The MHP-Guide                  A comprehensive Guide to the Multimedia Home Platform,                        the underlyin...
Document Information:Document Type:                       DeliverableDocument No.:                        D16Title:       ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                        Version: 1.01 Purpose ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                              ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                         Version: 1.02 What is...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                         Version: 1.0entertain...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                   Version: 1....
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                        Version: 1.0          ...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                        Versio...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                          Vers...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                   Version: 1....
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                             V...
30th March 2006The MHP-Guide                                                                                         Versi...
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The mhp guide

  1. 1. The MHP-Guide A comprehensive Guide to the Multimedia Home Platform, the underlying technology and possible usesDocument / Version number: D16 / 1.0Date: 30.03.2006Issued by: The MHP Knowledge Project (MHP-KDB)This document is available at: http://www.mhpkdb.org Visit the MHP Knowledge Database: www.mhpkdb.org
  2. 2. Document Information:Document Type: DeliverableDocument No.: D16Title: The MHP GuideVersion No.: 1.0Related to work package: WP4Type of the Deliverable: ReportDissemination level: PublicAuthor: The MHP Knowledge ProjectDue date: January 2006Delivery date (Ver. 0.9): 13th February 2006 (Stable Draft)Delivery date (Ver. 1.0): 30th March 2006 Copyright notice © 2006 Institut für Rundfunktechnik GmbH on behalf of The MHP Knowledge Project This work may be reproduced and redistributed, in whole or in part, without alteration and without prior written permission, provided all copies contain the following statement: © 2006 Institut für Rundfunktechnik GmbH on behalf of The MHP Knowledge Project. This work is reproduced and distributed with the permission of the Institut für Rundfunktechnik GmbH. No other use is permitted without the express prior written permission. For permission, contact info@mhpkdb.org. This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. As we are interested to continuously improve the quality of our documents, we kindly ask you to report back any error you find in our documents or any improvement you are able to suggest. This can be done via writing comments into the database or by an email to feedback@mhpkdb.org.
  3. 3. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0Table of ContentTable of Content.......................................................................................................................3List of Tables ..........................................................................................................................11List of Figures.........................................................................................................................121 Purpose of the MHP-Guide .............................................................................................14 1.1 General ...................................................................................................................14 1.2 Target Groups ........................................................................................................142 What is interactive television?.........................................................................................19 2.1 Types of applications ..............................................................................................19 2.1.1 Available Interactive Applications .......................................................................19 2.1.2 Information Services ...........................................................................................20 2.1.3 Communication Services ....................................................................................22 2.1.4 Entertainment Services.......................................................................................23 2.1.5 T-Commerce.......................................................................................................25 2.1.6 T-Government.....................................................................................................26 2.1.7 T-Learning ..........................................................................................................27 2.1.8 T-Health/T-Care..................................................................................................28 2.1.9 Business TV........................................................................................................28 2.2 Levels of interactivity ..............................................................................................293 Introduction to MHP ........................................................................................................31 3.1 The DVB Project .....................................................................................................31 3.2 The need for MHP as an open API standard..........................................................31 3.2.1 Market developments and DVB activities ...........................................................31 3.2.2 EU policy.............................................................................................................32 3.3 MHP activities in DVB.............................................................................................33 3.4 MHP: Current status and new developments .........................................................33 3.5 Ensuring the interoperability of MHP ......................................................................34 3.5.1 The MHP Test Suite ...........................................................................................35 3.5.2 The MHP Knowledge Project..............................................................................36 3.6 MHP in the markets ................................................................................................37 3.6.1 Austria.................................................................................................................37 3.6.2 Denmark .............................................................................................................38 3.6.3 Finland ................................................................................................................38 Page 3 of 215
  4. 4. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0 3.6.4 France.................................................................................................................39 3.6.5 Flandern..............................................................................................................39 3.6.6 Germany .............................................................................................................40 3.6.7 Italy .....................................................................................................................41 3.6.8 Norway................................................................................................................42 3.6.9 Spain...................................................................................................................43 3.6.10 Sweden...........................................................................................................44 3.6.11 United Kingdom ..............................................................................................45 3.6.12 Switzerland .....................................................................................................454 MHP iTV Applications .....................................................................................................46 4.1 MHP application .....................................................................................................46 4.1.1 Why Java? ..........................................................................................................46 4.1.2 Extensions added from other standards .............................................................46 4.1.3 New TV Specific functionality .............................................................................47 4.2 MHP applications and the broadcast chain ............................................................515 MHP end-to-end architecture ..........................................................................................53 5.