... 41 8.3. SCW3 Schiedam zero waste agency............................................................................ 42 8.4. SCW6 Zero waste app ................................................................................................. 43 8.5. SCW7 Barcode scan to recycle .................................................................................... 44 8.6. SCW4 Cooperative values, volunteer network. .......................................................... 45 8.7. SCW5 Promote the sustainable packaging. ................................................................ 46 8.8. SC1 Collaborative composters .................................................................................... 47 8.9. SC2 Automatic collaborative composters ................................................................... 48 8.10. SC3 Individual manual composters ......................................................................... 49 8.11. SC4 Individual automatic composters..................................................................... 50 8.12. SC5 Schiedam Compost ™ ...................................................................................... 51 8.13. SBT1 Identification systems. ................................................................................... 52 8.14. SBT2 Schiedam containers variables....................................................................... 53 8.15. SR1 Collection points for paper and cardboard...................................................... 54 8.16. SR2 Deposit-refund system (DRS) ........................................................................... 55 8.17. SD2D1 Schiedam door to door system.................................................................... 57 8.18. SD2D2 Schiedam smart door to door system ......................................................... 60 8.19. SSCS1 Chute system improvement ......................................................................... 62 8.20. SSCS2 Door-to-door with chute system .................................................................. 67 8.21. SAWC1 Automated waste collection system .......................................................... 68 8.22. SAG1 Schiedam above ground containers with access control .............................. 69 8.23. SAG2 Schiedam above ground containers with capacity sensors........................... 70
  4. 4. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 4 1. Introduction The Smart waste management in Schiedam project, on the framework collaboration agreement between the University of Girona and Schiedam municipality, will try to analyse the current status of the waste collection in residential areas and propose some solutions in the smart city vision. The main goal is to improve recycling and reduce waste volume in a more sustainable city. In the short term, the city of Schiedam has the goal to increase the average of recycling and reduce the amount of residual waste per person. The goal inside the Dutch policies is 75 % recycling and <100 kg / person per year. The main will be to propose solutions to get a better rate of recycling and less amount of waste per person in the smart city context. 1.1. Schiedam smart city For the realization of this project we have proposed solutions in a smart city context. This is summarized in the following points: 1. Future: 2050 vision. How it will be the city in the future? Our proposed solutions are in this timeline? 2. IOT. Internet of the things in waste management. Everything that can connect to the Internet will be connected. 3. How to take all of the human potential in the city: interconnected citizen. 4. Collaborative cities. 5. Towards a circular economy: A zero waste (UE). 6. Govern as a platform and citizen oriented. Increasingly, problems to be solved in cities are more complex. This means that it can’t solve only by one part. In the future, organizations composed of several members of different profile, called CIO will be created. In Schiedam for the waste management, we think it will must create one, with the municipally, the university, the neighbours, associations, etc. 1.2. Future in waste management It’s difficult to predict in the future how it will be the waste management, because we don’t know how it will be the advance of technology. For example, during the execution of this project, a news published about a “bacteria that eats plastic” discovered in Japan. (See for example this link). We suppose that there could be two scenarios: 1. better technique in post collecting residual process allowing post separation. 2. better habits and sustainable economy, with less residual volume and better recycling. We've decided to choose the scenario 2 to do this project, because we think the problem must be solved at source, reducing the energy in post collection treatments.
  5. 5. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 5 1.3. Basic rules in this project There are three mainly topics that we have been following to do this project: 1. Separating organic waste from the rest. Organic waste is the most difficult to separate in post collecting methods and corrupting the recyclable material. 2. Decentralise the waste management process, developing and using all of the human capital. 3. Finishing with anonymity generating feedback. Throwing the garbage is one-way and anonymous operation that must be redefined. 1.4. Mantra There are other important rules to understand other work:  Technology changes fast. Not to focus on a solution.  The most important is the philosophy, not the detail.  Involve people.  Prepare people for this challenge.  Open data, real time, IOT.  Waste as a resource (UE) 2. Definition of the problem 2.1. Management framework Irado is a publicly owned company in charge of Schiedam waste management. The municipalities of Schiedam and Vlaardingen are the owners of Irado. It has other activities related with the cleaning and maintenance of the city, and also works in others two neighbouring cities managing wastes. The city council is in charge of policies on waste management and other tasks, like taxes, citizen participation, etc. The municipally has accidentally meetings with associations. The meetings are about cost, taxes, solutions and others, showing transparent management. For example, in June, they will have a big one, with all of them. In this scheme, the citizen is a passive actor of the waste management, like in the most municipalities, headed by the city council. After our visit in two buildings in Schiedam, it seems like there could be other illegal or not controlled processes, like in other cities. For example, in the paper collection or support among neighbours. 2.2. Containers scheme
  6. 6. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 6 In our project, the area to work is the domestic waste, not business or industrial. The current waste management in the residential areas of Schiedam has three types of collecting, and the common feature is that there isn't a separate way for collecting organic waste. There is a type of truck for each system. They are: 1. Individual containers. They are on the individual houses, located on their gardens. In every house or near there are three containers: paper, organics and residual waste. 2. Underground containers There are different types of underground containers distributed for all the city. These are for paper, glass, plastic, textile and residual waste. The containers for residual waste are opened by a card. Each citizen (previously requested) has a card to open two or three containers near his living place. The most important reason for the card system on the residual waste containers is the possibility to pick an efficient moment to empty the container (90% full), and in a smart city vision, this system can give us a lot of data to analyse. Also, this system prevents unauthorized users. 3. Chute system. The chute system is especially in tall or big buildings. For example, we visited a building with 160 flats. The chute system is a tube inside the building with a hole in every floor. The neighbours throw their residual waste by the tube and it falls into a container in the ground floor. A maintainer moves the container every day to the truck can carry it. This a very dirty system, has health problems (like rats and smelly) and the trouble to moving every day. It’s very anonymous and the municipally has been changing this system for the underground containers (the social housing company has only three buildings with the tube). There are containers for recycling outside the buildings, too. 4. Others: There is a small amount of organic waste containers for collective use and containers above ground.
  7. 7. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 7 Image: waste collection method (Source: WM0 Area wastecollection 2015-01.pdf) All of this scheme is in the initial data provided by the municipality and a layer of GIS system. 5. Pilot and other experiences It's scheduled a pilot project to improve the organic waste collection for flats, in one building by individual mini containers, like a door-to-door system. There are machines at some supermarkets that pay the user to return a plastic bottle or similar. This is a Deposit-Refund system, promoted by central government. In the next figure we can see the summary per address: MEANS OF WASTE COLLECTION PER ADDRESS ONE BUILDING MAY INCLUDE SEVERAL ADDRESSES WASTE COLLECTION METHOD NUMBER ABOVE GROUND WASTE & ORGANIC 893 ABOVE GROUND WASTE / NO ORGANIC 52 AB GR WASTE /MINI CONTAINER ORGANIC 327 BUILT-IN WASTE/ABOVE GROUND ORGANIC 83 BUILT-IN WASTE/NO ORGANIC 5658 MINI CONTAINER WASTE / NO ORGANIC 70 MINI CONTAINERS WASTE & ORGANIC 6639 UNDER GROUND WASTE / NO ORGANIC 20351 OTHER WASTE COLLECTION METHODS 193 TOTAL 34266 Source: WM2 VERZAMELCONTAINERS-2015-01_DEF.xlsx 3. Behaviour analysis 3.1. Introduction: The factors and variables involved in the behaviour of citizens to throw trash are very diverse and would need a very complex study. In the Netherlands, for example, there is a study about improving waste separation and collection in high-rises, by some authors, like Cees Midden , in which they try to analyse about 21 variables, summarized in five areas: 1. Personal motivation. 2. Social motivation. 3. Facilitation and structure in the house. 4. Facilitation outside the house. 5. Prohibition of reward and punishment. (See the annex Variables involved the behaviour of citizens in waste management for more info about these factors). The study is in Dutch and it isn’t finished yet, but we can see the scheme and the schedule. The duration is more than a year, with three phases, pilot tests and many people involved. In our study, much cheaper and short, we can only study existing data and try to relate to the citizen behaviour.
