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Joto afrika 8

  1. 1. jotoafrika adapting to climateIssue 8 October 2011 change in AfricaCONTENTS Should Africa take the renewable energy path?Should Africa take the renewable energypath? 1Renewable energy for Malawi’s mountainentrepreneurs 2The spread of biofuels in ZambiaHydropower in East Africa 3 4 Editorial cost, even for people with disposable incomes. Scale is a problem; many renewable Modern energy services are essential energy options are pilot experiences, butBiogas – an alternative energy source 5 for reducing poverty. Countries need renewables such as small mini-hydro andMaking fuel briquettes to save trees 6 energy to increase economic production, biogas digesters need to spread in ways which improves livelihood options for that will reach energy-poor people.Letters to the editor 7 women and men. Energy is also needed toAfrica’s National Adaptation Programmes increase agricultural productivity, provide Development priorities are closely associatedof Action 8 clean water and improve human health, with the uptake of renewables – especially and energy enables girls and boys to go when these are linked to productive end uses to school. and the welfare and wellbeing of energy-poor communities. The articles in this Joto Afrika Increasing access to energy, particularly are rich in information on how renewableAbout Joto Afrika modern and efficient technologies, is a energy can serve multiple functions and howJoto Afrika is a series of printed briefings key challenge for achieving sustainable energy-poor communities are benefittingand online resources about adapting to development. But climate change is – from biogas digesters in Uganda to solarclimate change in sub-Saharan Africa. The complicating the energy situation in many power in Malawi. It is clear that environmentalseries helps people understand the issues, parts of Africa. benefits are not the main motivation;constraints and opportunities that poor people improving livelihoods and generating incomeface in adapting to climate change and For example, changing rainfall patterns are the key incentives.escaping poverty. have led to droughts, affecting hydropower generation in many countries. And climate Africa needs policies to expand countries’Joto Afrika is Swahili; it can be loosely change is likely to worsen desertification, renewable energy markets – ones that will reducing tree cover that is already threatened translate into real benefits for small-scaletranslated to mean ‘Africa is feeling the heat’. by deforestation in many places; communities entrepreneurs and end users. But thePlease tell us what you think about this eighth that rely on traditional fuels such as charcoal biggest challenge is not the limiting policyissue of Joto Afrika and what you would like and wood will face an increased burden as environment; the real problem is how to moveto read about in future issues. Contact details forests become scarcer. A further challenge from the micro to the macro. Africa needsare on page 8. is that fossil fuel energy is a major emitter to scale up and out successful renewable of the greenhouse gases that cause climate energy experiences to a magnitude that change. Global efforts to reduce fossil fuel transforms the lives of millions of people – use reinforce the need for wider energy people who for too long have lived at the options in Africa. bottom of the energy ladder. One alternative is renewable energy. Fatima Denton Renewable technologies give countries International Development Research Centre more freedom around their energy choices (IDRC), Climate Change Adaptation in and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. But Africa Programme (CCAA), Dakar, Peytavin, renewables in Africa do not always provide Senegal energy security. Tel +221 33859 7722 Renewable energy resources are abundant but unevenly distributed, causing supply issues for some communities. The underdeveloped nature of energy sectors, many of which are inherited See also from colonial times, and the slow pace of reform have inhibited the uptake and Links between adaptation, mitigation institutionalisation of renewables. and low carbon, or ‘climate compatible’ Despite attempts to reform their energy development, Powerpoint presentation by sectors, many governments have failed to Fatima Denton, IDRC create the right incentives for companies to explore renewable energy options. Renewable energy offers multiple A farmer from Mozambique observes plastic benefits, but can still be prohibitive in tubular biogas technology during an exchange visit to Nguruman, Kenya © Noah Lusaka, ALIN, 2011
