Other topics of research include: abortion, AIDS, family planning, reproductive health
In order to better understand the significance of this study, we believe it is important to first become familiar with some key words that refer to organizations or acronyms frequently used in this paper and in this field of study. UNICEF, MDGs, and DAW are Programmes of the UN UNICEF: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund; created by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children; currently operates in 190 countries worldwide. ActionAid: international agency whose aim is to fight poverty worldwide; formed in 1972; currently operates in 42 countries worldwide UPE is the second goal of the MDGs Malawi is divided into three regions (Northern, Central and Southern), which are divided into a total of 27 districts, which can in turn be broken down into Census Enumeration Areas. FGDs: qualitative research tool in this study.
This study takes GOAL 3 as point of departure and stands as a report of the situation in Malawi as regards this goal. In the authors’ words: “Goal 3a of the United Nations’ (UN) Millennium Development Goals outlines the intention of member states to work to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2015 (Millennium Development Goals [online]). African countries are striving to achieve this goal and Malawi is no exception.”
We see that the abstract includes only the main purposes of the study and the results found.
Malawi is divided into three regions (Northern, Central and Southern), which are divided into a total of 27 districts, which can in turn be broken down into Census Enumeration Areas (EAs). The survey was carried out across the three regions, and three districts from each were selected for sampling. In case someone asks, the two little islands belong to Malawi even if they are in Mozambique’s part of the lake. I cheked.
Researchers used both qualitative and quantitative methods (p. 289) PTAs: parents’ & teachers’ associations
All of them refer to forms of violence experienced at home, at school, or in public. The blue and bold items refer to forms of violence that were reported to have been experienced at school.
Questions about San Luis Regardless of Gender, we can see that we have a serious issue regarding access to education. Why is there a huge difference between enrollment in elementary school and enrollment in high school levels? What happens to all this teenagers that don’t go to school? About education, income, and gender in the city of San Luis: Source: DPEyC San Luis = Dirección Provincial de Estadísticas y Censos de San Luis. More men than women reported to have completed high school, but more women than men reported to have completed university education. However, men earn a higher income than women, regardless of education level. As the report states “ para cualquier nivel educativo el índice relativo a las mujeres es siempre inferior al observado en los varones”
Gender-violence and education in Malawi:a study of violence against girls as an obstruction to universal primary school education Thomas Bisika, Pierson Ntata, and Sidon KonyaniPresentation by Celina Villarroel, Mauricio Muñoz, and Lucía Zuppa 2011
Thomas Bisika Demographer and public health specialist; Research Fellow of the Centre for Social Research and instructor of social research and demography at Chancellor College, University of Malawi; Graduate of Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA. Currently, Programme Specialist at United Nations Population Fund and Senior Lecturer at the University of Pretoria School of Public Health.Pierson Ntata Sociologist; Head of the Sociology Department at Chancellor College, U. of Malawi; Graduate of the University of Warwick, United Kingdom.; Affiliate Fellow of the Centre for Social Research of the University.Sidon Konyani Biostatistician; Fellow of the Centre for Social Research of the University of Malawi; Graduate of the University of Southampton, United Kingdom.
FACT SHEET – estimates for 2011• Total population: 15,879,252• Sex ratio: 0.99 male(s)/female• Life expectancy: 51.7 years• Over 1,000,000 orphans (70% due to AIDS epidemic)• Ranked 4th poorest country in the world• Family income is less than $1 per day
UNICEF UN MDGs: Millennium Development Goals DAW: Division for the Advancement ofWomen ActionAid International UPE: Universal Primary Education VAW: Violence Against Women EAs: Census Enumeration Areas FGDs: Focus Group Discussions
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerGoal 2: Achieve universal primary educationGoal 3: Promote gender equality and empower womenGoal 4: Reduce child mortalityGoal 5: Improve maternal healthGoal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseasesGoal 7: Insure environmental sustainabilityGoal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
Source of publicationMETHODOLOGYSample Design CONCLUSION TitleData Collection and Analysis ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSFindings AuthorsForms of(1-5) NOTES violence against girls Date of publicationReports of violence in schools andcommunitiesCONTRIBUTORS NOTES ON Abstract + key wordsExtent of violence against girls REFERENCESPerpetrators of violence INTRODUCTIONIncident reporting and actions takenEffects of violence on education
This study – funded by ActionAid and UNICEF – sought todetermine the extent to which violence prevents girlsaccessing primary school education in Malawi. It furthersought to identify the different types of violence that girlsexperience when in primary school; the perpetrators of thisviolence; and where the violence takes place. The studyestablished that girls are subject to several forms of violenceas a result of their gender; that such gender-based violence isdetrimental to their experience of primary education; and thatit negatively affects their ability to access education in Malawi.Keywords: Malawi; education; gender-based violence
Overview of GOAL 3 status in Malawi based on previous research Goal has not been achieved, despite free UPE Increase in enrollment, but mainly for boys High drop-out rates, higher for girls The Declaration on the elimination of violence against women of the UN General Assembly (1994) defines Violence Against Women (VAW) as Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life. (as cited in Bisika et al., 2009, p. 288)
• ‘VAW is not only a manifestation of unequal power relations between men and women, it is also a mechanism for perpetuating such inequalities’ (p. 288)• UNDAW: Fear as a barrier to report VAWOverview of what constitutes VAW:• Physical and emotional abuse• Behaviors: property damage, ridicule, threats, etc.• Beliefs: ‘women and girls occupy a subordinate status in [Malawian] society and are expected to be obedient and submissive; this makes it difficult for them to resist or complain.’ (Newsletter Gender Violence in Schools in Malawi, 2004, as cited in Bisika et al., 2009)
NICHE (p. 288) ‘little research has been done to determine the role that gender-violence plays in deterring Malawian girls from achieving their academic potential’PURPOSES (p.288-289)• to gain a detailed understanding of the barrier that gender-violence presents [in preventing girls from• accessing UPE] different types of violence that are to determine the currently attendant in Malawian primary schools,• to identify the perpetrators and their victims, the contexts in which the violence takes place, and the mechanisms that perpetuate violence against girls in school.
