Analytical Cubism sought to break down the components of a picture by lines and shading-- its goal was to breakdown the picture plane into a grid so that the canvas would appear flat. It made the canvas a place for writing so it became a flat slate. Almost all colors were neutrals. It marks the entry into a new phase of cubism In this piece, we are only left with small representational clues of what is scattered across the canvas We don’t really have a depiction any more, there is a sort of pictorial logic and then slight hints or clues as to where things might be on this canvas Clement Greenberg saw analytical cubism as combining two kinds of flatness, both of which he sees present here: Depicted flatness- which is when tilted planes seem to shove fragmented objects closer to the surface…and Literal flatness- which is that on the surface itself. Post 1910, these forms of flatness seemed to come together in pieces like Ma Jolie and Braque, The Portugais.
Circular so that the whole picture is object-like It is a tabletop, so it fluctuates between flat object and things popping off into representational space.
Matisse’s style: he used pure color and organized the picture plane through contrasts of complementary colors (which insures the coloristic tension in his pieces)-- but he begins to abandon the divisionist brushstroke over time. He believed that expressionism and decoration were one and the same thing Clor relations were more important to him than surface relations Painting features a selection of his recent works within his studio The artwork is displayed in color and detail, but the studio/surrounds are only indicated by negative space (lines) in the red surface. The central piece of the painting is the grandfather clock that has no hands, which indicated that time doesn’t exist/is suspended within his studio.
Balla, in pieces such as Speed of a motor car, is abstracting forms to a point where there is this explosive energy In this piece, he has abstracted the grid structure and it is simply a signifier of speed rather than a representation Capturing the dynamism of futurism Speed is literally the subject of the painting and he attempts to capture its essence
Cut outs were used how they are in the magazine, complete forms (opposite of Picasso..bottle glass and violin) Integrity of forms, they exist in themselves… However they are fragmented to create new meaning, very disjointed Berlin Dada was embracing this new synthesis of the avant-garde and technology. While Expressionism failed in attempting to appeal the war, Dada explicitly positioned itself against expressionism creating a model of “antiaesthetics” emphasizing extreme forms of political secularization of artistic practice. There is a political dimension behind these photo montages and with Hannah Hoch, who was an extreme feminism there seems to be a critique on women simultaneously. The Dadaists wanted to break down reasoning and create a shock that would force people to question what was happening She throws together parts of machinery and human figures making machines and human beings one (reaction to the war). Hoch is a “new woman” communist and she feels that women should be freed form the restraints of feminine standards of beauty.
Mondrian is striving to create a total abstraction, however he feels that there still needs to be this justification (hence the titles of his images) and abstraction cannot necessarily be justified. He is moving closer to abstraction, but is not quite abstract yet because he continues to indicate what his pieces represent. There was still a slight fear that the traditional art object had to be upheld Mondrian was devoted to the art of balance (relationship of forms) He wanted to eliminate a hierarchy within painting all together His concept of eliminating the subordination of certain art elements to others proved to be a utopian--many people had a hard time grasping it.