  2. 2. Renewable energy for Malawi’s mountain entrepreneurs Case study Women fixing a solar technology system in Malawi © Clement Nthambazale Nyirenda The slopes of Mount Mulanje in southern Facility (GEF) Small Grants Programme, to take part in environmental protection Malawi have experienced widespread which is implemented by the United activities, such as tree planting. deforestation. The rising population in Nations Development Programme. The the area has increased the demand for generators have become the focus for 10 A total of 80,000 trees of various species timber, firewood and charcoal. Young solar energy clubs, established by the GEF have been planted during two tree- people in the area collect these fuels in partnership with the Mulanje Mountain planting seasons, all through community to sell, and previously there were few Conservation Trust. participation. These include species with income sources with the same immediate high economic and social value, such as rewards. Since 2009, solar energy clubs Sustainability is always a crucial factor with the nitrogen-fixing Pongamia pinnata, and are promoting new ways to make a living newly introduced technologies such as solar plants and trees grown and managed for for over 250 young people. energy. The design, installation and long- their firewood, fodder or medicinal value. term maintenance of each solar generator The Energizing Mountainous Communities are the responsibility of an executive solar Raising awareness about the Mount of Mount Mulanje for Sustainable energy committee, which works alongside Mulanje ecosystem, and building the Livelihoods (ECOMUSU) project was government extension officers. confidence of the communities in making started to: decisions on energy and business Alex Damaliphetsa, National Coordinator development, have created the potential tackle threats to biodiversity from of the GEF Small Grants Programme in for wider solar energy take-up. And while deforestation Malawi, admits that renewable energy more funding is required to ensure final raise awareness of natural resource enterprises do not necessarily bring the checks and balances are in place for long- management and the value of the forests immediate cash returns that selling firewood term sustainability, seeing the football introduce ways to prevent deforestation, or charcoal can. But he notes: “One does World Cup on TV shows the young people including the use of alternative fuels. not have to invest the same amount of of Mount Mulanje what is possible in a energy once the enterprise is operational, solar-powered future. Many young people who once sold firewood as opposed to going into the forest to cut and charcoal now work in ‘alternative firewood or make charcoal. I think we can Georgina Smith energy enterprises’. These are based in talk of renewable energy as being the smart Mob +26 97869 6577 10 solar-powered business centres around way of making money.” the mountain. Their businesses include barbershops, battery-charging stations, TV Tree planting Georgina Smith is a science writer based viewing rooms and telephone bureaus – all As well as promoting alternative energies, in Lusaka, Zambia. A version of this article powered by solar energy. the project has focused on other solutions was published in New Agriculturist. to deforestation. A conservation awareness Looking long term campaign has been launched in schools, Solar generators were installed in 10 youth groups and faith-based organisations, villages using US$40,534 (£26,272) which offers involvement in renewable received from the Global Environment energy-based business as an incentive ika atforclfirmcaat Subscribe to Joto Afrika e t g A o i jodahpatninge in nd a Af ric a k a e in A ur. c cc de y o clu is the ust in lly in d er r r ng ia n aft h m ec t, a Organisations and individuals in Africa Please include your organisation and nd ac esp men nt g a ro s, e rin app sure velop pm ty to e ste ha du nt a de velo bili re, me me e ra d th efo age tive cture ic d lne e an also At sa te c b n n m nts ma ve astru no an vu com uld ge. eve listic al pref infr -eco hum d in sho wled ate Di ma can receive a free printed copy of the your full postal address. You can also It ho hnic as o socio uce rease ds. kno f clim ls tec are of red s inc lihoo ous ent o w to g leve the ects ed to ch a f live igen gem er ho ngin asp sign s, su n o t ind ana nsid cha cli torial o e rd atio oun e m co to – tw d za c c ty d in ty 0 ge y ha ersifi ac e, th mu rabili st tise bili 2 01 1 an ntl rce to div in e tim acts lne ori era briefings. Each issue will also be subscribe and send feedback via SMS, ica ch rre info pri vuln nd ril Afr t2 ate s cu ly re es, se take sam imp an vu be st hest fety es a men a nd t Ap ge in em en 3 i clim ng rs e e ad rea the ange hum risk. ch uce ster sm h u ig sa t