Interpersonal Communication CTA 1101 Interpersonal Communication Lesson 6: Group Dynamics (Units 10,11,12; pg 214-270)
Interpersonal CommunicationUnit 10 - Small Groups• A group is a collection of individuals who are connected to one another by some common purpose, are interdependent, have some degree of organization among them, and see themselves as a group.
Interpersonal CommunicationCollection of Individuals• A small group is, first, a collection of individuals few enough in number so that all members may communicate with relative ease as both senders and receivers.• Usually consist of approximately 3 to 12 people.• Problems arise when group is larger than 12• Each member should act as both source and receiver.
Interpersonal CommunicationCommon Purpose• The members of a group must be connected to one another through some common purpose.• The people on a bus arent usually a group unless they become stuck in a ditch and work towards a common goal of getting out of the ditch.
Interpersonal CommunicationInterdependence• In a small group, members are interdependent, meaning that the behavior of one member is significant for and has an impact on all members.• When one member attacks or supports the ideas of another member, that behavior influences the other members and the group as a whole.
Interpersonal CommunicationOrganizing Rules• Members of small groups must be connected by some organizing rules or structure.• Can be loose or rigid.
Interpersonal CommunicationSelf-Perception as a Group• Members of small groups feel they are, in fact, members of this larger whole.• Though individuality is not ignored, each member thinks, feels, and acts as a part of a group.
Interpersonal CommunicationBasic types of Groups• Groups can serve two broad and overlapping purposes: social or relationship purposes on the one hand and work or task purposes on the other.
Interpersonal CommunicationRelationship Groups• Social or relationship groups are what sociologists call primary groups.• These are the groups in which you participate early in life and include, for example, your immediate family, your group of friends at school, and perhaps your neighbors.
Interpersonal CommunicationTask groups• Sociologists call task groups secondary groups, they are formed to accomplish something.• Some task groups are put together to solve a specific problem; for example, a committee of college professors might be informed to hire a new faculty member, select a textbook, or serve on a graduate student’s dissertation committee.• Once the task is completed, the group is dissolved.
Interpersonal CommunicationReference and Membership Groups• A reference group is a group from which you derive your values and norms of behavior.• You judge your successes and failures in comparison with the outcomes of other members of a reference group.• A membership group is a group you participate in but do not use as a guide or to measure yourself.
Interpersonal CommunicationSmall Group Formats• The round table – Group members arrange themselves in a circular or semicircular pattern. – Information is shared to solve the problem without a set pattern of who speaks when
Interpersonal CommunicationSmall Group Formats cont…• The panel – Group members are “experts,” but participate informally and without any set pattern of who speaks when – Has an audience whose members may interject comments or ask questions
Interpersonal CommunicationSmall Group Formats cont…• The symposium – Each member has a prepared presentation much like a public speech – Has a leader who introduces the speakers, provides transition from one speaker to another, and may provide periodic summaries.
Interpersonal CommunicationSmall Group Formats cont...• The symposium- forum – Consists of two parts: a symposium with prepared speeches, and a forum, with questions from the audience and responses by the speaker. – A leader introduces the speakers, and moderates the question-and- answer session.
Interpersonal CommunicationSmall groups Online• Virtual groups are groups that rarely meet face-to-face, but instead carry on their work through computer- mediated communication.• Can communicate without travel expenses or office space for meetings• Can work around entire globe• Some members may not feel as connected to the group.
Interpersonal CommunicationSmall Group Culture • Group norms are rules or standards of behavior identifying which behaviors are considered appropriate and which are considered inappropriate. • Can be explicit – They are clearly stated in company policy or contract • Differ from one society to another • Role expectations – Norms that regulate a particular group’s members’ behavior – Identify what each person in an organization is expected to do • Cohesiveness – Means that you and the other members are closely connected, are attracted to one another, and depend on one another to meet your needs.