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................53 5.2 MHP end-to-end reference model ..........................................................................53 5.2.1 Program Content Playout ...................................................................................54 5.2.2 MHP Application Authoring & Production Tools .................................................54 5.2.3 Content Management System (CMS).................................................................54 5.2.4 Download server & firmware upgrade ................................................................54 5.2.5 Public Key Infrastructure MHP PKI.....................................................................55 5.2.6 PSI/SI..................................................................................................................55 5.2.7 DSM-CC .............................................................................................................56 5.2.8 Conditional Access System ................................................................................57 5.2.9 Network Equipment ............................................................................................58 5.2.10 MHP terminal ..................................................................................................58 5.2.11 Return Channel...............................................................................................58 5.2.12 Application specific backend servers..............................................................59 5.3 Actors of the MHP end-to-end system and their roles ............................................59 5.3.1 MHP authoring tool vendor .................................................................................61 5.3.2 MHP application developer.................................................................................61 5.3.3 MHP service provider .........................................................................................61 5.3.4 Broadcaster ........................................................................................................61 Page 4 of 215
  5. 5. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0 5.3.5 Network operator ................................................................................................62 5.3.6 MHP playout vendor ...........................................................................................62 5.3.7 CAS provider ......................................................................................................62 5.3.8 ISP ......................................................................................................................62 5.3.9 MHP Backend operator ......................................................................................63 5.3.10 MHP terminal vendor ......................................................................................63 5.3.11 DVB Services SARL .......................................................................................63 5.3.12 MHP Certification Authority.............................................................................64 5.3.13 End-user .........................................................................................................64 5.3.14 MHP SW stack provider..................................................................................646 Organization of the MHP knowledge...............................................................................657 Basic Architecture ...........................................................................................................67 7.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................67 7.2 DVB-J .....................................................................................................................67 7.2.1 Introduction .........................................................................................................67 7.2.2 DVB-J Constraints ..............................................................................................67 7.3 DVB-HTML .............................................................................................................68 7.4 Principle of scarce resources .................................................................................69 7.4.1 Memory...............................................................................................................69 7.4.2 Persistent storage...............................................................................................69 7.4.3 Tuning Interface..................................................................................................73 7.4.4 Return Channel...................................................................................................74 7.5 Migration .................................................................................................................75 7.5.1 Migration from previous legacy middleware to MHP ..........................................75 7.5.2 Migration from older to more recent MHP versions ............................................768 Broadcast Protocols ........................................................................................................79 8.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................79 8.2 Transport Stream Elements....................................................................................79 8.2.1 A note on naming................................................................................................79 8.2.2 MPEG-2 Transport Stream .................................................................................79 8.2.3 DVB Transport Stream .......................................................................................82 8.2.4 MHP....................................................................................................................82 8.3 DSM-CC .................................................................................................................82 8.3.1 DSM-CC Object Carousel...................................................................................83 8.3.2 Object carousel optimization...............................................................................84 Page 5 of 215
  6. 6. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0 8.4 Synchronization ......................................................................................................85 8.4.1 Do-It-Now stream events ....................................................................................85 8.4.2 Scheduled stream events ...................................................................................86 8.4.3 Creating stream events.......................................................................................86 8.5 Section Filtering ......................................................................................................87 8.5.1 What is a section? ..............................................................................................87 8.5.2 MHP....................................................................................................................88 8.5.3 Capacity and performance..................................................................................88 8.5.4 Examples ............................................................................................................89 8.6 Tuning and service selection ..................................................................................89 8.7 Principles of conditional access (smart card, CI content protection) ......................909 MHP Applications and Application Lifecycle ...................................................................92 9.1 Applets and Xlets....................................................................................................92 9.2 Xlet Application.......................................................................................................92 9.3 Resident applications .............................................................................................94 9.4 Stored applications .................................................................................................94 9.4.1 Restrictions of stored applications ......................................................................95 9.4.2 Extensions to MHP 1.0 APIs...............................................................................95 9.4.3 Signaling of stored application............................................................................9610 Service Signaling........................................................................................................97 10.