liv lop uilt . Ed 3 an ag nd alle dve dec inc ral s. ort the for tha deve ce b ue S ch an ria k a ch a g tu d red disa eff ith ed vel NT to ate k m Nige ris st d – min ted f na oo se on s w ne is le cted silie , nIss in 4 of lim ris ter ate kin e co pec ity o nd fl crea ng tati ie TE ies st te re t dc ht an as gre an ap unit ate at th ro nd en teg Dis the hum In th is e inten hts to exis x s a in ti Ad mm gre It is be p ty a urg risk, available on the ALIN website: to +254 71703 2322; start your message N an ug urb tra ity CO sk dro y in sk s 5 of ing ther. ange nd rou likely ady . g e co d th ce. can safe ac ost r ri in ilit ap e m ate ing d fac ch o ch cy a as d lso alre tries n ds nd as te ing b d ri ce an lie o d c th clim p n ra oo du resi liho ted, a an ng ing velo rsta Dis lea rn lne d fl re t 6 ea ate quen uch e is a ty to oun e o ing amo ress . De nde er vu e to dic clim fre rs s ang bili ing c liv m ild u Pe ing as sd ? o pre pro bu are add vels s to e d ag y-b itie ana 7 the aste ch lneraelop ity nt r le ly p th an an nit un w e to dis a ’s te vu ev ac pme ts fo cal unitie ctive evelo rks, n . with the word ‘Joto’. M u dg l p on mm ia mm ots Climople s in d : ica Ca velo men at lo mm effe n, d etwo tatio tati wle e to es for Co nzan n co in B no e 8 du ss phys de uire larly f co es, atio nd n dap adap d Ta a k sk iqu pe zard ely stre ate ne ss lly req rticu ty o issu form ns a ate a tive , an ce. t c ris ou mb ha larg ic u red refu ili ha ster en ya za is om adeq pa ca nse, pa ab risk le in utio pri ffec luate rien W a ig n or Mo is on in pre to o of the ate ilab instit appro for e eva expe dis ind Ke dit in Th -ec d nd es sp clim ava ary uild tial also om d an le ing ll in ee sk cio g an ture on a urc , re nents n st fr ri sk eop ct Us infa th r ri so ein c ati so ss l re ne po t. use cess d b sse u rn ing s p te to ste ag astru duc cia red om en ne n an is e s m lea uc ire pro ra rs isa dia infr ak e rs finan repa ry c gem se pla tions unitie se to ed requ est eir tte g d me rea to l. R Le we aste ient the p cove ana inc tens y ac mm r the n b th way ate gin e nd cia sters ca nd na h th sa dis ffic ent nd re er m ely a rt Co nito cru disa they y a es a unic te Ma ug ng ate lik thre ove and nt ro efi insuplem n a isast the ts – e p ber me mo n is to ow pert rovid omm clima apt ir th bri clim es im gatioted d tio h ro d e nd ven scap um lop ca bility nd eir p on p to c and to a in th ted to –a e You can subscribe by Please tell us what you think about this u ri miti gra e n ve Ed lnera ersta th cati ities sks er ers ing rin ng e se s, inte ge ous s to the n de the f p pti h e an rt in vu und lves, Edu mun ut ri h oth oth arn art in ult ika s o da a. T su or e ch azard effo ase reate eet to mse ods. com abo eac gage nd le st to ad nd Afr serie out a Afric the is t po ang ate d h le’s cre ill th to m als. oto a ab tha ch the liho an ther vate en s a ds to gh ers a n nd Climrelate eop ny in rs w orts t Go e liv Afric ch o moti nd to of risk nee throu ast t J a is es ahara rsta ities ate in ck p a. A aste r eff men ou frik urc e n lim t’. ted re for h ea , to d, a ess gers ing ut dis Ab to A reso b-S und ortu to c ly ea blo Afric f dis inde lop ela osu -r xp it ge on n dan tinu bo sending an email to eighth issue of Joto Afrika and what you Jo line in su ople opp ting se e h in ale o nd h Deve a ate ct e or ty w an sp are n a on ange pe and dap rty. loo th fric clim ire ds bili ch d re Aw and , co es n ria h, be ling and h; sc ins a ium m ch help ints in a ove r A ies, m d floo era the e an orts. risks tion ram ige arc an fee ry alt ga enn s fo ntr fro as vuln s to ang s eff out duca rog . , N Rese will nstra fac g p e it c a is rest n he Mill ge ou nly ch p ion ili; fo a . en n c t o s su m th stem ate c ble e h m ab rly e on nge ivis mic co ople apin ah ‘Afric on: hum lists d all ica no mi t D ono Sw thir o sy ro ea ucati cha pe d esc is ean focu and sto s ra is Ch r Afr me azard lso fr mic Clim ing p risks, y and nfe en c an ika t th ld ct o Fo s c ral h ut a ono rds. xist s of vert ent. ed ate ru pm nd E m ill ge pa would like to read about in future issues Afr d to s w han and ou ou clim Olo lo l a to te e c ab u w onta risk natu ts, b d ec haza sify e tion d po nm B. Deve cia Jo nsla issu ate nge ink t yo s – c to u gh l an ese ten bina rea nviro e lix ical f So a 37 om u th wha sue ds; d Fe ys o eri 508 .c tra ture clim cha dro socia of th to in com idesp ral e clud lihoo IV an o Fu DD; ate yo is Ph itute , Nig 339 aho at nd of ects cted new g w natu ern in live ; H rity Inst dan 4 8 0@y 0 RE d clim wh a a ture eff expe ate xistin the onc ble curity cu ture us frik in fu Iba l +23 200 an tell oto A out e 8. is d cre e e e on lar c lnera inse eak sestruc to eal Te xba – contact details are on page 8. ase f J ab ag an en th enc rticu ith vu ntal s; w infra cess to d feli Ple e o read on p giv pend f pa s w nme alitie k of of ac ities issue to are de as o nitie viro equ lac ck apac n e la lik tails Are mmu d e er in ; th the nd c nt d e o c da e n nd ce d a rge an an es s u me foo S; g vern on; urc ire AID d go ucati reso qu xtre t re f e an d ed riate rs. en ts o an prop aste em pac ag ap h dis an e im k m th wit ris duce er ast to re Dis tion ac s in . od ya flo en in in K up b ht aa ug Dad s ca ear ber , n sa mem aris 008 ity G 2 un ea, gi, mm o ar wan Co eth n M Sar Susa © Page 2