  8. 8. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 8 3.2. Existing data To carry out our work we have received certain data files on the city of Schiedam. There is also information on open data portal. The most important is that Irado has an estimation of the filling level of each residual waste container by the times that people open it. The volume is not a real data, but it’s a good estimation. The information of Irado or Mic-o-data company has not been analysed. The list of all the information is in Annex We tried to do approximate solutions. We discard the distance between a container and a flat, because we don’t have the real high of the buildings. Finally remark that, initially, the next ratios were discarded because they are very difficult in a short time to do the project: 1. Chute buildings per neighborhood. 2. Buildings with underground containers without organic 3. Buildings with underground containers with organic 4. Waste deposits / buildings number 2 5. Waste deposits / buildings number 3. 6. Compare 4 to 5, per neighborhood. 7. Compare 4 and 5 to social data. These rates could have been used to compare the behaviour and try to predict the actions in the chute system buildings. I think it will be possible in a more accurate project.
  9. 9. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 9 Existing data Not analysed and proposed analysis At the annex Existing data can be seen the first proposals for analysis and the ratios that were discarded. Fundamentally, the short time for the project and the lack of reliable information has made dismiss some of them. But there are some other problems that we can comment: 1. Privacy problems: the card users and the addresses are protected by the Data Protection Act, and it can’t be used to analyses directly. It needs a better study about the viability to be used. 2. The databases are stored in the Irado and City Council data centres. They aren’t linked. With a best union, it could be possible to do better analysis. Finally, the Irado and Mic-o-data company haven’t been analysed because we haven’t received. These were the two proposals to do a big data analysis of them: 1. Containers opening times: when people open the container to throw the garbage. It could be interesting to future door-to-door proposal. For that, it was required the daily of the containers, the file with the container code, date and open time. If it was very big, we could use a smaller, like daily in month, etc. Better by neighbourhood. 2. Other proposals: most popular container, less used container: with the daily, it could be possible to calculate. 3.4. Other analysis In this project, the analysis has been focused on data. We want to discuss how important it is to know the reality of each district, for example see what is the collaboration level between neighbours or how many maintainers are and what tasks do. In our visit to Schiedam, we saw a possible level of collaboration at high rise building that we want to emphasize. We proposed some solution to solve that (see SCW2 Comunity manager. Feedaback. Or SCW4 Cooperative values, volunteer network.) 3.5. Data analysed and results: Here are the data analysed and the results obtained. The tables can be found the following sections: Source: which files were used for analysis. Pre-processing: calculations and treatments performed files. Errors: any errors that may appear in both the source of the data and the pre-processing. Results: briefly commented the results. Result files: files obtained and annexed in this project.
  10. 10. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 10 3.6. Resulted Area analysed Name Area analysed Description The existing data about container used is only for undergrounds container system. We want to know where is this system and how many homes are using it in the city. Source  Woningkartotheek.csv (open data)  wijken-en-buurten (open data)  Inzamelmethode.dbf (existing data) Pre-processing  Woningkartotheek.csv has all of the Schiedam addresses including industrial, shopping and other functions not included in our goal. We must filter and comparing with the file WM3 Gallery flats and blocks 2015-1-1.xlsx  We tried with QGIS the task Data management tools / Join attributes by location, but we have problems with QGIS and we discard this option.  In Microsoft Access, we did a query between Inzamelmethode.dbf and Woningkartotheek.csv, by the PAND field. Error Source  Quality of the source data (not evaluated)  There is not an equivalence between The BAG addresses (Woningkartotheek.csv) and the real homes. For example, it could be a block of flats with one address (and a lot of flats).  We don’t know the date of inzamelmethode.dbf Pre- processing  There is a little error (1,52%) between WM3 Gallery flats and blocks 2015-1-1.xlsx and Woningkartotheek.csv. Results  We have data from the 62 % of the flats in Schiedam.  There are 43 neighbourhoods with underground containers.  In 16 neighbourhoods from 43, there are more than 95% of the flats with the undergrounds containers system. Results files  neighbourhoods and flats with methode.xlsx  neighbourhoods and flats with method (QGIS Shape) More info See the annex part Woningkartotheek.csv
  11. 11. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 11 Image: ratio flats with underground container system Deposits distribution by week and neighbourhood Name Deposits distribution by week and neighbourhood Description Distribution during the week of the container use. Source  Woningkartotheek.csv Pre-processing  Microsoft Access crosstab: WM5 waste deposits per neighbourhood jan14-jun15.csv and other queries, to obtain the averages, and calculations on excel. Error Source  Quality of the WM5 data. We delete the 5% of the data. See more info in this table.  Different dates in the data series. Pre- processing  We convert 177 addresses to 769 flats, because the surface of the was upper 200 m2. Results  As shown in the graph, the general behaviour is peaks on Saturday and Sunday and use is reduced during the week. Results files  A graph with the distribution More info See Annex part WM5 waste deposits per neighbourhood jan14-jun15.csv
  12. 12. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 12 Average deposits per flat-home in a week per neighbourhood Name Average deposits per flat-home in a week per neighbourhood Description Number of times per week that every flat uses the container, per neighbourhood. Source  Woningkartotheek.csv  WM5 waste deposits per neighbourhood jan14-jun15.csv Pre-processing  Microsoft Access crosstab: WM5 waste deposits per neighbourhood jan14-jun15.csv and other queries, to obtain the averages.  Link Woningkartotheek.csv processed grouped by neighbourhoods and WM5 summaries, in Access. Error Source  Woningkartotheek.csv quality (not evaluated)  Quality of the WM5 data. We delete the 5% of the data. See more info in this table.  Different dates in the data series. Pre- processing  We convert 177 addresses to 769 flats, because the surface of the was upper 200 m2. Results  The most common value is between 1.69 and 2.99 and it’s distributed by all the city. Results files  deposits per flat and neighbourhoods.xlsx  deposits per flat and neighbourhoods shape QGIS More info See Annex More about processing data 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Deposits distribution by week and neighbourhood Ambachtenbuurt Botenbuurt De Akkers en De Velden De Gaarden/Sveafors De Vlinderhoven/Sveaholm Distillateursbuurt Fabribuurt Groenoord-Midden Groenoord-Noord Groenoord-Zuid Haverschmidtkwartier Kastelenbuurt Liduinabuurt Nassaubuurt Natuurkundigenbuurt Newtonbuurt Nolensbuurt Oranjekwartier Rotterdamsedijk Schiehart Schildersbuurt Schrijversbuurt Singelkwartier Spieringshoek Staatsliedenbuurt Stationsbuurt Sveaborg en -Dal
  13. 13. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 13 Map: deposit per flat and neighbourhoods Histogram: most common value in deposits. Deposits and demographic data Name Deposits and demographic data Description Average deposits per flat-home in a week per neighbourhood comparing with some demographic data:  Number of inhabitants  % children (0-4 years).  % Dutch people  % single family  % owners Source  deposits per flat and neighbourhoods.xlsx
  14. 14. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 14  WM7 Demographic data per neighbourhood.xls Pre-processing  All of the operation discussed above to obtain the deposits per flat and neighbourhoods.xlsx  WM7 treatment, to obtain a measurable dimension. Error Source  deposits per flat and neighbourhoods.xlsx (discussed above)  we discard the "Kethel-dorp" neighbourhood because has anomaly value.  Quality of WM7 Demographic data per neighbourhood (not evaluated) Pre- processing  Not in this case. Results  In general, no conclusive results.  Number of inhabitants: there is a small trend between more frequency of use and more number of inhabitants.  % children: higher percentage of children, increased use of containers (diapers).  % Dutch people: in neighbourhoods with little presence of Dutch, the behaviour is very similar, between 1.5 and 2.5 times a week. But with a big presence, there isn’t patterns.  % single family: there is a trend to higher percentage of single families, greater use. It should logically be the other way around (smaller families, lower waste generation, less use).  % owners: Many dispersion of data, with a slight tendency for most homeowners%, less use. Results files  WM7 and WM5.xls More info We have tried other tests without extreme values with similar results. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 number of inhabitants in neighborhood and times a week
  15. 15. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 15 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 % 0-4 years old in neighborhood and times a week 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 % ducth people / total and times a week
  16. 16. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 16 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 % single family / total and times a week 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 100.00% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 % owners and times a week
  17. 17. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 17 4. Proposed solution description We have compiled a number of possible solutions all listed in annex Proposed solutions. These are collected summarized in the following table: Chapter Description Zero waste Brand, marketing, cooperative values, IT, apps, etc. Compost To compost the organic waste. Door-to-door Systems for collecting door-to-door. Mini containers Improve the mini containers system. Recycling Paper and cardboard and packaging (glass, plastics). Bags and tags Introducing RFID or barcode systems in the waste management. Smart chute system Improve the existing chute system with smart solutions Automated waste collection system Automated waste collection system Others Others proposals. Before choosing the solutions to implement, we did a SWOT matrix to evaluate the different options: Strengths:  Current technology and people using it.  Frequency of containers used (low)  High containers used in weekend. Weaknesses:  Population age. See Annex Age targets at the neighbourhoods  Anonymity on the waste management (except mini containers).  No feed-back. Opportunities:  Schiedam smart city.  There is no generalized system of organic collection. Threats:  Resistance to change And list the topics of every current system:  Undergrounds containers: o Good underground container network, integrated in the public space. o Registered users and data compilation. o Little flexibility to change. o Low frequency of use  Mini containers: o Reduces anonymity in use. o Nearby home.  Chute system: o Short distance between home and throw point.