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................97 10.2 Introduction to SI / PSI............................................................................................97 10.2.1 Information independent from transport stream..............................................98 10.2.2 Optional “other” tables ....................................................................................98 10.2.3 Tuning to other streams..................................................................................99 10.2.4 Accessing Service Information .......................................................................99 10.2.5 Usage of the SI overview tables .....................................................................99 10.3 Introduction to AIT and application change ..........................................................100 10.4 Application Loading over Return Channel ............................................................10111 Security.....................................................................................................................102 11.1 Security in interactive television environments .....................................................102 11.1.1 Integrity .........................................................................................................102 11.1.2 Confidentiality ...............................................................................................103 11.1.3 Availability.....................................................................................................103 11.2 Signing MHP Applications ....................................................................................104 Page 6 of 215
  7. 7. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0 11.2.1 Hash files (dvb.hashfile) ...............................................................................104 11.2.2 Signature files (dvb.signature.*)....................................................................104 11.2.3 Certificate files (dvb.certificates.*) ................................................................105 11.2.4 Example of a signed MHP application ..........................................................106 11.3 DVB MHP Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) ............................................................107 11.3.1 Actors in the MHP PKI ..................................................................................107 11.3.2 DVB Services Hierarchy ...............................................................................107 11.3.3 DVB MHP PKI for MHP terminal Manufacturers...........................................109 11.3.4 DVB MHP PKI for Application Developers....................................................109 11.3.5 DVB MHP PKI for Broadcasters ...................................................................109 11.3.6 Certificate Management................................................................................110 11.4 Authenticating applications in the MHP Terminal .................................................110 11.5 Application Rights Model ......................................................................................111 11.6 Other aspects .......................................................................................................11112 Graphics, Text Presentation, Audio, Video...............................................................113 12.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................113 12.2 Layers and composition concept ..........................................................................113 12.3 Playable media .....................................................................................................114 12.3.1 Java Media Framework 1.0 .........................................................................114 12.3.2 Java Media Framework 2.0 .........................................................................114 12.3.3 Java Media Framework on MHP terminals ..................................................115 12.3.4 Media flow....................................................................................................115 12.3.5 Media player and available controls ............................................................115 12.3.6 Obtaining a player and controls ...................................................................118 12.3.7 Selection of audio components with AudioLanguageControl .......................119 12.3.8 Selection of subtitles with SubtitlingLanguageControl .................................120 12.3.9 Selection of media with MediaSelectControl ...............................................122 12.4 UI components overview/main HAVI components................................................123 12.4.1 Main HAVI components ................................................................................123 12.4.2 HComponent and HContainer ......................................................................123 12.4.3 HVisible and HLook ......................................................................................125 12.4.4 Other considerations using HAVI..................................................................126 12.4.5 Input events and exclusive registrations on input event ...............................126 12.5 Displayable graphics formats and restriction ........................................................127 12.5.1 PNG ..............................................................................................................128 Page 7 of 215
  8. 8. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0 12.5.2 JPEG ............................................................................................................128 12.5.3 GIF................................................................................................................128 12.6 Color Table ...........................................................................................................129 12.7 Differences between TV and computer screens...................................................130 12.7.1 Calculation (PAL).........................................................................................132 12.7.2 Loss of sharpness.........................................................................................132 12.7.3 Calculation (NTSC) .......................................................................................133 12.7.4 Overview of scale factors.............................................................................133 12.8 Color conversion...................................................................................................133 12.9 Double buffering ...................................................................................................134 12.10 Fonts.....................................................................................................................135 12.10.1 Generating fonts ...........................................................................................135 12.10.2 Generating the font index file........................................................................136 12.10.3 Using external fonts ......................................................................................13713 Return Channel ........................................................................................................138 13.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................138 13.2 Types of return channels ......................................................................................138 13.2.1 Always-on return channels ...........................................................................138 13.2.2 Connection-based return channels...............................................................139 13.2.3 Detailed example ..........................................................................................139 13.3 Protocol overview .................................................................................................139 13.3.1 UDP ..............................................................................................................139 13.3.2 TCP...............................................................................................................139 13.3.3 HTTP ............................................................................................................140 13.3.4 DNS ..............................................................................................................140 13.3.5 Protocol support............................................................................................140 13.4 MHP as client for Internet services & Integration of contents received via return channel .............................................................................................................................141 13.5 Security on the Return Channel ...........................................................................14214 Equipment ................................................................................................................143 14.1 Playout systems ...................................................................................................143 14.2 MHP Terminal architecture ...................................................................................144 14.2.1 Hardware requirements ................................................................................146 14.2.2 Conceptual view for Software architecture ...................................................147 14.3 Test equipment.....................................................................................................148 Page 8 of 215