this logically follows the black circle, Malevich painted his works several times and sometimes he lied about when he painted them so the dates ar ea bit dodgy (these dates are still being sorted out This is further reduction, there is a certain dynamism through the irregularity of the cross shape, it is slightly twisted If the crosses edges were to go straight then it would be fused into a single visual plane this shows that malevich is unwilling to give up motivation entirely This is a representational painting of a peasant woman This is not a bad reproduction it is a good one It is not entirely square He termed his style Suprematism- still using justifications form the visual realm, it both overcame and incorporated cubism and futurism He produced minimal yet dynamic forms on a canvas The slight movement in the cross creates a sense of dynamism If it had gone all the way to the edges, figure and ground would be read as one image as opposed to figure ON ground (figure vs. ground was the main concept that Malevich was exploring/attempting to overcome)
Tatlin was extremely important in the Constructivist movement Tatlin took what Picasso and Braque were doing by literalizing their work into sculpture form, but one step further because he is taking this logic that they are playing with and he is doing it in an abstract way Tatlin’s corner reliefs were also shown at the 0.10 exhibition along with black square The Corner Relief was an indication to the viewer that the move into real space is necessary and logical The transcendent realm of painting gives way to a manipulation of actual materials in the actual real world Justifying itself in the REAL no longer representational, just REAL He combined 3D objects together, so they moved out into the space of the viewer The piece was no longer a window onto the world but rather it was an object IN the world The objects represented literally what they were
how to make something as logical and simple? What you see is what you see Just the 3 colors, so now he has to do it with sculpture Hanging constructions refer to nothing outside of themselves Cutting in 2 inches, 2 inches and you are left with one piece of material that is deductively done You can flatten it out on the wall and then when you want ot show them you can hang them from the ceiling Still resemble the chosen geometric shape Efficient mechanical production These sculptures Rodchenko made demonstrate a major step accomplished in a very short time for constructivists. This work is very scientific (which meant it was dialectic, materialist and communist) , and there was no prior conception because the aspects were decided based on the raw materials Hanging construction’s more logical form of production, were heralded as a means of opposing the fetishization of artistic inspiration---because they were inspired based on the materials. (not very different from what minimalists did shortly after) Lacking something in need of interpretation makes you aware of the process of interpretation that we enagage in everyday. The frustration that stems form not being able to interpret such simplicity leads you to that realization.
One method of surrealism is automatism. This actively seen in Masson’s automatic drawing. By drawing so quickly, the superego does not have time to process the unconscious realm, so little bits sneak through and appear in their purest form. This bypasses all symbolic structure and cultural means of representation because it is the idea that you have immediate access to the unconscious. The unconscious is the fundamental unknown and you cannot know it. Conscious is the realm of rationality and utility, and the unconscious if the realm of imagination, poetry, dreams, madness and desire. The goal was to bring the two realms together and create a reality to encompass it all.
- Realm of the unconscious forces of desire - Cinderella ashtray - A political revolution, no less real they will argue than that of the communist revolution and no less total because it will engage with the unconscious - This is what Benjamin described in the surrealists most radical concept of freedom, a concept of freedom that went beyond material goods or possessions and simply beyond work, to the political claimt hat every individual in some real and meaningful sense, realize their desire. Surrealist concept of the individual ⒃ o dern individual would not be transparent and rational but would rather deal with unconscious forces. The modernity of the surrealist is one that is split between rationality and irrationality. Cinderella ashtray had a signifier but no sign, in the slipper-spoon he found the sign (within the name, the shoe is what the spoon stands for) It was found at a flea market, important because this is a place for objects that have lost their function and are outmoded. Surrealists combined the modern and outmoded (didn’t want to eliminate the old a la the futurists but rather re-discover it)
- Two or more everyday objects are combined in a way that counteracts their utility and produces a fantastic object an object useless for any rational function,,,should seem perverse or strange Produce a seamless and thus apparently realistic image of a clearly unreal that is fantastic. Unlike Dada photomontage, surrealists use the evidentiary/documentary status of the single photo, to insist that the realm of the irrational, unconscious desires . Two methods of surrealism coming together Collage and photography to create this perverse object lacking in rational function. He would take two objects and stick them together so that their respective former uses were no longer possible. Makes it aesthetically interesting, because it often triggers your unconscious
- Marcel Duchamps recourse culminated in his work The Bride stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even (The Large glass) 1915-23 - This work derived from Duchamp’s paintings, particularly that of the odd inhuman figure that he turned the bride - His work the bride was directly copied into his other piece - His works in the large glass exists in his other forms - Both Duchamp and Picabia, the realms of the mechanical and sexual were related On an iconographic level, it related a love story between bachelors who are according to Duchamp’s notes, fueled by desire for the bride and hydro-electric power He left the painting unfinished, depicting that the sexual act is unfinished The colors were created by laquering the pieces and letting the dust fall onto them gradually, so each piece represents a further layer of time…furthering the artists hand The spots that are meant to impregnate the bride were made by matches which were dipped in paint and shot froma toy canon (created by chance). Also the draft pistons were created by chance, he traced information.
