Mtui 223to climate change effects (IPCC, 2007). Another policy diversity, taxonomic relationships between plant speciesresponse to climate change is known as climate change and biological processes such as mating systems, pollenmitigation. It refers to human intervention to reduce the or disease dispersal (Johanson and Ives, 2001).sources or decrease intensity of negative climate change Biotechnology enables development of diseaseeffects. Most often, climate change mitigation scenarios diagnostic kits for use in laboratory and field. These kitsinvolve reductions in the concentrations of greenhouse are able to detect plant diseases early, by testing for thegases, either by reducing their sources or by increasing presence of pathogen‟s deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ortheir „sinks‟. Examples of mitigation measures include proteins which are produced by pathogens or plantsusing fossil fuels more efficiently for industrial processes during infection (Kumar and Naidu, 2006). Conventionalor electricity generation, switching from biomass to agricultural biotechnologies works better when combinedrenewable energy, improving the insulation of buildings, with modern biotechnological approaches.and expanding forest and other „sinks‟ to remove more Modern agricultural biotechnology refers tocarbon dioxide from the atmosphere (IPCC, 2007; biotechnological techniques for the manipulation ofSallema and Mtui, 2008). The decline of crops yield, heat genetic material and the fusion of cells beyond normalstress and ocean acidification are among some of the breeding barriers. The most obvious example is geneticnegative effects of climate change. In order to feed the engineering to create genetically modified organismsever increasing world population, there is a need to (GMOs) through „transgenic‟ technology involving thedouble the rate of agricultural production. Biotechnology insertion or deletion of genes. In genetic engineering orcan contribute positively by mitigating the impact of genetic transformation, the genetic material is modifiedclimate change through green house gas reduction, crops by artificial means. It involves isolation and cutting of aadaptation and increase in yield using less land gene at a precise location by using specific enzymes.(Treasury, 2009). This paper seeks to address the Selected DNA fragments can then be transferred into thecontribution of biotechnology to adaptation and mitigation cells of the target organism. The common practice inof negative climatic effects. genetic engineering is the use of a bacterium Agrobacterium tumafaciens as a vector to transfer the genetic trait (Johanson and Ives, 2001). A more recentAGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY technology is ballistic impregnation method whereby a DNA is attached to a minute gold or tungsten particle andAgricultural biotechnology involves the practical then „fired‟ into the plant tissue (Morris, 2011). Crops mayapplication of biological organisms, or their sub-cellular be modified for improved flavour, increased resistance tocomponents in agriculture. The techniques currently in pests and diseases, or enhanced growth in adverseuse include tissue culture, conventional breeding, weather conditions. In recent years, biosafety and geneticmolecular marker-assisted breeding and genetic engineering projects have been initiated in Africa, withengineering. Tissue culture is the cultivation of plant cells the aim of introducing genetically modified organisms intoor tissues on specifically formulated nutrient media. Africa‟s agricultural systems. Already, countries likeUnder optimal conditions, a whole plant can be South Africa, Egypt and Burkina Faso haveregenerated from a single cell; a rapid and essential tool commercialized GMOs while many others havefor mass propagation and production of disease-free developed the capacity to conduct research andplants (Kumar and Naidu, 2006). Advances in breeding development in modern agricultural biotechnologyhelp agriculture achieve higher yields and meet the (Mayet, 2007). „Green biotechnology‟ is the term referringneeds of expanding population with limited land and to the use of environmentally friendly solutions inwater resources. As a result of improved plant breeding agriculture, horticulture, and animal breeding processestechniques, the productivity gains in worldwide production (Treasury, 2009).of primary crops, including maize, wheat, rice and oilseed Recombinant DNA technology has significantlyhas increased by 21% percent since 1995, while total augmented the conventional crop improvement, and hasland devoted to these crops has increased by only 2% the potential to assist plant breeders to meet the(Treasury, 2009). In molecular assisted breeding, increased food demand predicted for the 21st century.molecular markers (identifiable DNA sequences found at Dramatic progress