  9. 9. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0 14.3.1 IRT MHP Application analyzer ......................................................................148 14.3.2 Return Channel analysis tool........................................................................149 14.3.3 AIT / DSM-CC Analyzer and Compliance Tool.............................................150 14.3.4 Loading Time Analyzer .................................................................................15115 Usability ....................................................................................................................152 15.1 Layout and Design................................................................................................153 15.1.1 As much as necessary, as little as possible .................................................154 15.1.2 Consistency ..................................................................................................154 15.1.3 Screen Layout...............................................................................................154 15.2 Navigation.............................................................................................................156 15.2.1 Remote Control Units ...................................................................................156 15.2.2 Interaction Design.........................................................................................158 15.3 Legibility of Text....................................................................................................159 15.3.1 Legibility Examples .......................................................................................159 15.4 Recommendations for Using Colors .....................................................................162 15.5 Usability Studies and User-Centered Design .......................................................16316 MHP Outlook ............................................................................................................166 16.1 Technical aspects .................................................................................................166 16.1.1 DVB over IP / IP tuner ..................................................................................166 16.1.2 IP over DVB ..................................................................................................167 16.1.3 Personal Digital Recorder (PDR) ..................................................................168 16.1.4 HDTV ............................................................................................................169 16.1.5 MPEG4 / H.264.............................................................................................169 16.1.6 DVB-S2.........................................................................................................170 16.1.7 Object Tracking.............................................................................................170 16.2 Commercial aspects .............................................................................................171 16.2.1 DVB-MHP in Europe.....................................................................................171 16.2.2 DVB-MHP in the rest of the world .................................................................17317 Glossary and abbreviations ......................................................................................17518 Literature ..................................................................................................................191 18.1 General DVB ........................................................................................................191 18.2 General TV ...........................................................................................................191 18.3 General User Interaction ......................................................................................191 18.4 Other.....................................................................................................................19219 Annex A - How to use the MHP KDB .......................................................................193 Page 9 of 215
  10. 10. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0 19.1 Organization of the Database Content .................................................................193 19.1.1 Rights and Roles ..........................................................................................194 19.1.2 Reviewing Process .......................................................................................194 19.2 Using the KDB ......................................................................................................195 19.3 Licensing conditions .............................................................................................198 19.3.1 Licensing conditions for documents in the static part of KDB .......................199 19.3.2 Licensing conditions for Java source code ...................................................19920 Annex B – Develop your first Xlet with MHP-KDB....................................................201 20.1 Build an application ..............................................................................................201 20.2 Download an application: .....................................................................................202 20.3 Debug an application:...........................................................................................202 20.4 Source code of basic application: .........................................................................20321 Annex C - Presentation of the MHP APIs.................................................................206 21.1 “Core” APIs ...........................................................................................................206 21.2 JMF APIs ..............................................................................................................207 21.3 JavaTV APIs .........................................................................................................207 21.4 DAVIC APIs ..........................................................................................................208 21.5 HAVi (Home Audio Video Interoperability) APIs ...................................................209 21.6 DVB APIs..............................................................................................................20922 Annex D – Migration .................................................................................................212 Page 10 of 215
  11. 11. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0List of TablesTable 1-1: Chapters and their potential target group relevance............................................................ 18Table 2-1: Levels of interactivity in relation to types of applications ..................................................... 30Table 5-1: Elucidation of actors in the MHP end-to-end reference model ............................................ 60Table 11-1: Actors in the MHP Public Key Infrastructure.................................................................... 107Table 12-1: Palette construction rules................................................................................................. 130Table 13-1: MHP 1.0.x Protocol Support............................................................................................. 141Table 13-2: MHP 1.1.1 Protocol support ............................................................................................. 141Table 14-1: Hardware resource requirements..................................................................................... 146Table 15-1: Mandatory keys in MHP ................................................................................................... 158Table 19-1: Rights and Roles Model of the MHP-KDB ....................................................................... 194Table 20-1: Authoring Tools vendors .................................................................................................. 202Table 21-1: Java Core APIs ................................................................................................................ 207Table 21-2: JavaTV APIs..................................................................................................................... 208 Page 11 of 215