  18. 18. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 18 After that, we decided to implement conservative solutions:  Door to door collection system customized to the different types of current system collection.  Promote composting.  Zero waste and others. Remember that these decisions have been taken without regard:  Inhabitant analysis and participation  Big data analysis for choose the door to door timetable. The better proposed would be a customized solution for every target. 5. Implementation of the solution 5.1. Schiedam zero waste We propose actions economically cheaper having higher image and value: SCW1 Schiedam zero waste SCW2 Community manager. Feedback. SCW3 Schiedam zero waste agency SCW4 Cooperative values, volunteer network. SCW5 Promote the sustainable packaging. SCW6 Zero waste app About: SCW6, it could be possible to adapt the existing app o create a new one. We have discarded the SCW7 Barcode scan to recycle because it’s a task for a high level of competence. 5.2. Schiedam compost The brand Schiedam Compost is an idea for decentralise the waste management, generate feed-back and create value waste. In this context, the citizen can be a part of the project (See SC5) and not only a user. Because that, with this sense of belonging, it’s possible to propose and foment collective purchases or crowdfunding, of any solution in the Compost Chapter (see SC1 to SC4). The purchase will be effective if it reaches a minimum number of users. But Schiedam is a small city. It’s possible not obtained required users to self-finance the Project. In this contexts, where the city council pay the composters, the feed-back in all of the process will be very important, both information and follow-up. In a smart city context will be essential the app development discussed in SCW6.
  19. 19. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 19 5.3. By current collection methods Here we present the implementation solution by current collection methods. All of the process will must be monitored and collect data (waste collection and citizen feedback). The normal implementation is by test or pilot projects. Underground container Door-to-door for organic waste, paper-cardboard and plastics/packaging (Solutions SD2D1 or SD2D2). If the solution is the SD2D1, the app design in SCW6 will have the features for assist to the citizen in the door to door. To estimate the frequency, we only use the most common value in deposits, about the use frequencies of the containers:  Two or three days for organics / diapers  One day for paper/cardboard.  One day for plastics/other package. Transform existing containers to:  Emergency containers.  Domestic waste containers.  Glass.  Containers variables: textile, batteries, medicines, etc., with RFID and tags. (SBT1 + SBT2) The emergency and domestic waste containers could transmit the information about their use and register, pay per use, rewards, etc. Glass: small entry, difficult to throw another residue. Feed-back: rewards for textile deliveries, etc. Chute system Customized door-to-door: door-to-door high rises with chute-system SSCS1 or SSCS2 Transform existing containers, like underground containers proposal solution, for example:  Emergency containers.  Domestic waste containers.  Glass.  Containers variables: textile, batteries, medicines, etc., with RFID and tags. (SBT1 + SBT2) In the chute system, the number of existing containers is smaller than in the underground. Mini containers
  20. 20. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 20 Our proposal is to introduce a container for organic in the missing premises and other solutions to improve. Premises and addresses without container for organic Premises: 152 Addresses: 70 Source: WM2 VERZAMELCONTAINERS-2015-01_DEF.xlsx The system of mini containers should be studied more precisely. The main idea is that there should be a container for each household, to avoid the anonymity problems. For that, it could be possible to reduce the container volume or change the location if there is not enough space. The second problem is that organic waste management in low density areas has the problem to optimise the recollection. The truck maybe will collect few quantities of this residual waste and it’s not possible to reduce the frequency because the smelly and health problems. Depending on the number of households that have opted for the compost and the collection of garden waste should be sized one type of collection or another, for example, use a truck to collect two types of waste. To optimise the rest of waste recollection in these areas, it’s possible to install a capacity sensor in every container (SAG2), but it could be studied better the rate saving in the recollection versus inversion. To prevent that non authorized users, a solution could be any type of door lock with a key or a RFID system (SAG1) In this system, it should do periodic inspections, with rewards and penalizations, to control that inhabitants are doing correctly the waste separation. Above ground containers It is the smallest percentage of the city and has not been studied in detail by the lack of time. The logical solution would be to implant the door to door, with glass containers and emergency (For emergency container see SAG1) 5.4. Others Finally, there are some interesting proposals to be researched: SR1 Recycling Collection points for paper and cardboard SR2 Recycling Deposit-refund system (DRS) Twice could be uses as a commentary system, but we think the deposit-refund system is the more sustainable way to recycling the packaging, and the process that will be used on the future. In our proposals, we have discarded the Automated waste collection system (SAWC1), because it’s very expensive in existing areas and the results there isn’t a high impact in the final results.
  21. 21. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 21 6. Conclusions We have tried to analyse citizen behaviour using the containers available and to provide solutions to the problem of excess waste. A more detail analysis will must be done, but we hope that this work has served to open a new stage in the city of Schiedam and closer to the goal of the Smart city.
