LIFE THROUGH HISTORY teacher’s guidelinesSubject: ScienceLevel: 4th level of Primary SchoolSESSION 1: INTRODUCTION TO PREHISTORYTeaching notes:-A timeline is a valuable tool for teaching the concept of chronology and therelevance of the dates and events along the History. We have to be sure thatthe pupils know how to use it.-To understand and explain when the Prehistory was (basic division andchronology)-They need to know the meaning of BC and AD.-Early men would work hard in order to assure their own survival. They needbasically, water, food and protection. They had a lot of problems but they founda solution for every one of them. Pupils will be asked to find out a solution toeach of the problems (They could have a “language frame”).Material:-School timeline. -flashcards representing the invention of writing and theChrist’s birth.-A computer and a data projector for the power point presention.-Flashcards representing th pottery.-Worksheet 1.Grouping: PlenaryActivities:1-Visit the timeline we’ve got at school. Visit the area where Prehistory it’splaced (point to the basic division -Paleolithic, Neolithic and Metal Ages- andchronology, the way people lived at the different stages, the clothes and toolsthey used, their relationship with the animals, important inventions on that time,the discovering of the agriculture, farming the land, making metal tools...). Pointwhere Christ was born and the invention of the writing.2-The teacher explains what the meaning of BC and AD is using the PowerPoint.3-Pupils should be able to say if some historical periods, events or inventionswere BC or AD.4-The teacher ask the students what human beings need to live. The teachershow the students the problems they had and the pupils have to find out thesolutions.
SESSION 2: GETTING FOOD (VEGETABLES, MEAT, LIVESTOCKFARMING)Teaching notes:-In this session the pupils are going to learn how did early men dealtwith getting and storing vegetables as a part of their diet.-They are also going to learn how did early men dealtwith getting meat (by hunting and fishing) as a part of their diet. We are going to talkabout tools and the materials that they can be made of. Besides we are going tointroduce one of the uses of fire in Prehistory: the Metallurgy. At the end of this lessonpupils will be asked to make a prehistoric tool, so the teacher has to provide somesticks, stones (pebbles are the better ones) and string. This is an extra activity, so theteacher will have to consider its execution. It could be done adding a session to thisunit.Material:-School timeline.-Flashcards representing the basketwork and farming the land.-Flashcard representing tools (hook, tools for farming the land), weapons(spears, arrow), metallurgy, hunting, fishing.-A computer and a projector for the power point presentation.Grouping:Whole classActivities:1- The teacher asks the pupils what sort of food early men would eat.2- The teacher asks the pupils how early men got vegetables. Maybe they’ll talk aboutgathering, for example. But a problem is formulated: What happens during the drysummers or cold winters? The teacher asks the pupils to find differentsolutions. The suggested answers are that early men learnt to farm the land and usedcontainers to store fruits and seeds.3- Extra activity: The students visit the school garden. They can plant a plant(This activity will need an extra session).4- Early men learnt to farm the land and make basketwork in Neolithic, so a volunteeris asked to put the respective flashcards on the timeline.5- The teacher asks the pupils how early men got meat. Maybe they’ll talk abouthunting or fishing, for example. But a problem is formulated: Is it easy hunting orfishing? The teacher asks the pupils to find different solutions. The suggested answeris that early men learnt to shape stones in order to make tools and weapons.6- Some volunteers have to put on the timeline the following flashcards: tools (hook,tools for farming the land), weapons (spears, arrow), metallurgy, hunting, fishing.Some of the flashcards could be put on different places; pupils should discuss andargue which the more suitable place is for each flashcard.7- Extra activity: Making a prehistoric tool (This activity will need an extra session).We can do this activity in the timeline class (inventions).
SESSION 3: GETTING PROTECTION (HOUSING AND CLOTHING)Teaching notes:-In this session the pupils are going to learn how did early men dealtwith getting always meat (by taking care of animals). Besides we are going to talkabout another use of fire: cooking.-The pupils are going to learn how did early men got protection against the badweather.Material:-School timeline.-Flashcard representing taking care of animals, oven, stockpot-Flashcards representing fur coat, dress, sewing, needle, weaving.-A computer and a projector for the power point presentationGrouping:Whole class, individual activity (worksheet) and work in pairs (worksheet).Activities:1- Review: The teacher asks the pupils to remember the problems related tohunt and fish to the pupils explained in the previous session. They should be able tosay the solution that early men found out.2- The teacher asks the pupils if they think that animals can be hunted always, so aproblem is formulated: What happens during the cold winters? Theteacher asks the pupils to find different solutions. The suggested answer is that earlymen learnt to take care of animals.3- The students will see the different uses of fire to cook (boiling, roasting andbaking). They will say some examples of different things they eat, related with thedifferent way they are cooked.4- Some volunteers have to put on the timeline the following flashcards: taking care ofanimals, oven, stockpot. Some of the flashcards could be put on different places;pupils should discuss and argue which the more suitable place is for each flashcard.5- The teacher explains that early men were always looking for food before they learntto farm the land and took care of animals, so they were nomadic, so a problem isformulated: How did they get protection against the bad weather andpredators? The teacher asks the pupils to find different solutions. Thesuggested answer is that early men got shelter in caves.6-The teacher introduces the concept of sedentary.7-Previously the teacher could consider the execution of a speaking activity; it consistsin a work in pairs. The student A has some statements about the nomadic lifestyle andsome consequences of the sedentary lifestyle and the student B has some statementsabout the sedentary lifestyle and some consequences of the nomadic lifestyle. Thestudent A, for example, should read the first statement about the nomadic lifestyle andthe student B should be able, reading his sheet, to find the consequence of thisstatement, and so on.
SESSION 4: CONCLUSIONSTeaching notes:In this session the pupils are going to confirm the “success” of early men in their fightfor survival. Besides they are going to learn about further discoveries and inventions(the wheel, the navigation, swords, pigments, the fire, the flute, the trade...).Pupils are supposed to have got the pictures and they can devote 20~30 minutes toprepare the display and the rest of the session to prepare the oralexplanation.Material● display: big timeline● flashcards representing the wheel, the navigation,swords, pigments, the fire, theflute,...● a computer and a projector for the power point presentation (we will need internet tolook for information about these discoveries and inventions).● cardboards, pencils, colours, scissors, felt-tips,...Grouping:Groups of 4 studentsActivities1- Review: The teacher asks the pupils if they remember what human beings need tosurvive and what early men did in order to get them2- Make a display:In groups of four, the pupils prepared their displays. These displayswill have to be explained by them in the next session, so they have also to prepare abrief report about their topic. The teacher will provide an outline in order to facilitatethis task. They can construct do some examplesSESSION 5: ASSESMENTTeaching notes:In this sessions each group of pupils will show and explain hisdisplay to the rest of the mates.Material:The cardboard, flashcards and all the material they need to explain their work.Grouping:Groups of fourActivities1- Oral explanation (assessment activity, speaking by explaining discoveries and inventionsalong the Prehistory, giving reason of them and comparing their use in the past with their usenowadays)