  12. 12. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0List of FiguresFigure 2-1: EPG of the ARD Portal ....................................................................................................... 20Figure 2-2: Simple STB-EPG (TechniSat)............................................................................................. 20Figure 2-3: News Service with ¼ scaled video (Mediaset, Italy)........................................................... 21Figure 2-4: Weather Service (RTL TV interaktiv, Germany) ................................................................. 21Figure 2-5: Traffic Service (Prototype, rbb, Germany) .......................................................................... 22Figure 2-6: Interactive multimedia teletext (Pro7, Germany) ................................................................ 22Figure 2-7: TV mail client (Alticast) ....................................................................................................... 22Figure 2-8: Arcade Game on TV screen (sofia digital) .......................................................................... 23Figure 2-9: Interactive TV Game (ZDF, Germany)................................................................................ 23Figure 2-10: Video on Demand Selection (gist) .................................................................................... 24Figure 2-11: Tracking ebay auctions on the TV screen (Nionex).......................................................... 25Figure 2-12: Sofa Shopping with OTTO’s interactive MHP Shop ......................................................... 25Figure 2-13: Regional Information Portal for the city of Tampere (Finland).......................................... 26Figure 2-14: Voting application related to News Show (SkyTV, UK) .................................................... 27Figure 2-15: Kids’ Edutainment: Goosebumps (FoxKids, Germany) .................................................... 27Figure 2-16: Customer Information at Housing Society “ewt” (GIST, Germany) ....................................................................................................................................... 28Figure 3-1: Profiles of the MHP standard .............................................................................................. 34Figure 3-2: The MHP Logo .................................................................................................................... 35Figure 3-3: DGTVi Logo ........................................................................................................................ 42Figure 4-1: HScene in the UI model ...................................................................................................... 50Figure 4-2: Display structure ................................................................................................................. 51Figure 4-3 MHP applications in broadcast chain................................................................................... 52Figure 5-1: MHP E2E Reference Model................................................................................................ 53Figure 5-2: Detailed view of Conditional Access System...................................................................... 57Figure 6-1: Mapping of the MHP-KDB Categories in the MHP End-to-End Reference Model ............................................................................................................................ 66Figure 7-1 Plug-in implementation options............................................................................................ 75Figure 8-1 Transport Stream ................................................................................................................. 80Figure 8-2 Example building blocks of an MPEG-2 encoder ................................................................ 80Figure 8-3 MPEG-2 Packet Header ...................................................................................................... 81Figure 8-4 Example of object carousel in DVB service ......................................................................... 83Figure 8-5: DSM-CC Object Carousel Layering .................................................................................... 84Figure 8-6: Encrypting and decrypting content...................................................................................... 90Figure 8-7: Encryption and decryption process..................................................................................... 91Figure 9-1: Xlet lifecycle state machine diagram................................................................................... 92 Page 12 of 215
  13. 13. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0Figure 11-1: Example of a signed application [Hetzer 2001] .............................................................. 106Figure 11-2: The DVB Services Hierarchy .......................................................................................... 108Figure 12-1: Graphic Planes in MHP................................................................................................... 113Figure 12-2: Porter-Duff Alpha Composition Rules ............................................................................. 114Figure 12-3: HComponent and HContainer (a) ................................................................................... 123Figure 12-4: HComponent and HContainer (b) ................................................................................... 124Figure 12-5: HVisible and HLook ........................................................................................................ 125Figure 12-6: Example of a color table ................................................................................................. 129Figure 12-7: Opaque CLUT ................................................................................................................. 130Figure 12-8: Comparison of pixel aspect ratios................................................................................... 131Figure 14-1: Typical MHP playout server interfaces ........................................................................... 143Figure 14-2: The MHP Logo ................................................................................................................ 144Figure 14-3: MHP terminal hardware architecture ............................................................................. 145Figure 14-4: MHP terminal software architecture............................................................................... 147Figure 15-1: Typical Screen Structure of an MHP Application............................................................ 153Figure 15-2: Basic Formal Structure of a Screen Surface .................................................................. 153Figure 15-3: Layout of a TV Screen .................................................................................................... 154Figure 15-4: Screen Organization ....................................................................................................... 155Figure 15-5: Remote Controls of MHP Terminals ............................................................................... 156Figure 15-6: Functions of a Remote Control ....................................................................................... 158Figure 15-7: Legibility Example 1 ........................................................................................................ 160Figure 15-8: Legibility Example 2 ........................................................................................................ 160Figure 15-9: Legibility Example 3 ........................................................................................................ 161Figure 15-10: Legibility Example 4 ...................................................................................................... 162Figure 15-11: Examples of color combinations with poor legibility...................................................... 163Figure 16-1: Example of an IP STB..................................................................................................... 167Figure 16-2: HD Ready logo defined by EICTA for HD equipment..................................................... 169Figure 16-3: Example for object tracking............................................................................................. 170Figure 16-4: MHP situation in the world in August 2005 [MHP_ORG]................................................ 171Figure 19-1: Simplified Data Model of the KDB .................................................................................. 193Figure 19-2: Searching an Issue in the KDB ....................................................................................... 195Figure 19-3: Adding an Issue to the KDB............................................................................................ 196Figure 19-4: Editing a Document......................................................................................................... 198Figure 20-1: Developing application steps .......................................................................................... 201 Page 13 of 215