  22. 22. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 22 7. Annex 7.1. Variables involved the behaviour of citizens in waste management Project name: Verbetering afvalscheiding en inzameling hoogbouw (Improving waste collection and high-rises) Authors: Jorn Horstman, Cees Midden, Odette van de Riet, Gijs Langeveld. Schedule: More than 1 year (to have annual results) Results publication: July 2017 The study design proposes this scheme to analyse the citizen behaviour: English Google translation: Waste in the high-rise: INTERVENTION STRATEGY
  23. 23. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 23 Instrument - agent “gedrag: kennis, facilitatie and motivatie” = behavior: knowledge, motivation and facilitation PERSONAL MOTIVATION 1. Commitment - Commitment (contract / participation) 2. Setting goals - How much waste do you go for? 3. Enlarge utility / trust chain - Let's see what constitutes waste 4. Cognitive dissonance reduction - foot-in-door 5. Norm Activation - let express personal standard 6. Feedback own behavior - Back Linking private offering amount by only 7. Reduce reactance - Recognition of trouble SOCIAL MOTIVATION 1. Social (description) standards - Let's see what the neighbors 2. Social comparison - Own behavior versus others 3. Social modeling - betting Famous residents 4. Reciprocity - A gift as offering a basis for waste separation FACILITATION AND STRUCTURE IN THE HOUSE 1. Home storage facilitating - GFT Containers to sink. 2. Prompts / cues at the right time - Reminder on cutting board 3. Implementation intentions / Specifically create roadmap: eg if I eat a boil, then? 4. Feedback (for they honor of structures) - Bin giving immediate feedback FACILITATION OUTSIDE THE HOUSE 1. Familiarity / experience - Striking container street 2. Distance to shorten collection - pickup door or chute / shaft 3. Nudge / prompt - When walking outside, give instructions
  24. 24. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 24 PROHIBITION OF REWARD AND PUNISHMENT 1. Conditioning (reward) - Waste pays / waste budget (loss aversion) 2. Penalties combination. maintain - Fines distribute to poor performers.c 3. Conversely collection - facilitating everything except residual Sources: http://www.vang-hha.nl/afvalscheiding/@153312/onderzoeksdesign/ http://www.iswa.org/ http://ec.europa.eu/environment/index_en.htm
  25. 25. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 25 7.2. Proposals to analyse discarded In a first idea, we wanted try to analyse some of the variables at the Cees Midden study (see part Variables involved the behaviour of citizens in waste management): distance to the container, flat surface (facilities), number of containers to recycling and social or demographic data. These were the rates proposals: 1. Waste deposits / inhabitants with card in a neighbourhood. Waste deposits file / number inhabitants with card (not numbers of cards) 2. Waste deposits / inhabitants with card per average surface in a neighbourhood. Number 1 and calculate for every address with an underground container assigned, the average surface. 3. Average distance travelled per inhabitant to the container in a neighbourhood: (Minimal distance between address and container + mean height) / inhabitants with card). Calculate for every address (with an underground container assigned) the minimal distance between the address and the container address. This distance will be added to the average height (number of floors). Finally, this distance will be split by the inhabitants with card. 4. Waste deposits per inhabitants (number 1) / path to a container (number 3) per neighbourhood. 5. Compare number 1 to demographic data. 6. Number of underground organic waste / inhabitants with card. 7. Compare number 6 to 1. For these proposals, we request some data: 1. Number of inhabitants with card in a neighbourhood: we have the inhabitants per neighbourhood, but in the same neighbourhood, there could be different ways to collect waste, for instance, mini and underground containers. Caution, we need the number of inhabitants that can use a card in a neighbourhood, not the number of cards!!!! 2. Containers and address: container assigned to an address. Data received: 1. There isn’t any data about users or inhabitants with card. So we decide to calculate ratios about flats (homes). 2. We received a GIS shape about the INZAMELMETHODE-PAND, about the method of waste collection by premises (building). One building may include several addresses, so we don’t have the real number of card users or homes. Conclusion: We tried to do approximate solutions. We discard the distance between a container and a flat, because we don’t have the real high of the buildings.
  26. 26. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 26 Finally remark that, initially, the next ratios were discarded because they are very difficult in a short time to do the project: 8. Chute buildings per neighborhood. 9. Buildings with underground containers without organic 10. Buildings with underground containers with organic 11. Waste deposits / buildings number 2 12. Waste deposits / buildings number 3. 13. Compare 4 to 5, per neighborhood. 14. Compare 4 and 5 to social data. These rates could have been used to compare the behaviour and try to predict the actions in the chute system buildings. I think it will be possible in a more accurate project.
  27. 27. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 27 7.4. Existing data Data received: File name Size Date Form at Description WM0 Area wastecollection 2015-01 12 MB 05/01/2015 pdf Containers situation map WM1 Amounts of waste by way of collection small 2014 xlsx Kg waste by way of collection. Years: 2012, 2013 and jan to nov 2014. WM2 VERZAMEL CONTAINERS-2015- 01 small Jan - 15 xlsx Containers location in Schiedam WM3 Gallery flats and blocks 2015-1-1 6 MB Jan -15 xlsx Flats and blocks addresses and other related data. WM5 waste deposits per neighbourhood jan14-jun15 small Jun-15 csv Number of deposits per day and neighbourhood from jan14 to jun15 WM6 filling level waste containers per neighbourhood jan14-jun15 small Jun-15 csv Level of the waste containers per day and neighbourhood from jan14 to jun15 WM7 Demographic data per neighbourhood small 2015 xls Age, ethnicity, family type, persons per address, moving, family type, owner, building year WM8 Data on education and social cohesion small 2015 xlsx Education and social cohesion per neighbourhood group INZAMELMETHODE-PAND 12 MB unknown GIS form at Method of waste collection by premises (building). One building may include several addresses. 1. WM0 Area wastecollection 2015-01(F01): It’s a not editable file, but you can see the current situation. The map's information is in Dutch, but seeing the file “WM2 Verzamel containers 2015-01(F03)” we can do the translation:
  28. 28. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 28 and also using the Google translation for the rest of the information: There are some abbreviations and that it’s important to know the translation: ● GFT: means “organic”. ● Rest equals Restvafal (means “Domestic Waste”). ● Geen: no 2. WM1 Amounts of waste by way of collection (F02): This data set has the amount of waste by the collection method and other data. As a summary, in domestic waste, we can see these methods: ● Delivery station: for a large variety of waste. ● Mini containers. ● Neighbourhood containers above ground. ● Neighbourhood containers underground.
  29. 29. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 29 ● Rubbish bags: this method finishes at March - 2014 About the domestic paper collection, there are two ways to collect that could be interesting to study later: ● associations: containers, mobile containers and packed loose. ● pilot project high-rise buildings: done in some months. and there is not separated the data of the neighbourhood containers above and underground. And also, there is collection method called door to door (ended in 2013) to collect textile. In general, this dataset could be use to know more about the differents methods of collection, and know more about other ways or pilot projects, but not to do a good data analysis of the citizen behaviour, because the data is not located on the source (the container address). We can’t linked these data with 3. WM2 Verzamel containers 2015-01(F03): In this file there is a list of containers and its location. There are 1061 records and an extra summary. For each container, there is the following information: ● Unique number: it’s null in some records. The most of the underground type have an unique id, but not all of them. ● Location id: it seems that is unique. ● Type: the most number are “above ground” and “separation and underground”. The others have few number: delivery sation (1), inzamelvrtg (3), retourette (1), . ● Model: not for all. ● Materials: the type of waste. ● Locations address: neighbourhood and other data. ● Location coordinates. ● Other data but not for all the containers. 4. WM3 Gallery flats and blocks 2015-1-1(F04): There are 36582 records with the addresses of flats and blocks. Includes: ● Function and purpose: residential, health care, etc: ● Type of owner: private, organization, etc. ● Type of building: single family, multi family, etc. ● Floor surface: area. ● Resident: Rented or Owned. ● Capacity: we don’t know, perhaps number of flats, but not for all. ● Number of floors: maximum 20. ● Other data: coordinates, codes, etc. 5. WM5 and WM6 waste per neighbourhood jan14-jun15:
  30. 30. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 30 ● WM5 waste deposits per neighbourhood jan14-jun15: This dataset has the number of deposits per neighbourhood and day. ● WM6 filling level waste containers per neighbourhood jan14-jun15: like the last file, but with the level of the containers (% of occupancy). 6. Social data: WM7 and WM8 have social data to do analysis of the behaviour and the target of the citizens. They could be used to explain the results of the waste data analysis. Open data At the Schiedam open data website, there are some links to build our GIS system. There are in the next figure: Name Date Format Description Afvalcontainers Schiedam 01/01/2015 csv https://schiedam.dataplatform.nl/r esource/6d5198ef-d138-4a28- b009-4b0e432dd96b Containers situation map wijken-en-buurten 28/01/2016 geoJS ON https://schiedam.dataplatform.nl/ dataset/wijken-en-buurten- schiedam Neighbourhoods and districts of Schiedam woningkartotheek 28/01/2016 csv https://schiedam.dataplatform.nl/ dataset/woningkartotheek- schiedam Cadastre data. Address with some info.