- The most important aspect of Duchamp’s legacy is works that seem the complete opposites, his ready mades form the early 19 teens - They had to do with the surrealist object (oppenheim’s) - The juxtaposition and composition for different items - His first ready made was the bicycle wheel on a stool, it was an assisted ready-made f o rmed by principles that would be taken up by surrealism - He juxtaposes two items in a way that anulles the objects use value and gives them an artistic value which conjures the strange juxtaposition and displacement of the unconscious - Bicycle wheel is a surrealism object - But at the same time, because these items are not made by the artists hands, it is hard to imagine that these were controversial because collage is so mainstream now - In a dada-istic way, it was an attack on artistry and artistic skill (like photo montage) - Getting rid of traditional things we like by artists
- He submitted under the name R Mutt � .the idea of the exhibition coming 3 years after the armory show was that anyone could exhibit if they submitted one or more works and paid the fee ⑿ t had happened in france a lot but this was the idea to do it here - Duchamp secretly submits this, the urinal is the exception to open inclusion - They ruled that the work was not art and they excluded it form the exhibition - Duchamp forms an exhibition and then they throw out his work against the rules - It wa spublished in the magazine the Blind Man (possibly secretly founded by Duchamp) - Questioning the role of what is and is not art - One that sees each work, a range of implications and to context and larger definitions - What makes the urinal a work of art is the designation of the work of art by the artist, such a definition of course gets rid of all the traditional attributes of artistic skill, labor and craftsmanship, all of the cerebral intentions
- At best this is the choice of the artist - Another way to look at this work is that it is places either its conventional place (on a pedestal, like a sculpture) or its institutional place (an exhibition, thus it is a piece of art) - The work of art is now in this paradigm defined or determined not by artistic making or intention but rather by situation - Relationship to the realm of mass manufacturing - Ready mades respond to modern pressures of increasing modification of every day life - Like picabia’s mechanamorphic drawings - Even the colors and paints a traditional painter buys are ready mades (they are not ground up paints create by the artist) - This is a more modern up to date mode of making art - There is also here the idea of removing the artist by use and putting it in the realm of expression and change - The original urinal was lost Now we know that Duchamp was interested in the relationship of art and value. The traditional use of the object is gone and it is ironic becayse if one were to use it as a urinal, urine would stream out due to its rotation Also brings up the concept of language because the signature and dating on the piece signaled the artist’s intention for it to be percieved as art.
Greenberg would read aspects of Pollacks early paintings as weaknesses and a lack of control. The energy that se saw or sensed in Pollack’s paintings overwhelmed the formal aspects of the work and this type of response for reading would continue as Pollack moved on By 1948, Greenberg would understand the work of Pollack and abstract expressionists in general, he thinks it is brought about the crisis of the easel picture. He writes that the mode of painting practiced by our most advanced artist threatens the easel picture, at these points: the decentered all over picture with a surface knit together by similar elements repeating itself without strong variation form one side of the canvas to another and dispenses a beginning middle and ending, and it will remain easel because eit will hang on the wall, but it is as similar to wall paper and decoration, but because it remains an easel painting it reflects a notion of ambiguity The all over non hierarchical composition of Pollack’s work was one important formal aspect of this type of abstract expressionism Pollock painted on the ground but his works were meant ot be seen on the wall.
Captured the process of Pollock’s paintings A painting of Pollock’s is too complex to read, thus Namuth attempted to capture the process to give a greater understanding Pollock was an “action painter” and his work contributed to the idea that the “process is the product”, so Namuth through photography attempted to display the act of that process.
Bearden is exactly at one with the abstract expressionists move to universality, but to him universality didn’t mean the elimination of the figure or an implicit narrative.