  14. 14. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.01 Purpose of the MHP-Guide1.1 GeneralDVB MHP, the DVB Multimedia Home Platform, is a major standard forinteractive TV today. This document is a free guidebook that offers MHP-KDB Project:comprehensive knowledge on all fundamental aspects of MHP for all those The MHP-KDB projectinvolved along the end-to-end chain of interactive TV: those who are simply is co-funded by the EU as an "IST project.interested in MHP and want a quick overview and those who want to dig Its main aim is todeeper into the subtleties of the standard, those who plan to enter the world improve theof MHP practically and those who already work with MHP and need specific interoperability ofinformation on certain issues. MHP implementations and MHP applications.The MHP-Guide is generated from practical experience of European actorsin broadcasting, IT manufacturing and technology research who are familiarwith MHP in their every day work and who joined forces in the MHPknowledge project mainly to improve interoperability of MHPimplementations and applications. As one major result of this project, theonline MHP-Knowledge Database was established. This database offers acontinuously growing number of solutions including MHP referenceapplication modules as "Open Source" code available for free usage.Additionally a virtual online test center for testing interoperability onstandard hardware MHP terminals.The MHP-Guide complements the resources offered by the MHP-Knowledge Database. While the MHP-Guide provides a comprehensive yetconcise overview of the basic applications and technologies of the MHPEnd-to-End chain, the online database leads on to deeper levels ofknowledge and to the practical dimension, be it for offering your ownsolution, retrieving a solution or testing your applications.The document layout features a broad text column with an extensivemargin. This margin highlights special information such as the depth ofinformation (NOVICE/EXPERT LEVEL), brief definitions of relevant terms andreferences to related entries in the database for more specific knowledgeand practical solutions.1.2 Target GroupsThe MHP-Guide supports fundamental research needs of all sorts ofinterest groups. The following table will help readers to see which chaptersand sections are particularly interesting for them. It lists all documentchapters and their potential target groups. Page 14 of 215
  15. 15. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0 Application Programmers Authoring Tool Providers Decoder Manufacturers Broadcast Equipment Expert/ Novice Level Manufacturers BroadcastersChapter Chapter 2: What is interactive television?2.1 Types of applications N2.2 Levels of interactivity N Chapter 3: Introduction to MHP3.1 The DVB Project N3.2 The need for MHP as an open standard N3.3 MHP activities in DVB N3.4 MHP: Current status and new Ndevelopments3.5 Ensuring the interoperability of MHP N3.6 MHP in the markets N Chapter 4: MHP iTV Applications4.1 MHP application N4.2 MHP applications and the broadcast Nchain Chapter 5: MHP End-to-End Architecture5.1 Introduction N5.2 MHP end-to-end reference model N5.3 Actors of the MHP end-to-end system Nand their roles Chapter 6: Organization of the MHP knowledge6 Organization of the MHP knowledge N Chapter 7: Basic Architecture7.1 Introduction N7.2 DVB-J N7.3 DVB-HTML N7.4 Principle of scarce resources N/E7.5 Migration E Page 15 of 215
  16. 16. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0 Application Programmers Authoring Tool Providers Decoder Manufacturers Broadcast Equipment Expert/ Novice Level Manufacturers BroadcastersChapter Chapter 8: Broadcast Protocols8.1 Introduction N8.2 Transport Stream Elements N8.3 DSM-CC N/E8.4 Synchronization N/E8.5 Section Filtering N8.6 Tuning and service selection N8.7 Principles of conditional access (smart Ncard, CI content protection Chapter 9: MHP Applications and Application Lifecycle9.1 Applets and Xlets N9.2 Xlet Application N9.3 Resident Applications N9.4 Stored Applications N/E Chapter 10: Service Signaling10.1 Introduction N10.2 Introduction to SI /PSI N/E10.3 Introduction to AIT and application Echange10.4 Application Loading over Return NChannel Chapter 11: Security11.1 Security in interactive television Nenvironments11.2 Signing MHP applications E11.3 DVB MHP Public Key Infrastructure E(PKI)11.4 Authenticating applications in the MHP Eterminal Page 16 of 215
  17. 17. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0 Application Programmers Authoring Tool Providers Decoder Manufacturers Broadcast Equipment Expert/ Novice Level Manufacturers BroadcastersChapter11.5 Application Rights Model N11.5 Other Aspects E Chapter 12: Graphics, Text Presentation, Audio, Video12.1 Introduction N12.2 Layers and composition concept N12.3 Playable media N/E12.4 UI components overview/main HAVI Ncomponents12.5 Displayable graphics formats and Nrestriction12.6 Color Table N12.7 Differences between TV and computer N/Escreens12.8 Color conversion E12.9 Double buffering E12.10 Fonts N Chapter 13: Return Channel13.1 Introduction N13.2 Types of return channels N13.3 Protocol overview N13.4 MHP as client for internet services &integration of content received via return Nchannel13.5 Security on the return channel N Chapter 14: Equipment14.1 Playout systems N14.2 MHP terminal architecture E14.3 Test equipment N/E Chapter 15: Usability Page 17 of 215
  18. 18. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0 Application Programmers Authoring Tool Providers Decoder Manufacturers Broadcast Equipment Expert/ Novice Level Manufacturers BroadcastersChapter15.1 Layout and Design N15.2 Navigation N15.3 Legibility of Text N15.4 Recommendations for using colors N15.5 Usability studies and user-centered Ndesign Chapter 16: MHP Outlook16.1 Technical aspects N/E16.2 Commercial aspects N Chapter 17: Glossary and abbreviations17. Glossary and abbreviations N Chapter 18: Literature18. Literature N Annex A19. How to use the MHP KDB N Annex B20. Develop your first Xlet with MHP KDB N Annex C21. Presentation of the MHP APIs N Annex D22. Migration E Table 1-1: Chapters and their potential target group relevance Page 18 of 215
  19. 19. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.02 What is interactive television? NOVICE LEVELWith the dawn of digital television a whole new spectrum of opportunitieshas arrived. We were used to the introduction of new technical elements intelevision during the years of analogue television, but they were all theresults of long-term processes. In those days, new functionalities wererealized by introducing new hardware in the television set (e.g. teletext andstereo chips). Today enhancements are incomparably more rapid and far-reaching in their impact because they are software-based: the digital TVcontains an “engine” for running applications, like we have becomeaccustomed to in the context of PCs. This technological basis of interactiveTV should lead to the introduction of new applications for many years tocome. It can significantly reduce the time to market for new applications.Similar applications coming from different broadcasters will potentially havea different look and feel. It will be possible to bring new applications intouse for just a limited time and scrap them afterwards since they do notcause additional costs for the consumer. Interactive television (iTV)applications will have an impact beyond the traditional broadcasting world.There will be extended commercial potential for these applications and, asa consequence, applications will also be developed by non-broadcasters.The great advantage of interactive TV is that all services are running in acontrolled