  31. 31. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 31 7.5. More about processing data Woningkartotheek.csv Some interesting fields: VLOEROPP Dutch: VLOEROPP = BAG gebruiksoppervlakte volgens NEN 2580. NB Voor de WOZ wordt de bruto vloeroppervlakte gebruikt; dit zal dus een andere waarde zijn. Google translator: VLOEROPP = BAG usable area according to DIN 2580. Note: For the property tax is used the gross floor area; this will therefore be a different value. VERDIEPING VERDIEPING = De gemeente probeert voor woningen vast te leggen op welke verdieping de woonkamer zich bevindt. NB Dit is gebaseerd op de belangrijkste verblijfsruimte, niet de ingang. Dit is geen voor de BAG voorgeschreven gegeven en wordt niet actief onderhouden Google translator: FLOOR = The municipality is trying to capture for homes on which floor the living room is located. NB This is based on the main common room, not the entrance. This is not given prescribed for the BAC and is not actively maintained FUNCTIES FUNCTIES = BAG Opsomming functies (verblijfsobject). Dit geeft aan wat het gebruiksdoel van het object is. Dit gegeven is niet beschikbaar voor stand- en ligplaatsen, en er zijn slechts een beperkt aantal waarden mogelijk. Google translator: FEATURES = BAG Summary functions (stay object). This indicates what is the purpose of the object. This information is not available for stand and moorings, and there are only a limited number of possible values. Comparing Woningkartotheek.csv to WM3 Gallery flats and blocks 2015-1-1.xlsx: In this table we can see the filter function that we used to obtain the residential homes. Functies (function) Number of homes bijeenkomstfunctie|woonfunctie 31 gezondheidszorgfunctie 69 gezondheidszorgfunctie|kantoorfunctie|woonfunctie 6 gezondheidszorgfunctie|woonfunctie 795 industriefunctie|woonfunctie 91 kantoorfunctie|woonfunctie 36 onderwijsfunctie|woonfunctie 1 overige gebruiksfunctie|woonfunctie 1 sportfunctie|woonfunctie 3 winkelfunctie|woonfunctie 119 Woonfunctie 35994
  32. 32. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 32 Total 37146 Total in WM3 Gallery flats and blocks 2015-1-1.xlsx : 36581 Error -565 Error % -1,52% There is a little error (1,52%) between WM3 Gallery flats and blocks 2015-1-1.xlsx and Woningkartotheek.csv. Surfaces We can see the histogram of the surfaces: We convert 177 addresses to 769 flats, because the surface of the was upper 200 m2. WM5 waste deposits per neighbourhood jan14-jun15.csv There are a number of data per neighbourhood, totalling 42. It is very difficult to analyse, but it is noted that there may be errors in the quality of these data. For example, analysing the first neighbourhood:
  33. 33. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 33 It seems like the system doesn’t start correctly and after goes normal. How it’s very hard to analyse one by one 41 serials, we calculate the distance of each value to the median and choose the interval with the 95% of the data. We can see in the next graph: All these operations can be seen in the file WM5 deposits.xlsx Another question is if all of the neighbourhood names are related with the GIS file: Searching all the names of WM5 waste deposits per neighbourhood jan14-jun15.csv in wijken- en-buurten-schiedam.json, we saw that there is no relationship between: WM5 Wijken Buurt 00 Nassaubuurt 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1/10/2014 2/10/2014 3/10/2014 4/10/2014 5/10/2014 6/10/2014 7/10/2014 8/10/2014 9/10/2014 10/10/2014 11/10/2014 12/10/2014 1/10/2015 2/10/2015 3/10/2015 4/10/2015 5/10/2015 6/10/2015 Deposits in Ambachtenbuurt 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 1/1/2014 2/1/2014 3/1/2014 4/1/2014 5/1/2014 6/1/2014 7/1/2014 8/1/2014 9/1/2014 10/1/2014 11/1/2014 12/1/2014 1/1/2015 2/1/2015 3/1/2015 4/1/2015 5/1/2015 6/1/2015 Data brute / processed Brute Processed
  34. 34. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 34 “Buurt 00” and “Nassauburt” don’t exist in wijken-en-buurten-schiedam.geojson. So we lost the information of these neighbourhoods.
  35. 35. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 35 7.6. Age targets at the neighbourhoods With the file WM7 Demographic data per neighbourhood.xls we can develop the following histogram of ages in the city, year 2015: We can quickly define targets age about his involvement with new technologies, the use of mobile, aversion to change and the facilities to perform the tasks of managing waste. Under our criteria define 2 types: 1. People between 15 and 30 years with full integration into new technologies, high environmental awareness and little resistance to change. 2. Person over 55 years: the opposite. To compare the neighbourhoods, we define the ratio "How Young is the neighbourhood" as the following formula:  Opinionated people: all inhabitants except those between 0 and 15 years.  % [15-30] = population between 15 and 30 years / population opinionated x 100  % [> 55] = inhabitants> 55 years / people with an opinion x 100  Rate How young is a neighbourhood = %[15-30] / %[>55] So if the ratio <1 55 more people between 15-30 years, and therefore is expected to be more conservative, and if the ratio> 1, the neighbourhood is more dynamic. We calculate the various ratios by districts and waste management system and its histogram: 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 0-4years 5-9years 10-14years 15-19years 20-24years 24-29years 30-34years 35-39years 40-44years 45-49years 50-54years 55-59years 60-64years 65-69years 70-74years 75-79years 80-84years 85-89years 90-94years 95-99years 100+ Ages
  36. 36. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 36 overground BUURTNAAM ratio young Botenbuurt 0,380701754 Vogelbuurt 0,313920455 In all cases, there are many conservatives regard the most dynamic neighbourhoods.
  37. 37. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 37 7.7. Basic ideas about waste management These are a basic argumentation about why and how people throw their garbage, by the author of this project. 1. In general, citizens make minimal effort to the garbage management, so, when people go to the container? a. When their bag is full. b. When smelly. 2. In what depends on the above? a. if they have more than one container at home (recycling or not). b. life style: how to cook, stay at home or not, etc. c. if recycle organic waste or not.
  38. 38. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 38 7.8. Unrealized Ideas This is a list of ideas that we haven’t analysed because their complexity or not viability, but we think it’s interesting to mark: Chapter Name Description Bags and tags Tagging the waste in the container Some system to tag the bag when the user opens the container. The citizen could print on the bag the residual type and their data. Bags and tags Improving data collection: bascule on truck crane Place a bascule on the tip of the crane truck. Connected to the RFID system would collect the container weight and improve data collection. Bags and tags Involve the manufacturer A reading system barcode in post collection treatments to detect every packaging, and pass the real cost to every manufacturer. To encourage the deposit-refund system. Zero waste Markets for secondary: app Wallapop The markets to buy and sell second hand products help to the volume of waste, because it increases the useful life of the products. Zero waste Time banks: Maintenance/repair services Maintenance and repair services for home appliances must be promoted, and in a smart city context, the time banks are the best solution Zero waste Involving children More than 10% of the inhabitants of Schiedam are children between 5 and 14 years. It is a target segment in the transition to a less waste production and a circular economy. Others Collecting diapers An specific method for collecting diapers.
  39. 39. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 39 8. Proposed solutions The possible solutions for improving waste management list is this: Viability Id Chapter Name finals results citizen behaviour technique economic competence risk SAG1 Others Schiedam above ground containers with access control 3 3 3 3 5 2 SAG2 Others Schiedam above ground containers with capacity sensors 1 1 3 2 5 2 SAWC1 Automated waste collection system Automated waste collection system 3 2 4 5 3 3 SBT1 Bags and tags Identification systems. 4 5 5 4 5 5 SBT2 Bags and tags Schiedam containers variables 5 5 5 4 5 5 SC1 Compost Collaborative composters 5 5 1 2 5 4 SC2 Compost Automatic collaborative composters 5 4 3 4 5 3 SC3 Compost Individual manual composters 5 4 3 2 5 3 SC4 Compost Individual automatic composters 5 3 3 2 5 3 SC5 Compost Schiedam Compost ™ 3 3 3 3 2 5 SCW1 Zero waste Schiedam zero waste 3 1 2 1 5 3 SCW2 Zero waste Community manager. Feedback. 3 1 3 1 5 3 SCW3 Zero waste Schiedam zero waste agency 2 2 1 2 5 3 SCW4 Zero waste Cooperative values, volunteer network. 3 3 3 1 5 3 SCW5 Zero waste Promote the sustainable packaging. 5 4 1 1 3 4 SCW6 Zero waste Zero waste app 3 1 3 3 1 3 SCW7 Zero waste Barcode scan to recycle 4 3 4 4 4 5 SD2D1 Door-to- door Schiedam door to door system 4 5 2 4 5 4 SD2D2 Door-to- door Schiedam smart door to door system 4 4 4 5 5 5 SR1 Recycling Collection points for paper and cardboard 3 3 5 4 2 4 SR2 Recycling Deposit-refund system (DRS) 5 4 4 4 1 4 SSCS1 Smart chute system Chute system improvement 3 3 3 4 3 4 SSCS2 Smart chute system Door-to-door with chute system 5 4 3 4 3 4 Meaning of each variable: 1. Final results: Direct impact that the proposal has on reducing waste. 2. Citizen behaviour: How much the citizen must change his habits because the proposal.