  3. 3. The spread of biofuels in Zambia Research summaryIf jatropha is intercropped with food crops, as it is here in northern Zambia,food security is not always compromised by the jatropha expansion© Jeff Walker, CIFOR, 2009Changes in Africa’s energy demands tied to long contracts with one companyand supply will not only depend on to produce biofuel crops. For example,climatic factors; patterns of economic Marli Investment contracts farmers (or Do biofuels help to tacklegrowth, land use, population growth ‘out-growers’) to produce biofuel crops. climate change?and distribution, technological change, Farmers in the out-grower scheme haveand social and cultural trends will all be to pay obligatory membership, statutory Biofuels are seen as a way to helpimportant. Large-scale agro-fuel projects contributions and deductions, while fight climate change as they releaseare springing up across the continent in also paying for management, extension less carbon than fossil fuels. This isresponse to increasing energy demands. and licensing services. The company because the plants, crops and otherBut are they a solution to fighting determines both the price of the seeds vegetation that form the basis ofclimate change? and services and the price they pay for biofuels reduce the carbon dioxide in the farmers’ crops. This limits the options the atmosphere by turning it into lessBiological materials such as wood, dung available to farmers, forcing them to deal harmful organic compounds –and bagasse have long been used for entirely on the company’s terms. a process called ‘carbon fixation’.fuel, but now crops are being grown on alarge scale to produce biofuels such as Alternatives to biofuels However, the extent of the climaticbioethanol and biodiesel. These include The development of biofuels will not benefits depend on: the previousjatropha, sugar cane, sweet sorghum and produce the desired outcomes – both use of the land on which crops arecassava. environmental and developmental – unless grown; production patterns (such as the policy and regulatory framework, the extent of fertiliser use); and theIn Zambia, the biofuel industry is still in its instruments, price signals, market transport range of the produced fuel.infancy. But similar to other countries in incentives and standards are in place. For example, if biofuel productionsouthern Africa, the government supports Instead, policymakers in both the developed occurs on previously forested land,and endorses biofuel production, believing and developing worlds should look for the climatic benefits may be neutral orit will be good for development, economic solutions that are inherently sustainable, even negative, while biodiversity andgrowth, and for the environment. The Fifth such as wind and solar energy, rather than ecosystems, such as water availability,National Development Plan, launched in trying to make biofuels sustainable. can be severely affected.2007, identified energy as vital for Zambia’ssocial and economic development, and Clement Chipokoloincluded developing the biofuel industry in PELUM-Zambia, P.O. Box 30443, Lusaka, See alsoits aims. Zambia Tel +260 95575 2878 A more detailed explanation of biofuels:There is potential for widespread biofuel 66 percent of Zambia’slandmass is woodland and forest and about26 percent of this could be cleared to growthe crops used to produce biofuels (theother forest areas are important reservesor protected water catchments). But Join the Joto AfrikaZambia already experiences seriousdeforestation; clearing forests to produce debate onlinebiofuels will make this worse. Developing Joto Afrika Eldis Communitythe biofuel industry will need to be done Group, which has over 1000with consideration for the environment. members schemesPrivate companies are already working Joto Afrika Facebookto produce biofuels. The Biofuels Group, which has over 184Association of Zambia has been lobbying friendsthe government for incentives to help the flourish, such as minimum biofuelblends for all customers and financialcapital to develop the industry.However, producing crops for biofuels cancreate problems for farmers. Many are Page 3