has been made over the past twospecific location of the genome) are being used. By decades in manipulating genes from diverse and exoticdetermining location and likely actions of genes, sources, and inserting them into microorganisms andscientists can quickly and accurately identify plants crops to confer resistance to pests and diseases,carrying desirable characteristics, hence conventional tolerance to herbicides, drought, soil salinity andbreeding can be conducted with greater precision aluminium toxicity, improve post-harvest quality, enhance(Mneney et al., 2001; Sharma et al., 2002). Molecular nutrient uptake and nutritional quality; increasemarkers can be used in plant breeding to increase the photosynthetic rate, sugar and starch production,speed and efficiency of the introduction of new genes increase effectiveness of bio control agents, improve(marker assisted introgression), understanding of genetic understanding of gene action and metabolic pathways,
224 Int. J. Biotechnol. Mol. Biol. Res.and production of drugs and vaccines in crops (Sharma biotechnology amounted to savings of about 962 millionet al., 2002 ; Vallad and Goodman, 2004). kg of CO2 emitted in 2005, while the adoption of reduced tillage or no tillage practices led to a reduction of 40.43 kg/ha or 89.44 kg/ha CO2 emissions due to less fuelBIOTECHNOLOGY FOR CLIMATE CHANGE usage respectively (Brookes and Barfoot, 2006, 2008).MITIGATIONGreenhouse gas reduction Carbon sequestrationAgricultural practices such as deforestation, inorganic The capture or uptake of carbon containing substances,fertilizer use and overgrazing currently account for about in particular carbon dioxide (CO2), is often called carbon25% of green house gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) emission sequestration. It is commonly used to describe any(Treasury, 2009). Various initiatives under the banner of increase in soil organic carbon content caused by changegreen biotechnology, may offer solution to decrease of land management, with implication that the increasedgreen house gases and mitigate climate change by giving soil carbon storage mitigates climate change (Powlson etfarmers opportunities to use less and environmentally al., 2011). Therefore, soil carbon sequestration is anfriendly energy, carbon sequestration and reduce fertilizer important strategy to mitigate the increase of atmosphericusage (Treasury, 2009). CO2 concentration. Reducing the amount of conventional tillage is one way of enhancing carbon sequestration. By leaving at least 30% of residue on the soil surface, no-tillUse of environmentally friendly fuels agriculture reduces loss of CO2 from agricultural systems and may also play a role in reducing water loss throughGiven the impacts of climate change on agricultural evaporation, increase soil stability and creation of coolerproductivity and the role played by agriculture practices in soil microclimate. Conservation practices that helpglobal warming, agricultural techniques must play a prevent soil erosion, may also sequester soil carbon andcrucial role in the fight against climate change. enhance methane (CH4) consumption (West and Post,Production of biofuels, both from traditional and GMO 2002; Johnsona et al., 2007). Powlson et al. (2011) havecrops such as sugarcane, oilseed, rapeseed, and suggested that the climate change benefit of increasedjatropha will help to reduce the adverse effects of CO2 soil organic carbon from enhanced crop growth (foremission by the transport sector (Sarin et al., 2007; example using industrial fertilizers) must be balancedTreasury, 2009). Energy efficient farming will therefore against greenhouse gas emissions emanating from theadopt machines that use bioethanol and biodiesel instead manufacture and use of such fertilizers.of the conventional fossil fuels. Green energy programs In modern agricultural practices, genetically modified TMthrough plantations of perennial non edible oil-seed Round up Ready (herbicide resistant) soybeanproducing plants will help in cleansing the atmosphere technology has accounted for up to 95% of no-till area inand production of biodiesel for direct use in the energy the United States of America (USA) and Argentina, andsector, or in blending biofuels with fossil fuels in certain led to sequestration of 63,859 million tones of CO 2proportions thereby minimizing use of fossil fuels to some (Fawcett and Towery, 2003; Brimner et al., 2004; Kleterextent (Lua et al., 2009; Jain and Sharma, 2010; Lybbert et al., 2008). The modified crops reduce the need forand Summer, 2010). tillage or ploughing to allow farmers to adopt „no till‟ farming practices. In terms of climate change mitigation, this practice enhances soil quality and retails moreLess fuel consumptions carbon in the soil (Brookes and Barfoot, 2008).Organic farming uses less fuel by the application ofcompost and mulching techniques