  40. 40. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 40 3. Viability: a. Technique: Are there similar products on the market? Number, state of art, etc. b. Economic: how much it cost the proposal? c. Competence: is this proposal a municipally competence 4. Risk: Evaluate the risk of failure of the proposals.
  41. 41. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 41 8.1. SCW1 Schiedam zero waste SCW1 Zero waste Schiedam zero waste Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 3 1 2 1 5 3 Description Design a brand that accompany the process of transformation of waste management. For example, Schiedam Zero Waste. From a smartcity context, the co-creation of the brand will make the citizens to participate in the election process. We can see what the level of enthusiasm of citizens before the waste management and the environment. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour Medium-low impact (social action). No direct relation on the final results. Helps to change the Citizens behaviour. No direct impact. Technique Platform for citizen participation and accountability (like google forms) or social networks (facebook ,twitter). Economic With this design, the most important cost is the people responsible for launching the campaign and track. Competence Consulting citizens. Risk Low participation, no interest. Benchmarking / sources About brand: Zero waste Europe: https://www.zerowasteeurope.eu Zero waste Australia: http://www.zerowaste.sa.gov.au/ More info One way campaingns promoted by the city are not very effective. The best is to find leaders who talk about you. And they will promote you better.
  42. 42. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 42 8.2. SCW2 Comunity manager. Feedaback. SCW2 Zero waste Comunity manager. Feedaback. Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 3 1 3 1 5 3 Description The transformation process of waste management should be monitored to receive feedback from citizens. Previously, a search should be conducted to see what is the state of awareness of citizens on social networks, organizations involved, social movements, opinion leaders, etc. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour Medium-low impact (social action). No direct relation on the final results. Helps to change the Citizens behaviour. No direct impact. Technique Some software to the comunity manager: Hootsuite (www.hootsuite.com), mention (www.mention.com), websays.com. Economic The cost of a half part manager and the software rent (SAAS). The comunity manager can work in other topics. Competence Local. Risk Community very small: few opinions, not getting the actual state. Not capture leaders of opinion. Benchmarking / sources Barcelona, Digital Marketing Manager: https://hootsuite.com/resources/case-study/how- barcelona-built-an-innovative-social-media-strategy (general comunity manager) More info A first study of the reality is required. Maybe there will be ecological groups to create synergies. The first information will help to design better all the next actions.
  43. 43. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 43 8.3. SCW3 Schiedam zero waste agency SCW3 Zero waste Schiedam zero waste agency Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 2 2 1 2 5 3 Description Create an agency called for instance "Schiedam zero waste agency" to promote, consult and design the zero waste transformation. Members: neighborhood leaders, local opinion leaders, local associations, city council, cooperative networks, etc. Mission: to promote and involve citizens about this topic. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour Medium-low impact (social action). No direct relation on the final results. Helps to change the Citizens behaviour. No direct impact. Technique Easy technique. Difficult to meet all the people in the same place, but it's possible to have hangouts or skype calls. Economic Cheap. Competence Local. Risk Meetings failure. Reputation crisis: bad opinions about the council and its policies Benchmarking / sources More info
  44. 44. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 44 8.4. SCW6 Zero waste app SCW6 Zero waste Zero waste app Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 3 1 3 3 1 3 Description Promote an existing app, adapt or design an new one for smartphones with basic functions: How I can do it? Where's the nearest container? Dates. Advertisements. Feedback. Etc. Citizens will can have the all the information in their pockets immediately. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour No direct relation on the final results. Helps to change the Citizens behaviour. No direct impact. Easy to use. Technique Design app: there are a lot of companies to develop an app. Economic Perhaps the cost is hight, it's better to buy the app with other city councils or pay by use (if it's possible) Competence Local. Risk No download or zombie apps. The app market is saturated. Too many apps offered by the city council. If the municipally offers a lot of apps for differents areas, it will be possible that the citizens don't donwload them. Benchmarking / sources The Netherlands: Recyclemanager. Installs: 10,000 - 50,000. Reviews rank: 2.5 Spain. Google Play: Palencia Recicla and ReciclaVidre. Australia: RecycleSmart. More info The importance that citizens have the information in their pockets.
  45. 45. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 45 8.5. SCW7 Barcode scan to recycle SCW7 Zero waste Barcode scan to recycle Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 4 3 4 4 4 5 Description Design an app to scan the barcode of the products and know where trash it or how recycle it. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour No direct relation on the final results. Helps to change the Citizens behaviour. No direct impact. Easy to use. Technique Data base difficult to create. Economic Many variables and uncertainty Competence Better for a hight level of compentece. Risk Hight: no dowloaded, create the database, etc. Benchmarking / sources There are apps for shopping with a barcode scan, but not for recycling. More info This idea will be not developed in this paper. It's not for a local context.
  46. 46. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 46 8.6. SCW4 Cooperative values, volunteer network. SCW4 Zero waste Cooperative values, volunteer network. Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 3 3 3 1 5 3 Description Discover and promote a volunteers network to assist all the tasks. This network could be neihborhood level, building level or for all the city. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour All aid contribute to a better outcome. No bad impact in the final user. Technique The solution may be creating a closed Facebook group, WhatsApp, a private blog, etc. The technique exists. Economic Depending on the budget, you can create more customized solutions or less Competence Local. Risk Not enought volunteers. Benchmarking / sources European Clean-Up Day: http://www.ewwr.eu/en/take_part/lets-clean-up-europe More info
  47. 47. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 47 8.7. SCW5 Promote the sustainable packaging. SCW5 Zero waste Promote the sustainable packaging. Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 5 4 1 1 3 4 Description The sustainable packaging could be used by citizens in their shoppings and reduce the volume of waste generated. This packaging can be used several times, for example paper bags, tuperwares or glass packaging, and it's easier to recycle. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour Waste that is not generated (mainly plastics). Citizen must carry their own packaging. Technique Easy. Economic Cheap solution. Competence Local competence, but local stores have to collaborate with the campaign. Risk Do not get a change in behavior and not to use them Benchmarking / sources http://www.cleanup.org.au/au/Whatelsewesupport/SayNOtoPlasticBag.html https://www.zerowasteeurope.eu/category/plastic-bag/ More info
  48. 48. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 48 8.8. SC1 Collaborative composters SC1 Compost Collaborative composters Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 5 5 1 2 5 4 Description Placing collaborative composters directed by one or more volunteers. Monitoring is required and helping volunteers. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour Hight. Organic waste not collected. Hight. Citizens must separate organic waste and walk to the composter. In addition, volunteers must take responsibility for operations. Technique It is technically very simple but must be located in areas of countryside Economic Cheap solution. Competence Local Risk Before buying the risk of not finding volunteers or people to help. Risk that the project be abandoned once underway: Collect the composter. Benchmarking / sources http://www.cogersa.es/metaspace/portal/14498/50220?vpg=2 More info
  49. 49. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 49 8.9. SC2 Automatic collaborative composters SC2 Compost Automatic collaborative composters Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 5 4 3 4 5 3 Description Installation of automatic collaborative composters. Automatic composters need maintenance and a responsible of the installation. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour Hight. Organic waste not collected. Hight. Citizens must separate organic waste and walk to the composter. In addition, volunteers must take responsibility for operations. Technique There are products on the market but are not designed to directly use the citizen. In addition, look for locations for these machines in enclosed areas, probably soundproof, etc. Economic Half cost. Competence Local. Risk Risk of not using the composter and with consequent costs. Benchmarking / sources Makers: http://www.ecomanenviro.com/ http://www.kollvik.com/es/ More info
  50. 50. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 50 8.10. SC3 Individual manual composters SC3 Compost Individual manual composters Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 5 4 3 2 5 3 Description The manual individual composters are cheap solutions to do the compost in every home with outside place. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour Hight. Organic waste not collected. Medium-Hight. Citizens must separate organic waste and walk to the composter, but the distance is shorter than a cooperative one. Technique It is technically very simple but must be located in garden areas. Economic Cheap solution, but expensive solution with large volumes Competence Local Risk Risk that the project be abandoned once running. Benchmarking / sources More info Image source: http://geociclos.cl/producto/compostador-huerto- jardin/
  51. 51. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 51 8.11. SC4 Individual automatic composters SC4 Compost Individual automatic composters Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 5 3 3 2 5 3 Description The individual automatic composters are solutions to do the compost in every home. They are more expensive than the manual ones, but it's easier to do the compost and doesn't needs an outside place. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour Hight. Organic waste not collected. Hight. Citizens must separate organic waste and walk to the composter. In addition, volunteers must take responsibility for operations. Technique We found very few manufacturers and none in Europe Economic Cheap solution, but expensive solution with large volumes. Competence Local. Risk Risk that the project be abandoned once running. Not get a vendor. Benchmarking / sources Makers: http://www.naturemill.net/product-p/533-blk-na1.htm More info
  52. 52. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 52 8.12. SC5 Schiedam Compost ™ SC5 Compost Schiedam Compost ™ Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 3 3 3 3 2 5 Description Creating a compost brand, for example Schiedam Compost. Sell composting generated by citizens under this brand, bulk or detail (sacks) as potting soil. Collection of compost generated and sold to third parties. Distribute dividends generated. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour This action does not directly impact, but it helps to encourage people to compost the organic waste. Pack the compost and collection Technique Coordinate the collection of material and selling to customer, if it requires a certain monthly volume. Economic Pending evaluate the project viability Competence It should be a corporation type irado, not the council directly. Risk Low involvement and economical viability. Not have enough users. Benchmarking / sources No benchmarking More info Increase the viability joining several cities, to generate a greater volume of product, but possibly worse brand image.