She takes a hint from Pollock’s style There is a literal flatness as well as an optical flatness A way to understand Pollock’s spatial innovation is to see it as the dissolution of overcoming pictorial distinction, flatness and pictorial space( a type of space with no depth)
Krasner was simply known as Mrs. Pollock, and when he died Rosenberg referred to her as the “action widow” She participated in the signature anstract expressionist show saying that she does not consciously think up these images but they just come through and are archetypal. She did not engage with Pollock’s technique of the poured line, and it has been argued that this is Krasners effect of Pollock but without using his meaning. The drips are there but they have their own expressive power She sought to use the meaning of his works but without paying attention to the technique
All we have now is the outside world--and no subject at all Rauschenberg considered the accumulation of dust on his work to be part of the piece Reception of the white paintings as screens: 1 Japanese standing screen, 2 Screen one can project onto. Basic Panels that light would reflect off of Panels were essentially readymades (canvas with white paint on them), so they were objects themselves--removal of the artists hand Takes project of Greenberg’s modernism to the end extreme (literal flatness) NOT the high modernist space of optical painting In a virtual manner, allows anything at all to exist on its surface Stressed objecthood Stretched into almost a participatory experience.
Used chance to decide length and that it would be in three movements The murmurs and whispers of the audience was what made up the work He doesn’t believe in pure silence at all, and is somewhat proving that it doesn’t exist with this piece (at the very least, a heartbeat is always present) Proving that everybody can partake inc reating art, wants to completely get rid of the idea of the artistic genius/ the idea of the artist as an authoratative genius, but chance. He uses chance to put challenges on how something will be performed, and therefore pushes the performer to learn if they meet those challenges (and therefore they learn something about themselves) Everyday sounds that contribute to the piece are all, clearly decided by chance.
Johns can be classified as proto-pop because he is some way between pop and abstract expressionism He is not entirely pop because he does not move to commercial culture but more to neutral symbols like the flag. He stated “things the mind already knows” Long before the absence of Pop art artists they fundamentally transferred the reception of the abstract expressionist paint stroke. He expressed the ready made in a slightly different way because he was drawn to ready made symbols (flags, maps, targets, numebrs etc..) The legacy of Duchamp’s ready made was incorporated into Pop art
Odalisk is a complete mixture of media, and while his work at first glance may appear messy and thrown together it is extensively thought out ( a combine) Tehse combines evade the viewers space He reinvented the notion of Dada photomontage and collages by Picasso Each element maintains its integrity without obscuring the others Synbolized gender rolls in America in the 50’s, male chicken juxtaposed with a Haren girl. There is definite word play in this piece: Odalisque: a female slave or concubine and Obalisk: a tall thin four sided monument that ends with a pyramid like shape on the top. Delineated boundaries between art and sculpture were broken
Kaprow essentially started Happenings and he was a student of John Cage. He was thinking a lot about Rauschenberg’s combines and created happenings essentially as an extension of combines. He created full scale environmental compilations and would extend the collage like tendencies and use multi-media and multi sensory realm implicit in the composers world. Even taste would find its way into the artistic realm
She is collaging herself into Rauschenberg The body is a priviledge for liberation- sexual, desublimation against sexual repression and the bosy as a sight of oppression. There is this relation between the female body and the mediated and also about the “real” and mediated because Schneeman’s art will only exist through photographs, thus her art is mediated by photography. She would use her own body for performance and high art nude and low art nude, she juxtaposes actual naked female body versus female as a depiction of a subject to be desired. The nude was used in early happening objects she she used them as a primal archaic force. It was an explicit comment and Kaprow like extension of Pollock’s painting and practice in the arena of subjective expression was made clear and real, the action was more important than the reaction image.
Designated an everyday event as a work of art (as duchamp did with everyday objects) Everybody performs the work of art whether they are conscious of it or not The relationship between art and life is undetermined Creates art for everybody Figuring out how little one can do to create art (goes along with Duchamp’s idea of designation of art).