  4. 4. Hydropower in East Africa Research summaryA demonstration of improved stoves in Tanzania© themongers.blogspot.comEast Africa depends heavily on To reduce the vulnerability of large- energy policies must be entrenched inhydropower for its electricity – it scale hydropower generation to drought power purchase agreements (PPAs).currently supplies around 79 percent and floods, governments and electricity This will induce more private sector-ledof the region’s electricity. But changing companies need to adopt a more robust investment in renewable energy. Theweather patterns including the predicted and resilient plan to deal with power PPAs must be attractive to companies,decline in rainfall could be devastating shortfalls. This could be achieved in with a pre-determined standard offer (or feed-in tariff) at which the national utilityfor countries that lack diversified energy several ways. will purchase all energy produced bysources. renewable energy plants. i) Diversify the mix of energy sourcesIncreased droughts and shorter rainy Countries using renewable energy sources to diversify their electricity appear better Stephen Karekeziseasons frequently cripple East Africa’s Energy Environment and Developmentpower sectors, leading to sharp drops in able to survive the impacts of severe droughts than those relying exclusively Network for Africa (AFREPREN/FWD),their economic activity. In addition, the Elgeyo Marakwet Close, Kilimani, P. O. on hydropower. For example, Kenya isongoing encroachment of agricultural and Box 30979, 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya more resilient than Tanzania and Ugandacommercial activities into water catchment to drought-induced power generation Tel +254 72250 9804areas appears to be making hydropower shortfalls, because Kenya uses a wider more vulnerable to drought and the range of renewables, including geothermalerratic weather being experienced across power, biomass generation and, to a lesserthe region. extent, wind.At the same time, the changes in rainfall ii) Promote proven renewable energy See alsointensity are leading to increased floods. technologiesThese lead to the rapid build-up of silt in East African governments are stuck Large scale hydropower, renewable energyhydropower dams, reducing the amount of in a vicious cycle of heavy investment and adaptation to climate change: in hydropower; they urgently need towater for electricity generation. climate change and energy security in East break out of this. Investments in mature renewable energy options, such as and Horn of Africa, by Stephen Karekezi,Governments in East Africa have failed geothermal, small-scale hydropower, John Kimani, Oscar Onguru and Waenito plan adequately to tackle these crises biomass cogeneration and wind are Kithyoma, AFREPREN/FWD Occasionalin their power sectors. At present, their ideal sources to complement large- Paper 33, 2009response during power crises is to buy scale hydropower generation. They are thermal electricity to meet environmentally friendly and providethe shortfall in power supplies. But this additional development benefits, such asis expensive and the price is unstable; jobs and reduced oil import bills.thermal energy is partly linked to world oilprices, which peaked at US$140 (£90) per iii) Set renewable energy targets Renewable energy targets in the countries’barrel in September 2008. Joto Afrika evaluation: your responses! Boiling Point is a practitioner’s journal Dear Readers, for those working with household Many thanks for all who participated in the just concluded energy and stoves. It Joto Afrika evaluation. The feedback was very encouraging deals with technical, - 90 percent of survey respondents said that they have social, financial and experienced personal learning from engaging with Joto environmental issues Afrika. Over 70 percent of survey participants have shared and aims to improve the Joto Afrika by discussing an article with friends and quality of life for poor communities living in colleagues, with many specific practical examples of the developing world. Articles are contributed changes that have happened as a result of this. It was by readers and peer reviewed; the journal also interesting to learn that community radio stations is a forum for the sharing of information and also discuss Joto Afrika with their audience! experiences on household energy. Boiling Point reaches over five thousand addresses We are hoping that your feedback will inform and has around five times that number of decisions about future issues of Joto Afrika. readers worldwide. Keep sharing knowledge on climate change adaptation! More information visit 4