which reduce weeds Reduced artificial fertilizer useand herbicides spraying due to less ploughing (Maeder etal., 2002). Reduced irrigation would also contribute to The dependency on agricultural chemicals to sustainreduced fuel usage, thereby reducing the amount of CO2 productivity in marginal landscapes has led to a global-release into the atmosphere. Using modern scale contamination of the environment with toxins thatbiotechnology such as GMOs and other related change the course of biogeochemical cyclestechnologies facilitate less fuel usage by decreasing (Ogunseitan, 2003). Reduced fertilizer use also meansnecessity and frequency of spraying and reducing tillage less nitrogen pollution of ground and surface waters.or excluding the tillage practice. For example, insect- Artificial inorganic nitrogenous fertilizers such asresistant GM crops reduce fuel usage and CO 2 ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride, ammoniumproduction by reducing insecticides application. phosphates, sodium nitrate and calcium nitrate are Reduction of fuel usage due to the application of responsible for the formation and release of greenhouse
Mtui 225gases (particularly N2O) from the soil to the atmosphere second option is more feasible. Utilizing organic residueswhen they interact with common soil bacteria (Brookes as a source of nutrients for plants, good agronomicaland Barfoot, 2009). To reduce the negative effects of practices such as landscape management, crop rotationartificial fertilizers, the use of environmentally friendly or mixed farming, and use of traditional and indigenousbiotechnology-based fertilizes are being encouraged. knowledge on „non-chemical‟ pests and diseases control are some of conventional options (Bianchi et al., 2006). Biotechnology and application of advanced techniques inBiofertilizers breeding can help agriculture further to achieve higher yields and meet needs of expanding population withOrganic farming technologies utilizing bio-based limited land and water resources (Treasury, 2009).fertilizers (composted humus and animal manure), orcrop rotation and intercropping with leguminous plantswith nitrogen-fixing abilities are some of the conventional Adaptation to biotic stressesbiotechnological options for reducing artificial fertilizeruse. In modern biotechnology, the use of mutation or The major aim of agricultural biotechnology is to enhancegenetic engineering techniques to improve Rhizobium productivity and maximize productive capacity ofinoculants have resulted to strains with improved diminishing resources. Conventional landscapenitrogen-fixing characteristics (Zahran, 2001). management practices and breeding initiatives haveBiotechnological advances involving the induction of contributed significantly to crop adaptations through thenodular structures on the roots of cereal crops such as development of strains that are resistant to biotic stressesrice and wheat offer a bright prospect of non-leguminous such as insects, fungi, bacteria and viruses (Valllad andplants being enabled to fix nitrogen in the soil (Kennedy Goodman, 2004; Bianchi et al., 2006). In modernand Tchan, 1992; Paau, 2002; Saikia and Jain, 2007; biotechnology, the ability of a soil bacterium (BaccilusYan et al., 2008). Another option is the cultivation of GM thuringiensis, Bt) gene to be transformed into maize,crops that use nitrogen more efficiently. An example of cotton and other crops to impart internal protectionsuch crops is the nitrogen-efficient GM canola which not against insects (mainly of the order lepidoptera andonly reduces the amount of nitrogen fertilizer that is lost diptera) significantly contributes to agricultural pestinto the atmosphere or leached into soil and waterways, control strategies. For many farmers, Bt crops arebut it also impacts positively on the economies of farmers proving to be valuable tools for integrated pestthrough improved profitability (Treasury, 2009). Managing management programs by giving farmers new pestsoil nitrogen to match crop needs can reduce N2O control choices (Zhe and Mithcell, 2011). Transgenicemission and avoid adverse impacts on water quality. canola (oil seed rape) and soybean have been modifiedAlso, manipulating animal diet and manure management to be resistant to specific herbicides (May et al., 2005;can reduce CH4 and N2O emission from animal Bonny, 2008). Also, GM cassava, potatoes, bananas andhusbandry (Johnsona et al., 2007). other crops that are resistant to fungi, bacteria and viruses are in development; some have already been commercialised while others are undergoing field trialsBIOTECHNOLOGY FOR CROP ADAPTATION (Mneney, 2001; Van Camp, 2005). Studies carried out between 2002 and 2005 found out that biotic stress-Climate change leads in reduced crop yield due to resistant GM crops account for increases in average yieldinadequate rainfall, emergence of