environment (unlike on the internet). Via DVB-T/S/C broadcastlarge audiences may be addressed without the need of scaling the servercapacity or network connection.But what is it that interactive TV can bring? The following paragraphs willgive an overview of the types of applications and the types of interactivitythat iTV can actually provide. While chapter 2.1 describes various types ofalready available interactive applications, chapter 2.2 aims at a broaderclassification of interactivity.2.1 Types of applications2.1.1 Available Interactive ApplicationsInteractive TV-Applications lead the way out of pure “lean-back”consumption of TV. The first group of applications consists of so-calledprogram related applications that accompany the actual TV broadcast ofcertain programs. These can be classified as follows: Ahead of a certain program they can be instrumental in attracting viewers by offering applications in advance promoting this program; During a broadcast, they allow for the consumers’ active involvement like participation in quizzes or voting, and/or provide additional information that in its depth cannot be covered by the TV program itself, as for example on the occasion of large TV events like the Olympics or Elections, as well as on service programs, science magazines, or entertainment programs; After a program, additional services might offer yet more related information and service or interaction offers that can be dealt with by the consumer independent of the original program time slot.The second large group of applications consists of program-independentapplications offering general information services, communication, Page 19 of 215
  20. 20. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0entertainment, video-on-demand, or T-commerce services, and, finally, TV-based front-ends for e-Government, e-Learning or e-Health.The following sections offer a classification of these listed types of services.They do not refer specifically to the different types of program relatedservices as outlined above. However, elements of the described servicesoften form part of program enhancement. Furthermore, all the applicationtypes described may be combinations of various subsets, e.g. digitextencompassing extensive news service or T-Learning combined with T-Chat, etc. Thus, the explanations and classifications merely serve todescribe types of applications and their general concepts.2.1.2 Information ServicesEPGThe Electronic Program Guide is a common application that should beavailable in all countries and on all STBs. In many cases there are evenindividual EPGs for different services on offer. The EPG lists available TVchannels and the TV programs that run on these channels. Frequently, theEPG is a 7-day program guide. The program data is usually obtained byreading Service Information (SI) data from the broadcast services. Thus itcan inform the user on what is currently on air, what will be broadcast next,etc. While STBs usually offer this information in their individual look andfeel (defined by the STB manufacturer), most broadcasters offer theirspecific, more extensive EPGs. This is especially interesting if they operatemore than one channel, because an attractive EPG may draw users tocertain programs on additional channels. Figure 2-1: EPG of the ARD Portal Figure 2-2: Simple STB-EPG (TechniSat) Page 20 of 215
  21. 21. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0News Service / Event ServiceThere are various kinds of News Services; most of them are portal-likelistings of current affairs, some with sophisticated categorization, andothers with very simple structures. News Applications range from simpleLive-Tickers provided via a small overlay band (in most cases at the bottompart of the screen) to extensive (program related) information portals on bigevents such as championships, Olympic Games or the Grand Prix 1Eurovision de la Chanson . Figure 2-3: News Service with ¼ scaled video (Mediaset, Italy)Weather ForecastWeather Forecast Services are usually of the type “broadcast only”.Interactivity lies mainly in the fact that users can choose detailed views ofcertain regions for a certain day. Various services throughout Europe offera selection of regional, national and international forecasts and currentinformation. Figure 2-4: Weather Service (RTL TV interaktiv, Germany)Traffic ServiceSimilarly, Traffic Services can offer users a choice of detailed informationon a certain region at a certain time. rbb’s prototype of an interactive trafficservice highlights construction sites, traffic jams and other road blocks forany selected region in Berlin and Brandenburg. Traffic information may alsoinclude information and schedules of public transport services, trainstations and airports. 21 Examples can, among others, be found at http://www.mediaset.it/digitaleterrestre/ or http://www.ard-digital.de/index.php?id=282&languageid=1.2 For a video presenting the user scenario visit http://www.rbb-online.de/_/unternehmen/beitrag_jsp/activeid=254/key=teaser_300427.html Page 21 of 215
  22. 22. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0 Figure 2-5: Traffic Service (Prototype, rbb, Germany)Digitext / teletextiTV offers the opportunity to deliver all sorts of extra information related tothe TV program much in the way it is done on the Internet. In addition toregular, i.e. the currently usual, text-based pages, broadcasters or serviceproviders can offer pictures, audio and video in interactive portals, mostlyrelying on bi-directional interactivity especially for video delivery. Figure 2-6: Interactive multimedia teletext (Pro7, Germany)2.1.3 Communication ServicesT-Mail / T-ChatVarious companies on the MHP market offer MHP-based mail clients.These can be integrated in special community services by broadcasters,i.e. in program enhancement, but they can as well be implemented in theSTB directly, just like an EPG (see section 2.1.2). Mail and Chatapplications are clearly of the bi-directional type as they involve actualcommunication among end-users. It goes without saying that theseapplications require the use of the return channel to connect to a mailserver on the Internet and a keyboard, physical or virtual on screen. Figure 2-7: TV mail client (Alticast) Page 22 of 215
  23. 23. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.02.1.4 Entertainment ServicesT-GamesInteractive Games for the TV screen may range from “broadcast only” to T-Games“bi-directional”. “Broadcast only” style would include so-called Arcade Interactive Games toGames like Tetris, Black Jack and the like. These games are mostly TV play on the TV screen.compatible as interaction here only requires very few keys on the remotecontrol and can be handled very easily. Applications are relatively smalland quite well-received by customers. As they usually are not related tospecific TV programs they are provided by middleware or STB developers 3rather than broadcasters , so that, similar to the mobile phone market,these applications would be delivered with the STB or downloaded from awebsite of a software provider directly to the iTV Terminal. Figure 2-8: Arcade Game on TV screen (sofia digital)Beyond basic Arcade gambling, some providers also offer traditional boardgames transferred to iTV applications, e.g. Sky’s version of Cluedo, Soccer(penalty) games or even more program related offers like BBCi’s CBeebies(amongst others an interactive Big Brother game). 4 Figure 2-9: Interactive TV Game (ZDF, Germany)Broadcasters have also built quiz games applications related to specificshows and enabling users to participate in these shows. Multiple choicegames are especially applicable as there is a finite number of selectableoptions, so that users can even use the color-, arrow- or number keys onthe remote control to select the correct answer. Figure 2-9 5 shows a kids’quiz which has been broadcast in Germany since the 1970s; kids in the3 See, for example, http://www.broadbandbananas.com/, SofiaDigital at http://www.digitv.fi/sivu.asp?path=9;1239;3392;3928, or http://www.digeo.com/prodserv/digeoitv.jsp.4 All applications listed in this paragraph can be found at www.broadbandbananas.com/ with screenshots, scenario videos and background information.5 For a use scenario of this iTV game see http://www.zdf.de/ZDFmediathek/inhalt/16/0,4070,2173552-6-wm_dsl,00.html Page 23 of 215
