Climate Change Adaptation and African Agriculture Grantee Convening,                         24-25 February 2011,         ...
CIFOR-ICRAF                                        Center for International Forestry                                     ...
The role of forests and trees in people’s                adaptation Increasing interest in the role of ecosystem services...
Adaptation of agriculture and rural livelihoods:         The role of forests and trees Role of provisioning services  (ti...
Provisioning services: Ex. in Malawi                                                          “Although forests do not   ...
Regulating services A lot of methods and data on the effect of trees and forests on    nutrient & water at different scal...
Overall objectiveTo contribute to the integration of forests and treesinto local plans and national policies for theadapta...
1. Policy analysis and            policy-science dialogue   4.                                       5.Capacity           ...
Vulnerability Assessment                                         Methods                                   Livelihood anal...
Adaptation Planning                                      Methods      Questions                      Participatory scenari...
Our impact pathways               THINKING beyond the canopy
Conclusion Integrating agriculture, trees, forests into adaptation and    mitigation needs:     • Capacity and knowledge ...
Thank you!      THINKINGbeyond the beyond the canopy               THINKING canopy
PC1 (Policies)                                           Methods      Questions                          Analysis of polic...
Provisioning services: Ex. in Cameroon          Agriculture and livestock:                                         Forest-...
Provisioning services: Ex. in Mali Livelihood activities related to forests:    •Use of fodder for animals.    •Increased...
Approach           PC1       (policy)                       Science                              Communication          PC...
Articulation of the scientific activities and the support to       adaptation initiatives and policy processes            ...
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CIFOR Bruno Locatelli

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Rockefeller convening presentation by CIFOR's Bruno Locatelli