potential weeds, pests of 11 to 12% for canola and maize compared toand diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses conventional crops (Qaim and Zilberman, 2003; Gomez-(Johnsona et al., 2007; Lin et al., 2008). One way of Barbero et al., 2008; Brookes and Barfoot, 2008, 2009).adapting to such calamities is to apply agriculturalbiotechnologies that counter the effects of such changesby improving crop productivities per unit area of land Adaptation to abiotic stressescultivated. Climate change poses an enormous challenge in terms of available agricultural land and fresh water use. AbioticBiotechnology for increased yield per unit area of stresses including salinity, drought, extremeland temperatures, chemical toxicity and oxidative stress have negative impacts on agriculture and natural status of theTo satisfy the growing worldwide demand for food crops, environment. The agricultural sector uses about 70% oftwo options are available: Either to increase the area the available fresh water and this is likely to increase asunder production, or improve productivity on existing temperature rises (Brookes and Barfoot, 2008).farmland (Edgerton, 2009). Given the world‟s available Moreover, about 25 million acres of land is lost each yeararable land, and the climate change dynamics, the due to salinity caused by unsustainable irrigation
226 Int. J. Biotechnol. Mol. Biol. Res.techniques (Ruane et al., 2008). It is anticipated that should include conventional breeding and germplasmincreased salinity of arable land will lead to 30% land loss selection, elucidation of specific molecular controlwithin 25 years and up to 50% by the year 2050 (Wang et mechanisms in tolerant and sensitive genotypes,al., 2003; Valliyodan et al., 2006). Therefore, solutions to biotechnology-oriented improvement of selection andfacilitate crop adaptation to abiotic stressful conditions breeding procedures (functional analysis, marker probes(drought and salinity) need to be developed. Plant and transformation with specific genes) and improvementbiotechnology programs should give priority to the and adaptation of current agricultural practices (Wang etbreeding for drought and salinity tolerance in crops and al., 2003). With the availability of whole genomeforests. Conventional approaches to mitigate the effects sequences of plants, physical maps, genetics andof drought and salinity stresses involve selection and functional genomics tools, integrated approaches usinggrowing drought resistant crops that can tolerate harsh molecular breeding and genetic engineering offer newconditions on marginal lands. Such crops include opportunities for improving stress resistance (Manavalancassava, millet and sunflower (Manavalan et al., 2009). et al., 2009).While mulching to prevent surface water loss has been acommon practice for organic farmers; tissue culture andbreeding are being used to cross drought tolerant crops Agroecology and agroforestrywith other high yielding species to create a droughttolerant, high yielding hybrids (Apse and Blumwald, 2002; Consequences of global climate change responsible forRuane et al., 2008). However, although adaptation to altering patterns of temperature and precipitation arestress under natural conditions has some ecological threatening agriculture in many tropical regions.advantages, the metabolic and energy costs may Agroecological and agroforest management systems,overshadow its benefit to agriculture. Therefore, blending such as shade management in crop systems, maytraditional and molecular breeding techniques would be mitigate the effects of extreme temperature andmost desirable (Wang et al, 2001; Apse and Blumwald, precipitation, thereby reducing the ecological and2002). economic vulnerability of many rural farmers, and Molecular control mechanisms for abiotic stress improving the agroecological resistance to extremetolerance are based on activation and regulation of climate events (Lin et al., 2008). Fungal applications inspecific stress-related genes. Transgenic plants are biotechnology, termed mycobiotechnology, are part of aengineered based on different stress mechanisms: larger trend toward using living systems to solvemetabolism, regulatory controls, ion transport, environmental problems and restore degradedantioxidants and detoxification, late embryogenesis ecosystems. The sciences of mycoforestry andabundance, heat shock processes and heat proteins mycorestoration are part of an emerging field of research(Wang et al., 2001, 2003). It has been reported by Zhu and application for regeneration of degraded forest(2001) that salt tolerant plants also often tolerate other ecosystems (Cheung and Chang, 2009). Mycorestorationstresses including chilling, freezing heat and drought. attempts to use fungi to help repair or restore ecologicallyAlready, a number of abiotic stress tolerant, high harmed habitats. Whether the