TANZANIA Malawi > 3 Regions > 27 districts > 60ZAMBIA Lake Nyasa EAs 1,496 households were surveyed: MOZAMBIQUE - NORTH: 497 (33.2%) - CENTRAL: 495 (33.1%) - SOUTH: 504 (33.7%) MOZAMBIQUE In total, the survey covered 56 of the 60 sampled EAs, and all interviews that were attempted were successfully completed, yielding a response rate ofMap from Ask.com > Districts of Malawi 100%.
Figures reporting age, marital status, number of children, and schooling of respondents. Forms of violence Corporal punishments Punitive labor Food withholding Sexual assault, rape, inappropriate touching Forced marriage Verbal abuse Parental neglect Enforced isolation Social ostracization Denial of access to education Discriminatory classroom practices
43.9 % reported inappropriate touching happening at: Home 1.1% Religious functions 4.9% Public locations 10.5 % School 48.7%Frequency of VAW incidents: rarely 60% occasionally 28.6% common occurrence 11.4%
Fellow pupils 52.2% Friends 16.2% Strangers 16.2% Boyfriends and local villagers 3.5% Teachers 3.8% Street vendors 3.2% Male relatives 2.5%
47.8% reported the assault 52.2% did not report the assaultReasons for not reportingo 52.2 % did not realize such incidents were offenseso 15.4% were intimidated not to do ito 11.4% were afraid Leading causes o Ignorance o Fear
32.8% → no action was taken 67.2 % → some action was taken • nearly half were not satisfied with the actions taken • a large proportion were unclear as to what type of action would be appropriate.
60.9% reported that VAW affected their school performance • 38.8% adversely affected their education • 3.3% drop out of school Main cause: inappropriate touching
VAW plays a key role in preventing girls from participating fully in education. VAW is widespread and endemic in Malawi. Fellow pupils are main perpetrators of VAW. There is an alarming pervasiveness and acceptance of such abuses because teachers appear as perpetrators too. Less than half of the cases of VAW are reported.
How can education contribute to decrease VAW? Do you think that violence against children is related to VAW? If so, how? School enrollment in the Province of San Luis in 200655,141 EGB 1 and 2 levels22,269 students registered in EGB 3 level12,499 Polimodal levelSource: Sistema Estadístico Nacional > Red Federal de Información Educativa Schooling, income, and gender in the city of San Luis as of 2006 20,4% men and 20,1% women completed high school. 8,1% men and 15,5% women completed university education. Average income is 183,3 for men and 139,3 for women. 308,6 for men and 236,3 for women with professional degrees. Source: INDEC & DPEyC San Luis
Bisika, T., Ntata, P., & Konyani, S. (2009). Gender-violence and education in Malawi: a study of violence against girls as an obstruction to universal primary school education [Electronic version]. Journal of Gender Studies, 18(3), 287-294.CIA World Factbook (2010, Dec.). Malawi Demographics Profile 2011. Retrieved April, 21, 2011, from http://www.indexmundi.com/malawi/demographics_profile.htmlDistricts of Malawi. (2011) In Ask.com. Retrieved April, 21, 2011, from http://www.ask.com/wiki/Districts_of_MalawiEquality Effect. Video. Retrieved April 21, 2011, from http://www.theequalityeffect.orgINDEC and Dirección Provincial de Estadísticas y Censos San Luis. (2008). Análisis de educación, ingresos y género. Retrieved April 21, 2011, from http://www.estadistica.sanluis.gov.ar > Anuario > 2008 > Anexo > Análisis de educación, ingresos y género.pdfSistema Estadístico Nacional and Red Federal de Información Educativa. (2006). Alumnos matriculados por nivel y sector. Provincia de San Luis. Retrieved April, 21, 2011, from http://www.estadistica.sanluis.gov.ar > Datos > Educación > Alumnos matriculados por nivel, año 2006.pdfUnited Nations Development Programme. (2000) Millennium Development Goals: Basic Facts. Retrieved April 21, 2011, from http://www.undp.org/mdg/basics.shtml