‘ This is the first initial pop art piece American popular culture had a sort of democratic quality because movies, television, magazines etc.. Could be appreciated by the masses American popular culture was extremely bright and colorful Hamilton has a certain feel of satire and parody in his work The male and female characters are stereotypes Jolson’s film the Jazz Singer in the background was the first commercial sound film, thus the birth of the modern film era Inclusion of Jolson was not contemporary a the time Independent artists opinions of American pop culture was enthusiastic anand not simultaneously because pop art is popular and designed for a mass audience thus it is also expendable and easily forgotten, low cost, witty, sexy, gimmicky, glamorous and big business. Mixing of media
Initially, Warhol couldn’t get a show in NYC, not because his work was too avant-garde but because he was only one of several artists who had begun to show art that drew upon commercial art at the same time. His silkscreens were produced in a semi-mechanical way, there is no mark of the artists hand and the squeegee can be done by the artist or anyone for that matter. The adoption of this process allows Warhol to produce more canvases, he hired his assistant Then he transformed his studio into what he called “the factory” The autographic gesture is now gone and others could do the work and make a stamp instead of a signature. He had a whole routine, he would blast the same song because he felt that by this repetition it would clear his head (repetition of song, images and process) “ The reason I am painting this way is because I want to be a machine” Warhol loved the notion of stardom and beauty and glamour juxtaposed with death notoriety and suffering. He delves into the darker side of stardom, the Monroe paintings were started immediately after her suicide. And anyone who saw them in 1962, there had an aspect of death looming over them because they were shown within the year she became suicidal. He believed that by displaying these images over and over again they will lose shock value
The Brillo Boxes were quite controversial in that they were a functional object that one would find in the grocery store, however, they were constructed by Warhol. How could this functional object be considered art and what makes it different from what you could see in the store? -- Well Warhol changed their function because he ultimately placed them into the context of the art world. However they are not indiscernible to most, the concept of commercial items/ consumer products as art.
The most celebrated African American Artists post-war gained immense traction in Abstract expressionism until his style transformed into collage aesthetic. His studio was in the basement of the Apollo theater in Harlem and was part of the midtown art scene and the uptown art world in Harlem. Like abstract expressionists he was associated with universality, however to him it did not mean the elimination of a the figure or picture of the narrative. He was negating what Greenberg said because he is interested in universality and is at one with the Abstract Expressionists movement towards that, but he did not think one needed to get rid of these things He was in accordance with Picasso, Matissa and Miro who all did not eliminate the figure He thought that in order to prove your individuality you need to speak for your race but he felt a conflict between identity and freedom as a artist. He continued traditions of African arts relating to indigenous African music, but relating to political aspirations and issues.
Mimic’s Warhol’s “Gold Marilyn Monroe” and thus is claiming a place in pop art for a culture (African American) that hadn’t previously been included About representation and self-representation. Adopting and adapting through fashion, speaking out, etc.. Multiplicities within identities.
He is a constructivist and minimalism takes up constructivism and changes it, and it is not political in the way that constructivism was Uses household paintbrush to paint black striped onto the canvas so what it looks like painted white stripes are actually the canvas peeking through Stays within the realm of modernist painting Performs the same end to painting as the monochromatic canvas---entering into real flatness (as opposed to optical flatness) Extra thickness of work gives it depth and solidity, and foregrounds its presence Content is related to the shape of the canvas
There is still a sense of illusionistic space, but the trace of the hand is completely gone 3D structure that utilizes repetition. Read as one thing, arrived fully formed from the manufacturer Exemplifies minimalism Emphasizes industrial materials and objecthood Fried does NOT appreciate it (for the same reasons as Morris’ L-Beams)
He dissolves materiality or exceeds its delimitation Uses florescent lights to create a monument (very simple shape and construction) Moves from pictorial space of canvas to real space of room (the tubes were mounted on the wall, so attached to walls, but also lighting up the room) Reversal of renaissance perspective/optical flatness, because your eye cannot travel into the work but you travel through light and color
You must have both knowledge and taste (both of which are elitist things) in order to understand. The idea understanding. Morris seems to be saying the fact of the objects similarity belongs to an object prior to experience The Same-ness belongs to an idea structure. The ideal and the contingent and the ideal and the experience He explores the difference between interior of public and private This sameness belongs to an inner being that we cannot see, and these forms undermine geometry. New mass subject--no longer based on class, but on having a body and eyes. If you can walk around and see how the light and shadows change the work then you can appreciate it. Confronts the viewer because it is such a large physical presence on the floor of space--thus affects the environment of the room. The viewers interaction with the space is equally important as their interaction with the actual piece. Recognition of perception before knowledge--one perceives each L-beam as a different shape but knows that they are realistically the same Fried doesn’t like it and calls it “literalist art” and he thinks walking around the gallery in order to make himself aware is just daily life. He values having a transcendent experience in front of a work of art, and Morris wants to keep you in real space and real time.