habitats have beenperformance GM crop plants have been developed. damaged from human activities or natural disasters,These include tobacco (Hong et al., 2000); Arabinopsis saprophytic and mycorrhizal fungi can help steer thethaliana and Brasicca napus (Jaglo et al., 2001); Tomato course to recovery. A number of non-legume woody(Hsieh et al., 2002; Zhang and Blumwald, 2002); rice plants such as casuarinas (Casuartna sp.) and alders(Yamanouchi et al., 2002); maize, cotton, wheat and (Alnus sp.) can fix nitrogen symbiotically withoilseed rape (Yamaguchi and Blumwals, 2005; Brookes actinomycete bacteria (Frankia sp.), a phenomenon thatand Barfoot, 2006). Plants may also be engineered to is beneficial to forestry and agroforesty (Franche et al.,reduce the levels of poly (ADP ribose) polymerise, a key 1998). Both endo- and ectomycorrhizal symbiotic fungistress related enzyme, resulting in plants that are able to together with actinomycetes have been used assurvive drought compared to their non-GM counterparts. inoculants in regeneration of degraded forests (SaikiaField trial results have shown a 44% increase in yield in and Jain, 2007). Therefore, both mycorrhizal fungi andfavour of such GM crop plants (Brookes and Barfoot, actinorhizal bacteria technologies can be applied with the2008). Another technology involving the use of genetic aim of increasing soil fertility and improving water uptake„switches‟ (transcription factors and stress genes) from by plants (Ruane et al., 2008). Afforestation wouldmicrobial sources is currently under research by the indirectly contribute to improved agricultural productivityUnited Kingdom (UK) Agricultural Biotechnology Council and food security because forests create microclimates(ABC; http://www.abcinformation.org). This technology that improve rainfall availability. Furthermore, forests acthas been tested and resulted in two-fold increase in as carbon sinks thereby contributing towardsproductivity for Arabidopsis and 30% yield increase for sequestration and concomitant greenhouse reductionmaize during severe water stress. It has been suggested effects for climate change mitigation. Consequently,that comprehensive breeding plan for abiotic stress forestry and agroforestry offer the potential to develop
Mtui 227Table 1. Conventional agricultural biotechnologies for climate change adaptation and mitigation.Measure Biotechnology Application Reference Coffee and banana and West and Post, 2002; Johnsona et No-till practices horticultural farming al., 2007; Powlson et al., 2011.Climate change mitigation:Reduced artificial fertilize use Composting and use of animal Treasury, 2009; Powlson et al., Biofertilizers manure 2011. Mycorrhizal and actinorrhizal Franche et al., 1998; Zahran, 2001. symbiosis Agroforestry Afforestation (native & exotic Lin et al., 2008 . trees)Carbon sequestration Inoculation of nitrogen fixers Zahran, 2001. Biogas from agro wastes Treasury, 2009. Bioethanol from sugarcane Lybert and Summer, 2010; Biofuels production Biodiesel from jatropha, palm Sarin et al., 2007; Lua, 2009; Jain oil and Sharma, 2010. Mulching Horticlutural practices Johnsona et al., 2007.Adaptation to climate change:Adaptation to biotic and Drought tolerant sorghum, Tissue culture Apse and Blumwald, 2002.abiotic stresses millet, sunflower. Cross breeding Drought resistant Pearl millet Ruane et al., 2008. Shading coffee and banana Franche et al., 1998; Saikia and Agroforestry plantations. Jain, 2007. Increased crop yield per unit Crop rotation, traditionalImproved productivity Edgerton, 2009; Treasury, 2009. area of land pesticides.synergies between efforts to mitigate climate change and modern biotechnology strategies within national policiesefforts to help vulnerable populations to adapt to negative and legal frameworks in order to increase resilience ofconsequences of climate change (Verchot et al., 2007). local crop varieties against changes in environmentalThe conventional and modern biotechnological initiatives dynamics (Stinger et al., 2009).related to climate change adaptation and mitigation are Despite the availability of promising research results,summarized in Tables 1 and 2. many applications of biotechnology have not met their full potential to deliver practical solutions to end-users in developing countries (Ruane et al., 2008). TheCHALLENGES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES challenges for the bioenergy sector are concerns about imminent land, water, food and feed conflicts as a resultAs the world population is expected to reach 8 billion of introduction of large scale plantations of energy cropspeople by 2028, the demand for food is also expected to in limited arable land (Rubin, 2008; Mtui, 2009). In theincrease by 55%. Moreover, out of world‟s total land area area of increased soil fertility using biofertilizers, nitrogenof 13 billion hectares (ha), only 12% is