  53. 53. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 53 8.13. SBT1 Identification systems. SBT1 Bags and tags Identification systems. Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 4 5 5 4 5 5 Description Put a tag on each bag identifying the owner and the type of waste. This measure will provide traceability to the bag and lose anonymity. Must be at the entrance of the container or chute system a reader to open the door when you identify the tag. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour The anonymity of the bag is lost. Along with rewards and penalties can get great results is lost Big change to the user. They must manage tags and separate waste at home. Especially complicated with cardboard and glass. Technique There are examples in cities by RFID operating system, but there are no examples of door opening tag. Economic Implement the entire system would be expensive. Tag readers in each container, tag distribution and management, etc. Should study in detail the savings generated with the necessary investment. Competence Local Risk Not find the manufacturer who provides the solution for opening doors. Not find the necessary funding for product development. Citizens oppose the system. Benchmarking / sources Italy: http://www.dbminternational.it/en/waste-recycling-products/erredi-traceability-syste-of- waste-streams-barcode-rfid-based/ Metrosense system: http://www.metrosense.com/rfid-based-waste-sorting/index.php/how-the- system-works Study of RFID: www.academia.edu More info The identification systems in waste management use readers and tags. The tags are placed on bags or containers and the readers are the devices to read the tag information. The system could be RFID (radio frequency identification) or barcode. With this system, you could throw the garbage bags in one container and then separate them into further treatment. The maker Metrosense proposes this method.
  54. 54. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 54 8.14. SBT2 Schiedam containers variables SBT2 Bags and tags Schiedam containers variables Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 5 5 5 4 5 5 Description This is similar to propose SBT1 but with containers that changes the type of residual. The RFID system identifies the label, and depending on the scheduled residue is opened or tells you not applicable. It can be used for collection campaigns (eg textiles) or to reinforce the door to door on certain days, eg weekend. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour The anonymity of the bag is lost. Along with rewards and penalties can get great results is lost. Big change to the user. They must manage tags and separate waste at home. Especially complicated with cardboard and glass. Technique Like SBT1, there are examples in cities by RFID operating system, but there are no examples of door opening tag and containers variables Economic Implement the entire system would be expensive. Tag readers in each container, tag distribution and managment, etc. Should study in detail the savings generated with the necessary investment. Competence Local Risk Not find the manufacturer who provides the solution for opening doors. Not find the necessary funding for product development. Citizens oppose the system. Benchmarking / sources See SBT1 More info
  55. 55. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 55 8.15. SR1 Collection points for paper and cardboard SR1 Recyling Collection points for paper and cardboard Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 3 3 5 4 2 4 Description Promote the waste paper press machine or design one for citizens and street. Cardboard recycling has two problems: you have to fold to put it in the container and takes up much inside the container (with little weight). Because that, there are waste paper press machine, but not dessign for the citizens. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour Perhaps increase the paper collect because people don't have to fold the cardboard. Helps citizen to recycle cardboard. Technique Waste paper press machine needs electricity. System to operate with only autorized users (by card, phone, etc) is not Economic The machines are expensive (from 2000 €) and without evaluating the changes we propose.. Competence Local Risk Not find a viable solution to our requirements. Neighbors do not want to use the machines. Not find the right place to install it. Benchmarking / sources There isn't benchmarking. There are a lot of makers. More info
  56. 56. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 56 8.16. SR2 Deposit-refund system (DRS) SR2 Recyling Deposit-refund system (DRS) Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 5 4 4 4 1 4 Description Develop the deposit-refund system in all the city. There are some examples now. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour Hight. The packing recovered is 100% recycled. The citizen must keep the packaging at home, and return them the next time in the supermarket or other point. He gets a reward for his effort. Technique There are machines on the market, but there are no accessible ads manufacturers. Economic There is not much information on the price of packaging machines return or how they are financiaded. We assume that the cost will be high. Competence La compentencia para imponer la obligatoriedad del DRS no es local. A nivel local se puede promover el uso, pero será voluntario. Risk Not get the necessary financial and support from the central authority or manufacturers. Benchmarking / sources Denmark: https://www.dansk-retursystem.dk/en/ Spain: http://www.retorna.org/es/ More info
  57. 57. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 57 Return machine on Street. Pamplona (Spain). Source: http://www.heraldo.es/
  58. 58. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 58 8.17. SD2D1 Schiedam door to door system SD2D1 Door-to-door Schiedam door to door system Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 4 5 2 4 5 4 Description Implementation of a system for collecting door-to-door. It consists of a daily separate collection at different collection points for each household. Citizens separate waste at home and each day a fraction of the waste (or more) is collected. Complementary, there could be emergency containers. It should be given flexible hours for better acceptance by neighbors. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour Other cities have been successful with this system. The increase of the recycling ratios. The impact on the citizen behaviour is very big. They must separate the residues in 5 parts at home, and wait at the recollected day. Technique The door-to-door system has the complication of locating collection points in areas with little space and high density. After, designing routes and collection days. Implementation is also complicated, having a strong behaviour change. Economic Build the collections points, buy and distribute new bins, bags, etc. Competence Local Risk The main risk is the non-acceptance by the citizens. This risk could happen in the design time or at the beginning of the collect. Benchmarking / sources Spain: Guipuzcoa: http://www.gipuzkoazz.com/zerozabor/atez-ateko-bilketa/que-es-la-recogida-puerta- a-puerta Canet de Mar (Barcelona). 14000 inhabitants (+16000 in summer): http://es.scribd.com/doc/102384600/Canet-de-Mar-porta-a-porta Catalonia. http://www.portaaporta.cat/documents/arxiu_portaaporta_173.pdf Others: Italy, Milano 1.2 million inhabitants: http://www.regions4recycling.eu/upload/public/Good- Practices/GP_Amsa_Food-Waste-Collection.pdf More info Main features: Source: http://www.gipuzkoazz.com/zerozabor/atez-ateko-bilketa/que-es-la-recogida-puerta-a- puerta/ (Spanish)  Every bag and bin have a code, one by citizen.