It is a splash made through the process of splashing “ Sculpture” is related to action (as if Brecht’s wor;d event creates the work/becomes the process) Pollock-esque but about the material…not the expression Unlike Pollock, the work stays where it is created when presented (as opposed to transferred from floor to the wall) The form is produced by the action.
The spirit of contradiction is present throughout Hesse’s work. She tends to take a traditional object and then combine it with an odd element. This is a large cube constructed out of aluminum mesh and from the outside resembles a typical minimalist work like Judd or Morris. However, upon closer inspection it is apparent that the interior of the cube is bristling with little tubes, giving it an organic appearance like fur or hair. Hesse’s technique of weaving brings ot mind a female stereotype of domesticity that clashes with the hard edged masculinity of the cube Seductive on the outside, forbidding on the inside She was attracted to absurd opposites
This piece consists of a real chair, a photograph of a chair, and the definition of the word chair. Depending on exhibition he changes it aesthetically, but the definition always remains as well as the instructions of how to assemble a chair Kosuth is a conceptual artist and
Less concerned with the project of modernism Interested in situating language as a sort of art object, or aesthetic experience Definite removal of artist’s hand--just taken from the dictionary (ready made) “ As Idea As Idea”-- could theoretically be completely conceptual, even through the definition is right in front of you. With conceptual art, the idea is seen as art, not necessarily the literalization of that work on a canvas. This brings up the fundamental idea of what art is by definition, provoking the viewer to define art in their own terms. He is also displaying this definition as at itself, showing that text can be seen as art and how important the concept is in this case.
Antin photographed her body daily in a successful month of crash dieting She used her own body as the subject material for her work, she claimed that she was still working in the traditional mode of Greek sculpture and that she was creating an academic sculpture that was a critique of the social pressures women feel to change their bodies.
Burden literally embodied a theatrical position with this piece and it is clearly minimal looking. He lived on a minimalist shelf he made and his unseen energy filled up the space Minimalism is this idea the body is “virtually” there because of scale and size In this trajectory of performance, the body will become literal Burden often treated his body as a neutral gender (look at 5 day locker piece) He assimilates himself into the conditions of minimal objects
She was an early 70’s student at Iowa who met Schneeman She was about integrating the body into nature so in this series she removes the presence of the body but leaves a trace---the red pigment The body of the performer is absent, but the performer leaves an imprint Prime example of indexing, the viewer has lost access to the body itself but there is still a trace. Just an imprint as means of inscription, also presented as the inscription itself.
Appropriating cues from Hollywood Taking photos of herself (she’s the subject), but it is simultaneously a performance (so she is actually not herself) Supposed to come off as familiar--looks like a film that you’ve seen before (feeling of déjà vu) which makes you aware of the fact that issues of gender are often mediated Shows that thee is nothing inherent or stable about a feminine identity through her different performances Post-Modern Very ambiguous, could be feminist statement or stereotype Showed that our perception is always mediated, no notion of the innocent eye but rather an eye that has been previously tainted by implanted images. Brought up perspective of identity politics She gave rise to a whole second generation of picture artists
Provided reproductions of reproductions (shot the photos out of glossy picture books) Move from production to consumption (artist Is now a consumer) or reproduction Feminist: She was stealing and devaluing the work of earlier male artists, and thus positioning herself as a reproducer (not producer) who interrogated and questioned the production strategies of these male artists. She did so in a very critical manner Stripped the photos of visual pleasure--nothing to look at, because nothing was being added.
Final exam study guide
Pablo Picasso, Ma Jolie , 1911-12
Pablo Picasso, Still Life with Chair Caning , 1912