Analytical Cubism In this piece, we are only left with small representational clues of what is scattered across the canvas We don’t really have a depiction any more, there is a sort of pictorial logic and then slight hints or clues as to where things might be on this canvas Clement Greenberg saw analytical cubism as combining two kinds of flatness, both of which he sees present here: Depicted flatness- which is when tilted planes seem to shove fragmented objects closer to the surface…and Literal flatness- which is that on the surface itself. Post 1910, these forms of flatness seemed to come together in pieces like Ma Jolie and Braque, The Portugais.
Balla, in pieces such as Speed of a motor car, is abstracting forms to a point where there is this explosive energy In this piece, he has abstracted the grid structure and it is simply a signifier of speed rather than a representation
Cut outs were used how they are in the magazine, complete forms (opposite of Picasso..bottle glass and violin) Integrity of forms, they exist in themselves… However they are fragmented to create new meaning, very disjointed Berlin Dada was embracing this new synthesis of the avant-garde and technology. While Expressionism failed in attempting to appeal the war, Dada explicitly positioned itself against expressionism creating a model of “antiaesthetics” emphasizing extreme forms of political secularization of artistic practice. There is a political dimension behind these photo montages and with Hannah Hoch, who was an extreme feminism there seems to be a critique on women simultaneously.
- Mondrian is striving to create a total abstraction, however he feels that there still needs to be this justification (hence the titles of his images) and abstraction cannot necessarily be justified. He is moving closer to abstraction, but is not quite abstract yet because he continues to indicate what his pieces represent.
this logically follows the black circle, Malevich painted his works several times and sometimes he lied about when he painted them so the dates ar ea bit dodgy (these dates are still being sorted out This is further reduction, there is a certain dynamism through the irregularity of the cross shape, it is slightly twisted If the crosses edges were to go straight then it would be fused into a single visual plane this shows that malevich is unwilling to give up motivation entirely This is a representational painting of a peasant woman This is not a bad reproduction it is a good one It is not entirely square
Tatlin was extremely important in the Constructivist movement Tatlin took what Picasso and Braque were doing by literalizing their work into sculpture form, but one step further because he is taking this logic that they are playing with and he is doing it in an abstract way Tatlin’s corner reliefs were also shown at the 0.10 exhibition along with black square The Corner Relief was an indication to the viewer that the move into real space is necessary and logical The transcendent realm of painting gives way to a manipulation of actual materials in the actual real world Justifying itself in the REAL no longer representational, just REAL
how to make something as logical and simple? What you see is what you see Just the 3 colors, so now he has to do it with sculpture Hanging constructions refer to nothing outside of themselves Cutting in 2 inches, 2 inches and you are left with one piece of material that is deductively done You can flatten it out on the wall and then when you want ot show them you can hang them from the ceiling Still resemble the chosen geometric shape Efficient mechanical production These sculptures Rodchenko made demonstrate a major step accomplished in a very short time for constructivists. This work is very scientific (which meant it was dialectic, materialist and communist) , and there was no prior conception because the aspects were decided based on the raw materials Hanging construction’s more logical form of production, were heralded as a means of opposing the fetishization of artistic inspiration---because they were inspired based on the materials. (not very different from what minimalists did shortly after)
One method of surrealism is automatism. This actively seen in Masson’s automatic drawing. By drawing so quickly, the superego does not have time to process the unconscious realm, so little bits sneak through and appear in their purest form. This bypasses all symbolic structure and cultural means of representation because it is the idea that you have immediate access to the unconscious. The unconscious is the fundamental unknown and you cannot know it.
- Realm of the unconscious forces of desire - Cinderella ashtray - A political revolution, no less real they will argue than that of the communist revolution and no less total because it will engage with the unconscious - This is what Benjamin described in the surrealists most radical concept of freedom, a concept of freedom that went beyond material goods or possessions and simply beyond work, to the political claimt hat every individual in some real and meaningful sense, realize their desire. - Surrealist concept of the individual ⒃ o dern individual would not be transparent and rational but would rather deal with unconscious forces. The modernity of the surrealist is one that is split between rationality and irrationality.
- Two or more everyday objects are combined in a way that counteracts their utility and produces a fantastic object an object useless for any rational function,,,should seem perverse or strange Produce a seamless and thus apparently realistic image of a clearly unreal that is fantastic. Unlike Dada photomontage, surrealists use the evidentiary/documentary status of the single photo, to insist that the realm of the irrational, unconscious desires . Two methods of surrealism coming together Collage and photography to create this perverse object lacking in rational function.