cultivated. In the fixation research is moving towards genomic studiesnext 30 years, developing countries will need an whereby complete sequences of nitrogen-fixing bacteriaadditional 120 million hecters for crops (Ruane et al., are being elucidated (Yan et al., 2008). In forest2008). Therefore, science and technology should take a biotechnology, there is a poor understanding of forestlead in spearheading increased agricultural productivity. If genomics and complex ecosystem processes atwe want to feed the world without destroying our landscape scales. It is argued that genomic approachesresources, science and technology should drive the for monitoring soil microbial communities could becomedevelopment of modern agriculture. Genetically modified an important tool in understanding the effects of biomasscrop varieties are the most cost effective ways to sustain removal for biofuels, or enhancing durable below-groundfarming in marginal areas and restore degraded lands to carbon sequestration (Groover, 2007).production (Treasury, 2009). Efforts should be made to Modern biotechnology has encountered enormousintegrate local and conventional biotechnologies with public debates related to risks and benefits of the GMOs
228 Int. J. Biotechnol. Mol. Biol. Res.Table 2. Modern agricultural biotechnologies for climate change adaptation and mitigation.Measure Biotechnology Application Reference Engineering herbicide Fawcett and Towery, 2003; GM soy beansClimate change resistance Brimner et al., 2004; Kleter et al., GM canola 2008mitigation: to reduce spraying Engineering insect resistance May et al., 2005; Bonny, 2008; Bt maize, cotton, and eggplants to reduce spraying Zhe and Mithcell, 2011Less fuel consumptionReduced artificial fertilize Genetic improvement of Tchan, 1992; Zahran, 2001;use Engineering nitrogen fixation Rhizobium; inducing N-fixation to Kennedy and Paau, 2002; Saikia non-legumes and Jain, 2007; Yan et al., 2008 No-till farming due to Herbicide resistant GM soy beans, Fawcett and Towery, 2003; Kleter Biotechnological advances canola et al., 2008Carbon sequestration Green energy GM energy crops Lybbert and Summer, 2010 Nitrogen- efficient GM crops N-efficient GM canola Johnsona et al., 2007 Molecular marker assisted Drought resistant maize, wheatAdaptation to Wang et al., 2001, 2003 breeding for stress resistance hybridsclimate change: Hong et al., 2000; Jaglo et al., GM Arabidopsis , Tobacco, maize, Engineering drought tolerance 2001; Yamanouchi et al., 2002; wheat, cotton, soybeanAdaptation to biotic and Manavalan et al., 2009abiotic stresses Hsieh et al., 2002; Zhang and Engineering salt tolerance GM tomato, rice Blumwald, 2002 Engineering heat tolerance GM Arabidopsis, GM Brassica Sp. Jaglo et al., 2001; Zhu, 2001. Fungal, bacterial and viralImproved productivity per Increased crop yield per unit Mneney, 2001; Van Camp, 2005; resistant GM cassava, potatoes,unit area of land area of land Gomez-Barbero et al., 2008 bananas, maize, canola.technology in terms of health, environment, socio- for unforeseen effects (Bruinsma et al., 2003). In order toeconomic and ethical issues (Bakshi, 2003). The overcome the challenges currently encountered inattitudes and interests of various stakeholder groups development and application of modern biotechnology,supporting or opposing modern biotechnology have led to governments ought to put in place appropriate biosafetypolarized opinions (Bruinsma et al., 2003; Aerni 2005). and biotechnology policies and legal frameworks beforeThere have been opponent activists who dispute the adopting such technologies (Stringer et al., 2009). Tablesafety of the technology, citing possible risks including: 3 summarizes major challenges to climate change andcreation of more rigorous pests and pathogens, agricultural biotechnology, and some proposed solutions.exacerbating the effects of existing pests, harm to nontarget species, disruption of biotic communities and lossof species and genetic diversity within species (Snow et CONCLUSIONal., 2005). Political, socio-economic, cultural and ethicalconcerns about modern biotechnology are related to the This review shows that safe development and applicationfear of technological “neo-colonialism” in developing of plant biotechnology can contribute positively towardscountries, intellectual property rights, land ownership, climate change adaptation and mitigation throughcustomer choices, negative cultural and religious reduction of CO2 emissions, carbon sequestration,perceptions, and fear of the unknown (Brink et al., 1998, reduced fuel use, adoption of environmentally friendlyMakinde et al., 2009). Such public concerns have led to fuels, and reduced artificial fertilizer use, employingover-regulation of the technology, which threatens to biofuels for improved soil fertility and crop adaptability.retard its applications (Qaim, 2009). It is suggested that These measures are meant to improve agriculturalthe effects of GMOs should be studied case-by-case, productivity and food security, and at the same timeincorporating assessment of potential plant/ecosystem protecting our environment from adverse effects ofinteractions, accessible and relevant indicators and tests climate change. There is consensus among scientific