  5. 5. Biogas – an alternative energy source Case studyMme Mesafnt and Jean Marc Sika in front of the inlet pipe of herbiogas digester in Ethiopia© National Biogas Programme of Ethiopia, 2009Millions of people in the rural areas of improved health; kitchens are now freeAfrica face serious energy problems. from smoke and sanitation and hygieneThe availability of traditional fuelssuch as wood is declining, while are improved when a toilet is attached to the biogas digester Biogas in Ethiopiacommercial fuels are too expensive or financial savings on fertilisers and fuels Madam Azmera Mesafnt is a dairytheir availability is unreliable. Renewable reduced workloads, especially for farmer with eight hybrid cattle. Inenergies such as biogas could lift women and children who no longer August 2008, she invested 6,000households out of poverty and help need to collect fuelwood. Ethiopian Birr (about £230) in asmall businesses develop. biogas digester. Fed with 80 kgs Bio-slurry of cow dung, mixed with the sameBut renewable energy technologies are Installing a biogas digester has other quantity of water, it produces morenot always accompanied by capacity benefits, particularly bio-slurry – digested than enough gas for her dailydevelopment to support local actors to use manure produced by the decomposition cooking and lighting needs. And herthem. This limits the sustainability of these of organic matter in biogas digesters. This bio-digester is reliable – since 2008,initiatives. can be used for agriculture and can build she has only had to change the healthy, fertile soils. Bio-slurry fertiliser has main valve.The Africa Biogas Partnership Programme a higher yield kg/ha than other fertilisers,(ABPP), a partnership between HIVOS and users do not need to buy chemical Interviewed by Ethiopian TV,(Humanist Institute for Cooperation with fertilisers and pesticides. Biogas users Madam Mesafnt identified theDeveloping Countries), SNV (Netherlands in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Senegal and many benefits of biogas. “I am freeDevelopment Organisation) and the Dutch Uganda increasingly value the benefits of from smoke and have installedMinistry for Development Cooperation, bio-slurry more than biogas. my kitchen in the main housesupports domestic biogas programmes in [rather than outside]. I save timeBurkina Faso, Ethiopia, Kenya, Senegal, The ABPP’s dissemination model is inspired because cooking is faster; I saveTanzania and Uganda. by the successful sector development approximately 300 birr (£11.30) approach implemented by SNV in Asia for per month as I don’t need to buyBy 2013, the ABPP aims to construct 70,000 more than 20 years. This model is based kerosene, wood fuel and charcoal.biogas plants and, in each of these countries, on multi-actor initiatives to build a sector, I also use biogas to boil drinkingstimulate the emergence and development and market-based relationships to build water.of a commercially viable, market-oriented sustainability.domestic biogas sector. These are expected “I now legally practice my farmingto provide half a million people with access There are many constraints which in town. Before, it was forbiddento a sustainable energy source. help explain the slow uptake of biogas by the municipality because of technology in Africa. The cost of a biogas the sanitation conditions andBiogas digester remains the major one; this initial nuisances for the neighbours (dueBiogas is produced from animal waste, investment is very high when considering to the smell of the cows’ manure).organic materials and human excreta. the purchasing power of many rural Thanks to biogas, this is no longerThis is collected and controlled in a simple households. As an example, the digester a concern and my farming has beenunderground structure known as a biogas which Mme Mesafnt bought (see box) cost legalised.”digester, which can be installed in a 6,000 Ethiopian Birr (£233) in August 2008;household’s compound. Biogas has multiple now it cost 14,500 Birr (£538). This is a She also uses the wet and dry bio-benefits for people in rural communities. major challenge to increasing the market for slurry as manure on her vegetableBiogas users in Tanzania and Uganda household biogas digesters. garden, as well as for commercialidentified the main benefits as: plants. Azizi can really see the Jean Marc Sika difference; the plants grow larger a source of cooking fuel that replaces ABPP, P.O. Box 19875-00202, Nairobi, than with chemical fertilisers and wood for rural households Kenya are more resistant to disease reliable lighting in areas not connected because the manure does not to the national electricity grid and grid- contain pathogens, thanks to the connected areas with an unreliable anaerobic digestion. service Page 5