Paraphrase, Quote, SummarizeTips to avoid plagiarism
Golden Rule in research:When you’ve completed writing the body of your research paper, no more than 1/3 of the words used should be someone else’s.In other words, 2/3 of the written words should be your words. You can accomplish this by directly quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing the work of other authors.
ParaphrasingParaphrasing is an ethical way to use informationprovided in other’s work, by rephrasing orreiterating the information in your own words.Strategies:• Synonyms• Antonyms• Phrasal Verbs & General Verbs
SynonymsA word meaning the same as another.Substitute some of the author’s words using synonyms.If the author writes:The hardest language to learn is Mandarin.Example of using a synonym:One of the most difficult languages to learn isMandarin.Better use of synonyms:Mandarin is a language considered one of the most difficult tomaster.*The reason the second example is better is because the statementwas changed in a number of different ways – not just one word.
AntonymsA word that means the opposite of another.If the author writes:The peel of tangerine can be easily removed unlike theorange.Example of antonym use:The peel of a tangerine is not as hard to remove asthat of an orange.Example of better use of antonyms:There is no effort to removing the tangerine’s peel compared to that ofan orange.The second example is better because the statement was changed in a number of different ways - not just one or two words.
Utilizing Phrases to Paraphrase• A phrase is a string of words that form a grammatical unit, usually within a clause or sentence.Here is a sentence with two clause/phrase “opportunities” to paraphrase:• To stay in shape for competition, athletes must exercise every day.
Utilizing Phrases to Paraphrase• To stay in shape for competition, athletes must exercise every day.• Athletes commit to training on a regular basis; a necessity if they want to be ready to compete. Or• By keeping fit with daily workouts, those involved in sports are prepared to compete with other athletes.
Phrasal Verbs• Verb combined with another wordFor instance, swapping out: “put up with” meaning to tolerate and “stand for” meaning “represent.”If the author writes:Many Canadians are bilingual.Phrasal verb use for bilingual:• Many Canadians speak two languages.Better use of phrasal verbs in research writing:• A majority of Canadian people can speak more than one language.
General Verbs• Words indicating action or state• The organization quickly rose to the top of the expanding global market, outpacing their competition in fiscal year profits.• *Now it’s your turn – use general verbs to paraphrase this sentence.
Helpful tips:• Synonym – word meaning the same as another• Antonym – words with opposite meanings• Phrasal verbs – verb combined with another word (“put up with” meaning to tolerate and “Stand for” meaning “represent”• General verbs – word indicating action or state• Phrases - a string of words that form a grammatical unit, usually within a clause or sentence.
Summarize• You summarize when an article or chapter you’ve read reinforces information you already know about your subject, without providing any new information you would like to quote or paraphrase.• A summary is cited the same way as a paraphrased section is. (author’s last name, date of publication) i.e. (Johnson, 1990)
Quote• You directly quote an author when you feel that what they’ve said you can not reiterate or paraphrase better or without risking compromising the integrity of the information.