  24. 24. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0studio see a short video and hear a question. After that they get some 30seconds to choose the right answer by jumping back and forth between thepossible statements. With the new interactive version, kids at home canalso make a choice. Via the color keys (blue, green, yellow) they can selectone out of three cartoon figures jumping between the three availablechoices. They score a point if the figure ends up on the correct spot. (Formore edutainment examples, cf. 2.1.7 T-Learning). The same is, of course,possible with quiz shows for grown-ups like the two ARD Quiz Shows 6(Germany) or “Who Wants To Be a Millionaire?” (France, Germany, Italyand the UK) 7 .For more and other ways of interactive TV Games the reader is alsorecommended to take a look at BBC’s Channel 4 Games:http://www.broadbandbananas.com/Video on Demand ServicesiTV can also function as a distribution interface for Video on Demand (VoD)Services. Via such a portal customers select films from a range of available VoD / Video onmovies. In hotel rooms of the world this portal will be more a transaction Demand:interface where a time slot is ordered that will later be charged on the hotel Films can be orderedroom bill – the movies are transmitted or delivered by a fixed schedule and and startedthe customers’ actions on the portal will merely allow access. As the individually by requestschedule would be kept even without interaction by a single user this way of the customer,of selling access rights is also called Near-VoD. “True” VoD, e.g. at home independent ofwould offer the possibility to choose a film that would actually be delivered broadcast program schedules.because of this transaction. The TV program is available “on demand”,whenever the end-user chooses. Usually, the STB would have broadbandaccess and the selected movie would be delivered via ADSL or a similar 8connection. Figure 2-10: Video on Demand Selection (gist)6 For the Edutainment program “Kopfball” see http://www.ard-digital.de/index.php?id=2670&languageid=1, for “Das Quiz mit Jörg Pilawa” see http://www.ard-digital.de/index.php?id=280&languageid=17 There may be more iTV applications on this quiz format in other countries. For France and UK see http://www.broadbandbananas.com/, for Germany http://www.rtl.de/tv/743540.php, for Italy: http://www.mediaset.it/news/scheda/9109.shtml8 The screenshot shows a VoD Service by German developer company GIST (http://www.gist.de/). See also http://www.digeo.com/prodserv/moxi_ondemand.jsp for a concrete VoD service. Page 24 of 215
  25. 25. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.02.1.5 T-Commerce T-CommerceInteractive TV offers a number of possibilities for T-Commerce, from Analogue to the terminteractive advertising to triggering actual purchase transactions via the TV e-Commerce T-set (also called “transactive TV”). Commerce covers all sorts of “commercial “Tele-Shopping applications andA number of T-Commerce applications have been developed/ proto-typed transactions that are delivered andalready. performed on the TVWith an extra feature of the pontegra browser (www.nionex.de) users can screen.track current eBay auctions and be informed as soon as the auction statuschanges. 9 Figure 2-11: Tracking ebay auctions on the TV screen (Nionex)There are also a number of iTV Shopping portals using different iTVstandards: Nionex offers a “pontegra T-Commerce shopping solution 10which appears to be transactive and bi-directional. German Mail-Ordercompany OTTO also created an interactive shopping portal wherecustomers can see, select and order all sorts of goods from the TV screen-adapted catalogue just like they would on the Internet. Figure 2-12: Sofa Shopping with OTTO’s interactive MHP ShopInteractive AdvertisingThere have also been a number of prototypes for interactive advertising,e.g. an MHP-based ad for Daimler-Chrysler in 2002 11 . Beyond merelyattaching further information that is made available through interactivenavigation menus, optimum impact is expected from an emotionalcontextualization of the product [DUREAU 2004]. There have been variousprototypical applications that connected certain products to TV programs9 Brochure available at the site of the application developer, Nionex: http://www.nionex.de/downloads/Images/29_3463.pdf/download_pontegra_eBay_tracking.pdf10 http://www.nionex.de/downloads/Images/29_3462.pdf/download_T-commerce.pdf11 For more information see http://www.mhp-forum.de/content/applikat/daimler.htm Page 25 of 215
  26. 26. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0through object tracking and interactive menus for backgroundinformation. 122.1.6 T-Government T-GovernmentRegional Information Portals Analogue to the termDespite strong efforts - e.g. in Italy - to push iTV as a prime medium for e- e-GovernmentGovernment there are not yet many relevant T-Government Services. T-Government coversEspecially regarding interactivity the available services seem rather meager all sorts of informationto date. Some network providers and especially STB developers have services and (ideally)made first tests on the use of chip cards in STBs to enable maximum data communication andsecurity. Currently, a number of regional information portals in Finland and actions with the relevant authority,Italy are on offer as “T-Government” services; however, they often merely delivered andcombine tourist information with local news and announcements. performed on the TV screen. Figure 2-13: Regional Information Portal for the city of Tampere (Finland)The ‘Italia Utile’ (‘Useful Italy’, also called “Utile T-Gov”) DTV portal isplanned to make available public information and services currently on offervia the web based e-government portal Italia.gov.it also via terrestrialdigital TV. Its interface will be similar to that of classic teletext informationservices, however, it will be faster and offer two-way interaction. 13Availability is forecast for autumn 2006 or later. 14 Piemont already has abasic portal with regional information, apparently broadcast only. T-Government is said not to be as useful for bi-directional services, mainlydue to the fact that consumers are not used to writing with a RemoteControl device. However, this might change with the current generation ofSMS writing youths who will easily adopt to writing with such a devicewhich is even slightly bigger than a mobile phone. Currently, according torumors and vague forecasts authorities test technical and legalpreconditions to transfer actual transactions from the Internet to the iTVplatform(s), like submitting tax calculation forms or even voting.12 See for example www.fun-tv.de/content/dokumente/ditv_anga_2005e.ppt#295 or http://www.joanneum.at/en/informatik/bibliothek_detail.php?p_iid=IIS&p_typ=PUB&p_id=2193.13 Taken from http://europa.eu.int/idabc/en/document/3648/571814 Find out more about the current status of fat http://www.raiutile.rai.it/articolo.jsp?id=437 Page 26 of 215
  27. 27. 30th March 2006The MHP-Guide Version: 1.0VotingAs an interactive instrument for the democratic society iTV already can beused for opinion polls 15 . Voting applications, of course, can be used for allsorts of entertainment programs as well. 16 . Figure 2-14: Voting application related to News Show (SkyTV, UK)2.1.7 T-Learning T-LearningAn example for the potential of iTV for T-Learning in a program related Analogue to the termcontext is a kids’ edutainment format of German Pay TV channel FoxKids. e-LearningIn this case the MHP application is not only used to offer extra information T-Learning covers allon the program, but involves the kids in what they see and hear, giving sorts of educationalthem an interactive learning experience. Learning and teaching experts say applications that are delivered andthat learners remember 30% of what they see, 20% of what they hear, 50% performed on the TV 17of what they read and hear and up to 90% of what they do themselves . screen. In various 18Some others also stress the power of narrative teaching . This example publications thiscomplies with both ideas, telling stories in English and asking questions in ranges from providing program relatedGerman to check understanding. Examples like Goosebumps and “1-2 (educational)oder 3” (ZDF, Germany, see section 2.1.4 Entertainment) may give an idea background materialof how iTV can be used for T-Learning, not only for children but also for to interactive learninggrown-ups in Business TV (cf. section 2.1.5 T-Commerce) as well as T- applications whichHealth (cf. the following section) or “pure” T-Learning environments. check and track learners’ progress. Figure 2-15: Kids’ Edutainment: Goosebumps (FoxKids, Germany)15 Example from SkyTV; see http://www.broadbandbananas.com/16 For entertainment-motivated voting applications visit http://www.mediaset.it/news/scheda/14888.shtml .17 Common understanding in Learning Theory, quoted in Margit Hertlein. Mind Mapping – Die kreative Arbeitstechnik. Spielerisch Lernen und Organisieren, Hamburg 200118 For a comprehensive overview and bibliography see Rossiter, Marsha: Narrative and Stories in Adult Teaching and Learning, available at http://www.ericdigests.org/2003-4/adult-teaching.html Page 27 of 215

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