- Marcel Duchamps recourse culminated in his work The Bride stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even (The Large glass) 1915-23 - This work derived from Duchamp’s paintings, particularly that of the odd inhuman figure that he turned the bride - His work the bride was directly copied into his other piece - His works in the large glass exists in his other forms - Both Duchamp and Picabia, the realms of the mechanical and sexual were related - On an iconographic level, it related a love story between bachelors who are according to Duchamp’s notes, fueled by desire for the bride and hydro-electric power
- The most important aspect of Duchamp’s legacy is works that seem the complete opposites, his ready mades form the early 19 teens - They had to do with the surrealist object (oppenheim’s) - The juxtaposition and composition for different items - His first ready made was the bicycle wheel on a stool, it was an assisted ready-made f o rmed by principles that would be taken up by surrealism - He juxtaposes two items in a way that anulles the objects use value and gives them an artistic value which conjures the strange juxtaposition and displacement of the unconscious - Bicycle wheel is a surrealism object - But at the same time, because these items are not made by the artists hands, it is hard to imagine that these were controversial because collage is so mainstream now - In a dada-istic way, it was an attack on artistry and artistic skill (like photo montage) - Getting rid of traditional things we like by artists
- He submitted under the name R Mutt � .the idea of the exhibition coming 3 years after the armory show was that anyone could exhibit if they submitted one or more works and paid the fee ⑿ t had happened in france a lot but this was the idea to do it here - Duchamp secretly submits this, the urinal is the exception to open inclusion - They ruled that the work was not art and they excluded it form the exhibition - Duchamp forms an exhibition and then they throw out his work against the rules - It wa spublished in the magazine the Blind Man (possibly secretly founded by Duchamp) - Questioning the role of what is and is not art - One that sees each work, a range of implications and to context and larger definitions - What makes the urinal a work of art is the designation of the work of art by the artist, such a definition of course gets rid of all the traditional attributes of artistic skill, labor and craftsmanship, all of the cerebral intentions
- At best this is the choice of the artist - Another way to look at this work is that it is places either its conventional place (on a pedestal, like a sculpture) or its institutional place (an exhibition, thus it is a piece of art) - The work of art is now in this paradigm defined or determined not by artistic making or intention but rather by situation - Relationship to the realm of mass manufacturing - Ready mades respond to modern pressures of increasing modification of every day life - Like picabia’s mechanamorphic drawings - Even the colors and paints a traditional painter buys are ready mades (they are not ground up paints create by the artist) - This is a more modern up to date mode of making art - There is also here the idea of removing the artist by use and putting it in the realm of expression and change - The original urinal was lost - Now we know that Duchamp was interested in the relationship of art and value
Greenberg would read aspects of Pollacks early paintings as weaknesses and a lack of control. The energy that se saw or sensed in Pollack’s paintings overwhelmed the formal aspects of the work and this type of response for reading would continue as Pollack moved on By 1948, Greenberg would understand the work of Pollack and abstract expressionists in general, he thinks it is brought about the crisis of the easel picture. He writes that the mode of painting practiced by our most advanced artist threatens the easel picture, at these points: the decentered all over picture with a surface knit together by similar elements repeating itself without strong variation form one side of the canvas to another and dispenses a beginning middle and ending, and it will remain easel because eit will hang on the wall, but it is as similar to wall paper and decoration, but because it remains an easel painting it reflects a notion of ambiguity - The all over non hierarchical composition of Pollack’s work was one important formal aspect of this type of abstract expressionism
She takes a hint from Pollock’s style There is a literal flatness as well as an optical flatness A way to understand Pollock’s spatial innovation is to see it as the dissolution of overcoming pictorial distinction, flatness and pictorial space( a type of space with no depth)
Krasner was simply known as Mrs. Pollock, and when he died Rosenberg referred to her as the “action widow” She participated in the signature anstract expressionist show saying that she does not consciously think up these images but they just come through and are archetypal. She did not engage with Pollock’s technique of the poured line, and it has been argued that this is Krasners effect of Pollock but without using his meaning. The drips are there but they have their own expressive power She sought to use the meaning of his works but without paying attention to the technique
Johns can be classified as proto-pop because he is some way between pop and abstract expressionism He is not entirely pop because he does not move to commercial culture but more to neutral symbols like the flag. He stated “things the mind already knows” Long before the absence of Pop art artists they fundamentally transferred the reception of the abstract expressionist paint stroke. He expressed the ready made in a slightly different way because he was drawn to ready made symbols (flags, maps, targets, numebrs etc..) The legacy of Duchamp’s ready made was incorporated into Pop art
Kaprow essentially started Happenings and he was a student of John Cage. He was thinking a lot about Rauschenberg’s combines and created happenings essentially as an extension of combines. He created full scale environmental compilations and would extend the collage like tendencies and use multi-media and multi sensory realm implicit in the composers world. Even taste would find its way into the artistic realm
She is collaging herself into Rauschenberg The body is a priviledge for liberation- sexual, desublimation against sexual repression and the bosy as a sight of oppression. There is this relation between the female body and the mediated and also about the “real” and mediated because Schneeman’s art will only exist through photographs, thus her art is mediated by photography. She would use her own body for performance and high art nude and low art nude, she juxtaposes actual naked female body versus female as a depiction of a subject to be desired. The nude was used in early happening objects she she used them as a primal archaic force. It was an explicit comment and Kaprow like extension of Pollock’s painting and practice in the arena of subjective expression was made clear and real, the action was more important than the reaction image.