Interpersonal CommunicationPower in the Small Group • Power is what enables one person to control the behaviors of others. • Legitimate power – Is having power over another person when this person believes you have a right by virtue of your position to influence his or her behavior • Referent power – Is having power over another person when that person wishes to be like you or identified with you • Reward power – Is having the power to give a person rewards either material (money, promotions, jewelry) or social (love, friendship, respect) • Coercive power – Is having the power to remove rewards, or administer punishments • Expert power – You possess expert power if group members regard you as having expertise or knowledge • Information or persuasion power – Is being seen as someone who can communicate logically and persuasively.
Interpersonal CommunicationIdea Generation Groups• Idea generation groups are small groups that exist solely to generate ideas and often follow a formula called brainstorming.• Brainstorming is a technique for bombarding a problem and generating as many ideas as possible.
Interpersonal CommunicationInformation- Sharing Groups• The purpose of information- sharing groups is to enable members to acquire new information or skills through a sharing of knowledge.
Interpersonal CommunicationUnit 11 - Members and Leaders
Interpersonal CommunicationMembers Roles In Small Group Communication• Group task roles are those that help the group focus more specifically on achieving its goals.• Group building and maintenance roles: the group and its members need the same kind of support that individuals need.• Individual roles are counterproductive; they hinder the groups’ productivity and member satisfaction, largely because they focus on serving the individual rather than the group.
Interpersonal CommunicationLeaders In Small Group Communication• Leadership is defined in two different ways in research and theory. – Leadership is the process of influencing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of group members and establishing the direction that others follow; leadership and influence are parts of the same skill. – Leadership is the process of empowering others; the leader is the person who helps others to maximize their potential and to take control of their lives.
Interpersonal CommunicationApproaches to Leadership• Traits Approach – Argues leaders must possess certain qualities if they’re to function effectively. (intelligence, dominance, honesty, sociability, etc.)• Functional approach – Focuses on what the leader should do in a given situation.• Transformational approach – The leader elevates the group’s members, enabling them not only to accomplish the group task, but also to emerge as more empowered individuals.• Situational approach – Focuses on two major responsibilities of the leader- accomplishing the task at hand and ensuring the satisfaction of the members.
Interpersonal CommunicationUnit 12 - Interpersonal and Small Group Conflict
Interpersonal CommunicationConflict• Conflict occurs when… – People are interdependent; what one person does has an effect on the other person. – People perceive their goals to be incompatible; if one person’s is achieved, the other’s cannot be. – People see each other as interfering with the attainment of their own goals.• Conflict is part of every interpersonal relationship
Interpersonal CommunicationTypes of Conflict• Conflict may occur in many situations but it is important to understand the difference between content and relationship conflict, online and workplace conflict, and individual conflict styles.
Interpersonal CommunicationContent and Relationship Conflicts• Content conflicts center on objects, events, and persons in the world that are usually, though not always, external to the parties involved in the conflict. – Everyday issues such as the value of a particular movie, what to watch on television, the fairness of the last examination, or job promotion.• Relationship conflicts are equally numerous and include such situations as a younger brother who does not obey his older brother, group members who all want the final say in what the group decides, and the mother and daughter who each want to have the final word concerning the daughter’s lifestyle.
Interpersonal CommunicationOnline and Workplace Conflict• Online conflicts often include junk and spam mail. – Leads to slower internet, can cost money, and is counterproductive• In the workplace there are procedural conflicts and people conflicts. – Procedural conflicts involve disagreements over who is in charge, what agenda or task of the group should be, and how the group should conduct its business. – People conflicts occur when one member dominates the group, when several members battle for control, or when some members refuse to participate.
Interpersonal CommunicationConflict styles• Competing – Shows great concern for yourself with an “I win, you lose” attitude• Avoiding – Does little to address the needs with little communication and an “I lose, you lose” attitude• Accommodating – Sacrifice your needs for the other person with an “I lose you win” mindset• Collaboration – Focuses on both sides’ needs with an “I win, you win” philosophy• Compromising – Some concern for your needs and some concern for the others’ needs with an “I win and lose, and you win and lose” outcome