Mtui 229Table 3. Challenges in the climate change and biotechnology debates, and proposed solutions.Challenge Proposed solution ReferenceClimate change: Oreskes, 2004; Doran andScepticism on the cause of climatic Arguments should be scientifically-driven; not Zimmerman, 2009; Anderegg etvariations: whether it is man-made or natural politically or self-interest driven. al., 2011phenomena.Carbon/emission trading: an industrialized Each country in the world has a stake in effecting IPCC, 2007; Barker, 2007world issue or the whole world initiative? the reduction of CO2 emissions.Food security: Science and technology should take a leading role Ruane et al., 2008;Overall, the world‟s food security is not to ensure food sufficiency. Treasury, 2009stable.Biotic and abiotic stresses threaten food Conventional and modern biotechnology Gomez-Barbero et al., 2008;productivity. interventions are needed to solve the problem. Manavalan et al., 2009Renewable energy: Encourage the use of marginal lands; use secondThere is imminent land, water, food and feed generation sources (agricultural and forest Mtui 2007, 2009; Rubin, 2008conflicts in large-scale production of energy residues) for bioenergy.crops. Concerns on side effects of GMOs should be Bakshi, 2003; Bruinsma et al.,Modern biotechnology: science-based, and should be studied case-by- 2003; Aerni, 2005; Snow et al.,Safety concerns on health and environment. case. 2005Socio-economic, cultural and ethicalconcerns such as National biosafety and biotechnology policies and Treasury, 2009, Qaim, 2009.IPR issues; loss of traditional crops; fear of legal frameworks should guide the technologies.the unknown.community that climate variability is a result of direct and (http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/ 10.1073/pcnas.1003187107. Apse MP, Blumwald E (2002). Engineering salt tolerance in plants.indirect anthropogenic activities. An integrated approach Curr. Op. Biotechnol., 13: 146-150.to safe applications of both conventional and modern Bakshi A (2003). Potential adverse health effects of genetically modifiedagricultural biotechnologies will not only contribute to crops. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 6(B): 211-226.increased yield and food security, but it will also Barker T (2007). Mitigation from a cross-sectoral perspective. In:significantly contribute to climate change adaptation and Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel onmitigation initiatives. Climate Change (B. Metz et al. Eds.)". Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.A. Bianchi FJJA, Booij CJH, Tscharntke T (2006). Sustainable pestACKNOWLEDGEMENTS regulation in agricultural landscapes: A review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control. Proc. Royal Soc., 273(B): 1715-1727.The financial support from the Swedish International Bonny S (2008). Genetically modified gyphosate-tolerant soybean inDevelopment Agency, through the International Science USA: Adoption factors, impacts and prospects. A review. Agro. Sustain. Dev., 28: 21-32.Program of Uppsala University is gratefully Brimner TA, Gallivan GJ, Stephenson GR (2004). Influence ofacknowledged. The University of Dar es Salaam, herbicide-resistant canola on the environmental impact of weedTanzania, and the Department of Biochemistry and management. Pest Manag. Sci., 61(1): 47-52.Organic Chemistry of Uppsala University are appreciated Brink JA, Woodward BR, Da Silva E (1998). Plant Biotechnology: A toolfor logistical support. for development in Africa. Electronic J. Biotechnol. Available online, 1(3): 14-15. Brookes G, Barfoot P (2006). GM Crops: The first ten years – Global socio-economic and environmental impacts in the first ten years ofREFERENCES commercial use. J. AgBio. Forum, 9(3): 139-151. Brookes G, Barfoot P (2008). GM Crops: Global socio-economic andAerni P (2005). Stakeholder attitudes towards the risk and benefits of environmental impacts 1996 - 2006. J. AgBio Forum, 11(1): 21-38. genetically modified crops in South Africa. Environ. Sci. Policy, 8: Brookes G, Barfoot P (2009). Global impact of biotech crops: Income 464-476. and production effects, 1996-2007. J. AgBio Forum, 12(2): 184-208.Anderegg WRL, Prall JW, Harold J, Schneider SH (2011). Expert Bruinsma M, Kowalchuk GA, van Veen JA (2003). Effects of genetically credibility in climate change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. p. 3. modified plants on microbial communities and processes in soil. Biol.
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