  59. 59. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 59  Organic: The diapers and sanitary napkins are collected with the organics, but in other chamber.  Packaging:
  60. 60. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 60  Paper:  Residual waste:  Glass: in this case, it doesn’t exist a door to door system to collect. The container entry is small and it’s difficult to throw other garbage.
  61. 61. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 61 8.18. SD2D2 Schiedam smart door to door system SD2D2 Door-to-door Schiedam smart door to door system Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 4 4 4 5 5 5 Description This system is similar to the SD2D1 but with some technical improvements. These are an RFID system on the bins and bags, and a smartphone application to receive information. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour Other cities have been successful with this system. The increase of the recycling ratios. Very big, but less than SD2D1, Technique Technical proposals should be studied in detail, but they seem viable Economic Price of a tag: 15-50 €, devices: 150 €. But, with a purchase of many units, the price may decrease. However, it would be a hight investment. Competence Local. Risk Hight risk because is a design on demand. Benchmarking / sources There is not benchmarking. Tags example: http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/bluetooth-tracking-devices/ More info  RFID System on bags and bin to door-to-door: Like other Bluetooth tracking devices, we propose one for the door to door waste system. The scheme is one device at the collection point, a cloud server and Bluetooth tags for every bin or bag. When the bin is located at the collection point, the device traces the tag and send a message to the cloud server with the text ok. If the bin is not at the collection point at the schedule time, the cloud server sends a remember to the phone: “Remember throw the garbage”. Finally, when the time to have the container on the street expires, the device tries to connect with the different tags, and if any are still there, the server sends a message to the user with the message “remember to pick up your bag”.
  62. 62. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 62 This technology is now available to make this system, but it needs a detailed analysis and design. It could be problems on the battery duration, communication between the devices and the cloud server or with the data generated (every user will have 5 tags)  Door to door app: o Time remaining until the truck arrives: like other public transport apps. o Reminders about the type of collect, the timetable, etc. o Incidences
  63. 63. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 63 8.19. SSCS1 Chute system improvement SSCS1 Smart chute system Chute system improvement Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 3 3 3 4 3 4 Description Improve the smart chute system with with existing technology. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour The results increase since given the possibility to each neighbor separately throwing waste, but not all the fractions. It will remain anonymous and voluntary. All garbage including newspapers must first be properly bound, packaged or bagged to reduce or eliminate mess and odours. Must separate waste at home, but the storage time may be small. Technique All of the technology explained in this option is available and built in buildings, but some makers are out Europe and we don't know if they can work on the Netherlands Economic No public information about prices. Competence The chute system is inside the buildings. We don't know if it is public area. Risk Economic: high prices and failure to finance it. Use: the system helps to do the separation at home, but needs a correct use by the neighbors. Benchmarking / sources Makers: http://www.unitech-ikk.com/catalogues/garbage.pdf Canada: http://www.wilkinsonchutes.ca/ USA: http://willcosales.com/ http://www.whrise.com/ Australia: http://www.elephantsfoot.com.au/ (actually not working in Europe) More info There are some chute makers with similar recycling system division. The chute system doors are locked, and the resident must press one button (for example, organic, recyclable or non- recyclable), the door will open (if there are not others open doors) and the person can throw the garbage. At the ground floor there is a system that put the bag in the correct container. We have
  64. 64. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 64 found three different types as maximum (three kind of garbage). It’s possible to combine a compactor with the container, to lengthen the time. Chute system scheme. Source: http://www.ellipsecondo.ca/condo-rules/garbage-disposal.html Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYk97vWyHqc
  65. 65. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 65 Source: www.elephantsfoot.com.au
  66. 66. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 66 Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zRpyth702Rk Source: http://www.wilkinsonchutes.ca/
  67. 67. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 67 About cleaning and odour, you also have invented solutions, for example http://www.garbagedoctor.com.au/garbage-odours/ .
  68. 68. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 68 8.20. SSCS2 Door-to-door with chute system SSCS2 Smart chute system Door-to-door with chute system Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 5 4 3 4 3 4 Description Implementation of a door-to-door system in high rise buildings with existing chute system. The collect point is the door of every flat (hall), and the maintenance manager, external worker or volunteer collects garbage and throws by the chute. He will be the only authorized to open the chute system. Every collecting will be for a type of residual. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour The results increase since given the possibility to each neighbor separately throwing waste, but not all the fractions. It will remain anonymous and voluntary. All garbage including newspapers must first be properly bound, packaged or bagged to reduce or eliminate mess and odours. Must separate waste at home, but the storage time may be small. Technique All of the technology explained in this option is available and built in buildings, but some makers are out Europe and we don't know if they can work on the Netherlands Economic No public information about prices, the basic version is cheaper than SSCS1, because it hasn't to modify every chute access, only a few change at the lock. Competence The chute system is inside the buildings. We don't know if it is public area. Risk Economic: high prices and failure to finance it. Collection process expensive. Benchmarking / sources Not found. More info It can be combined with a system to separate at the ground floor by residual type (see SSCS1). So, it could be used for more than one residual in each recollection (but separated).
  69. 69. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 69 8.21. SAWC1 Automated waste collection system SAWC1 Automated waste collection system Automated waste collection system Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 3 2 4 5 3 3 Description Different kinds of automated waste collection system: pneumatic, others. Impact on Final results Citizen behabiour The system itself does not help to increase recycling rates It is very comfortable for the user, but must make at home separation of waste Technique There are companies specialized in this technique and there are facilities operating. The problem is the construction in existing buildings and streets. Economic They are very high investment, but long term, can be profitable. Competence The construction is done in public and private area (buildings, flats) Risk Not find the financial resources needed for investment Benchmarking / sources http://www.metrotaifun.com/automatic_solid_waste_collection_system**** http://www.rosroca.com/en/products/waste-collection/automated-waste-collection-system/ http://www.envacgroup.com/ http://www.stream-environment.com/how-does-stream-work More info There are two systems: separation in the entry or with a single entry and the final separation plant.
  70. 70. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 70 8.22. SAG1 Schiedam above ground containers with access control SAG1 Others Schiedam above ground containers with access control Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 3 3 3 3 5 2 Description Above groun containers with access control similar to the existing under ground containers in Schiedam. This proposal is for the mini containers and the big ones. To reduce the anonymity, improve the data collection and the security. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour The impact on the final results is high in the mini containers with an alone user, combination with inspections. In the communities is low. Open the container with a personal card. Technique There are proposals on the market and manufacturers. Economic More expensive than traditional container solutions. It is expensive or nonviable transform a traditional one container to access control. Competence Local. Risk Low risk because the rest of the city has a similar system. Benchmarking / sources Makers: http://www.jcoplastic.com/index.pl?pos=01.04.01.02&lang=en&menu=04 http://www.dorlet.com/en/portal_dorlet_noticia.asp?idNoticia=6 http://wss.eu/products/barrow-access/ https://www.plasticomnium.com/env/uk/en/connected-solutions.html More info
  71. 71. Smart waste management in Schiedam. David Rodriguez Relucio 71 8.23. SAG2 Schiedam above ground containers with capacity sensors SAG2 Others Schiedam above ground containers with capacity sensors Impact on Viability Risk Final results Citizen behaviour Technique Economic Competence 1 1 3 2 5 2 Description Above ground containers with capacity sensors. This proposal is for the mini containers and the big ones. To optimize the collection. Impact on Final results Citizen behaviour There is no impact in final results. No impact. Technique There are proposals on the market and manufacturers. Economic More expensive than traditional container solutions. It's possible to adapt tracicional containers. Must analyse the savings in the recollection versus inversion. Competence Local. Risk Low risk because the rest of the city has a similar system. In paper and cardboard containers, sensors have problems. Benchmarking / sources Makers: http://www.urbiotica.com/en/product/u-dump-m2m-2/ http://www.iotjournal.com/articles/view?12253 https://mobacommunity.com/blogs/entry/Bin-Level-Sensor-How-does-it-work-and-what-are-the- benefits More info

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