‘ This is the first initial pop art piece American popular culture had a sort of democratic quality because movies, television, magazines etc.. Could be appreciated by the masses American popular culture was extremely bright and colorful Hamilton has a certain feel of satire and parody in his work The male and female characters are stereotypes Jolson’s film the Jazz Singer in the background was the first commercial sound film, thus the birth of the modern film era Inclusion of Jolson was not contemporary a the time Independent artists opinions of American pop culture was enthusiastic anand not simultaneously because pop art is popular and designed for a mass audience thus it is also expendable and easily forgotten, low cost, witty, sexy, gimmicky, glamorous and big business. Mixing of media
Initially, Warhol couldn’t get a show in NYC, not because his work was too avant-garde but because he was only one of several artists who had begun to show art that drew upon commercial art at the same time. His silkscreens were produced in a semi-mechanical way, there is no mark of the artists hand and the squeegee can be done by the artist or anyone for that matter. The adoption of this process allows Warhol to produce more canvases, he hired his assistant Then he transformed his studio into what he called “the factory” The autographic gesture is now gone and others could do the work and make a stamp instead of a signature. He had a whole routine, he would blast the same song because he felt that by this repetition it would clear his head (repetition of song, images and process) “ The reason I am painting this way is because I want to be a machine” Warhol loved the notion of stardom and beauty and glamour juxtaposed with death notoriety and suffering. He delves into the darker side of stardom, the Monroe paintings were started immediately after her suicide. And anyone who saw them in 1962, there had an aspect of death looming over them because they were shown within the year she became suicidal. He believed that by displaying these images over and over again they will lose shock value
The Brillo Boxes were quite controversial in that they were a functional object that one would find in the grocery store, however, they were constructed by Warhol. How could this functional object be considered art and what makes it different from what you could see in the store? -- Well Warhol changed their function because he ultimately placed them into the context of the art world. However they are not indiscernible to most, the concept of commercial items/ consumer products as art.
The most celebrated African American Artists post-war gained immense traction in Abstract expressionism until his style transformed into collage aesthetic. His studio was in the basement of the Apollo theater in Harlem and was part of the midtown art scene and the uptown art world in Harlem. Like abstract expressionists he was associated with universality, however to him it did not mean the elimination of a the figure or picture of the narrative. He was negating what Greenberg said because he is interested in universality and is at one with the Abstract Expressionists movement towards that, but he did not think one needed to get rid of these things He was in accordance with Picasso, Matissa and Miro who all did not eliminate the figure He thought that in order to prove your individuality you need to speak for your race but he felt a conflict between identity and freedom as a artist. He continued traditions of African arts relating to indigenous African music, but relating to political aspirations and issues.
He is a constructivist and minimalism takes up constructivism and changes it, and it is not political in the way that constructivism was
There is still a sense of illusionistic space, but the trace of the hand is completely gone
- He dissolves materiality or exceeds its delimitation
You must have both knowledge and taste (both of which are elitist things) in order to understand. The idea understanding. Morris seems to be saying the fact of the objects similarity belongs to an object prior to experience The Same-ness belongs to an idea structure. The ideal and the contingent and the ideal and the experience He explores the difference between interior of public and private This sameness belongs to an inner being that we cannot see, and these forms undermine geometry.
This piece consists of a real chair, a photograph of a chair, and the definition of the word chair. Depending on exhibition he changes it aesthetically, but the definition always remains as well as the instructions of how to assemble a chair Kosuth is a conceptual artist and
Antin photographed her body daily in a successful month of crash dieting She used her own body as the subject material for her work, she claimed that she was still working in the traditional mode of Greek sculpture and that she was creating an academic sculpture that was a critique of the social pressures women feel to change their bodies.
Burden literally embodied a theatrical position with this piece and it is clearly minimal looking. He lived on a minimalist shelf he made and his unseen energy filled up the space Minimalism is this idea the body is “virtually” there because of scale and size In this trajectory of performance, the body will become literal Burden often treated his body as a neutral gender (look at 5 day locker piece) He assimilates himself into the conditions of minimal objects
She was an early 70’s student at Iowa who met Schneeman She was about integrating the body into nature so in this series she removes the presence of the body but leaves a trace---the red pigment The body of the performer is absent, but the performer leaves an imprint Prime example of indexing, the viewer has lost access to the body itself but there is still a trace. Just an imprint as means of inscription, also presented as the inscription itself.
Final exam study guide SO FAR
Pablo Picasso, Ma Jolie , 1911-12
Pablo Picasso, Still Life with Chair Caning , 1912