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CIFOR Bruno Locatelli

  1. 1. Climate Change Adaptation and African Agriculture Grantee Convening, 24-25 February 2011, Nairobi, Kenya, The Rockefeller FoundationForests and Trees for a Climate Smart Agriculture A Research Proposal Bruno Locatelli THINKING beyond the canopy
  2. 2. CIFOR-ICRAF  Center for International Forestry Research  World Agroforestry Center  Climate change mitigation and adaptation are priority issues Headquarters Climate change activities Current CGIAR Reform • New Consortium Research Program on Forests and Trees  CIFOR, ICRAF, CIAT, Bioversity, and other partners  Component on climate change: • Mitigation • Adaptation • Linkages between adaptation and mitigation THINKING beyond the canopy
  3. 3. The role of forests and trees in people’s adaptation Increasing interest in the role of ecosystem services for people’s adaptation • In science, policy, and practice • Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Ecosystem Services Forests and Livelihoods Adaptation Trees Conservation, Restoration, Adaptive Management  Huge potential for synergies between: • Agriculture, forests and trees  In livelihoods and landscapes • Adaptation and mitigation THINKING beyond the canopy
  4. 4. Adaptation of agriculture and rural livelihoods: The role of forests and trees Role of provisioning services (timber, fuel wood, non timber forest products, etc.) for rural livelihoods  Safety nets as coping strategy during extreme events  Diversification as an adapting strategy  Role of regulating services for agriculture • Regulation of water (infiltration, conservation of base flow) • Regulation of microclimate (temperature during heat waves, moisture, wind) canopy THINKING beyond the
  5. 5. Provisioning services: Ex. in Malawi  “Although forests do not currently play a role in anticipatory adaptation by rural households, they do appear important for reactive coping: providing food during shortages, and a source of cash for coping with weather-related crop failure”.  “Households most reliant on forests have low income per person”Fisher M., Chaudhury M., McCusker B., 2010. Do Forests Help Rural Households Adapt to ClimateVariability? Evidence from Southern Malawi. World Development 38(9): 1241–1250. THINKING beyond the canopy
  6. 6. Regulating services A lot of methods and data on the effect of trees and forests on nutrient & water at different scales: • water redistribution in soil profile • increased infiltration affecting river flows and water quality • regional tree cover may effect rainfall? Need for: - Replicating - Synthesizing (e.g., meta analysis) - Up scaling - Adding an adaptation perspectiveSinclair F., Barrios F., Sileshi G., Bayala J., Muthuri C., 2011. Managingeffects of trees on soil and water productivity and their impacts on otherecosystem services. ICRAFMap produced by Meschack Nyabenge from data in Coe, Cooper and THINKING beyond the canopySinclair, in prep.
  7. 7. Overall objectiveTo contribute to the integration of forests and treesinto local plans and national policies for theadaptation of agriculture and rural livelihoodsto climate variability and change, for risk reduction,poverty alleviation, human well-being, and synergieswith climate change mitigation. THINKING beyond the canopy
  8. 8. 1. Policy analysis and policy-science dialogue 4. 5.Capacity Commu 2. Vulnerability assessment-building nication 3. Adaptation planning THINKING beyond the canopy
  9. 9. Vulnerability Assessment Methods Livelihood analysis, historical Questions analysis (shocks and trends) Meta-analysis, modeling, andWhat is the role of tree and biophysical field researchforest products in the copingand adapting strategies of ruralcommunities? OutputsWhat is the role of regulating Scientific evidence on the roleservices (water and of trees and forests inmicroclimate) in the resilience agricultural adaptationof agriculture? Methods and tools for assessing the role of ecosystem services in adaptation THINKING beyond the canopy
  10. 10. Adaptation Planning Methods Questions Participatory scenario building, backcastingWhat forest and tree-related Modeling, trade-offmeasures can be designed for analysisreducing the vulnerability ofagriculture and rural livelihoods? OutputsWhat will be outcomes of thesemeasures in terms of adaptation Analysis of possibleand mitigation and in terms of interventions for integratingeffectiveness, efficiency, and trees and forests inequity? agricultural adaptation. Methods and tools for planning agricultural adaptation with trees and forests. THINKING beyond the canopy
  11. 11. Our impact pathways THINKING beyond the canopy
  12. 12. Conclusion Integrating agriculture, trees, forests into adaptation and mitigation needs: • Capacity and knowledge • Policymakers and practitioner networks • Policies This project can contribute to this. But we need: • Strong partnerships with RF grantees • Strong partnerships with adaptation initiatives THINKING beyond the canopy
  13. 13. Thank you! THINKINGbeyond the beyond the canopy THINKING canopy
  14. 14. PC1 (Policies) Methods Questions Analysis of policy documents Analysis of stakeholders’Are forests and trees currently perceptionsconsidered in adaptation plans foragriculture? Why (missing links Policy network analysisbetween forest, agriculture,development, adaptation, andmitigation arenas)? OutputsWhat are the opportunities for Analysis of policy processes,integrating forests and trees into networks, and opportunitiesadaptation policies and linking for bridging adaptation,mitigation and adaptation in policies? agriculture, and forests/trees. Identified targets for action and communication (in PC4 and PC5) THINKING beyond the canopy
  15. 15. Provisioning services: Ex. in Cameroon Agriculture and livestock: Forest-related activities: Very sensitive to climate variability Less sensitive (safety nets?) Livelihood Agriculture Livestock NTFPs Hunting Fishing actitvities Site 1 Site 2 Site 1 Site 2 Site 1 Site 2 Site 1 Site 2 Site 1 Site 2 --- High negative,Climatic exposure -- Med negative,Heavy rainfall --- --- o o o o o o + + - Low negative, o No,Punctual droughtsduring rainy season --- - -- - - o o + Low positive, ++ Med positiveOccasional rainfallduring dry season ++ + + oLow rain during all year + + - - o o -Strong winds -- - o - - oDry season heat waves --- - o o - - o Forests are part of the adaptation strategies proposed by local people. Ex.: NTFP (domestication, market access, training). Forest governance (e.g., community management with equitable benefit sharing). THINKING beyond the canopy
  16. 16. Provisioning services: Ex. in Mali Livelihood activities related to forests: •Use of fodder for animals. •Increased charcoal production and wood collection Forests as a safety nets • Growing pressure on forest resources during dry years • Maladaptation unless forest governance ensures resource sustainability and shared benefits How to move the forest contribution from coping to adapting strategies? • Need for cross-scale governance Djoudi H., Brockhaus M., Locatelli B., 2011. Vulnerability to climate variability and change among communities depending on livestock and forest in Northern Mali: a multi-level analysis. Regional Environmental Change, forthcoming THINKING beyond the canopy
  17. 17. Approach PC1 (policy) Science Communication PC2 (analysis of the role of PC5 (to practitioners, NGOs,(vulnerability) ecosystem services, policymakers, (communication) policy analysis, data, ) government, academic …) PC3 methods and tools …) (adaptation) Collaboration with adaptation initiatives (joint research, capacity building…) PC4 (action) At different scales. International to local. Need to build partnerships Key actors identified in PC1 with adaptation initiatives (scientists and practitioners). THINKING beyond the canopy
  18. 18. Articulation of the scientific activities and the support to adaptation initiatives and policy processes Policy review, Policy network National analysis, Institutional mapping Policy analysis (PC1) Key stakeholders Key processes Sub- national Vulnerability assessment (PC2) Adaptation plans (PC3) Situation analysis Local Adaptation options Ecosystem Livelihood analysis analysis Evaluation Current vulnerability Adaptation strategic plans Future scenarios Implementation Future vulnerability (through PC4) Interactions THINKING beyond the canopy Sequential order

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