Poetry and literary devices


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Poetry and literary devices

  1. 1. Cecilia Pena Koessler M.A. cpk@bclanguagestudio.com
  2. 2. Dominated by two principles: Rule-making Rule-breaking
  3. 3.  Organized into fixed lines Lines organized into stanzas Lines that are rhythmical Words that rhyme
  4. 4. CalligramCalligram Shape Poem
  5. 5.  Foregrounding: A particular form or structure is highlighted or draws attention to itself in some way Deviation: Breaking the rules of punctuation, capitalization, word order, sentence structure, etc. to achieve effects. Juxtaposition: Combining together two or more communicative elements so as to surpress connections between them and emphasize the differences
  6. 6.  End stop: The grammatical break coincides with the end of a line. Enjambment: A verse runs on from one line to another because of its grammatical structure. Caesura: A break or a pause in a line of verse.
  7. 7. Implicit comparison Explicit comparisonWhen they lose power or Draws attention to theeffect, „dead metaphor‟ similarity through textual signals
  8. 8. http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/james_geary_metaphorically_speaking.html
  10. 10.  Elaborate or far-fetched metaphor Impact: odd, unexpected Stretches over several lines
  11. 11.  Greek for „change of name‟ works through other kinds of associations while a metaphor types: containment, tool/instrument, attribute A B A={b} B={a}
  12. 12.  Greek for „taking together‟ A part of something that signifies the whole
  13. 13.  We need a couple of strong bodies for our team. Hes in dance. There are a lot of good heads in the university. Ive got a new set of wheels. The Times hasnt arrived at the Press Conference yet. Mrs. Grundy frowns on blue jeans. Weve got some new blood in the organisation. The ham sandwich is waiting for his check. He likes to read the Marquis de Sade.
  14. 14. An inanimate object or and abstract conceptis spoken as though it were endowed withlife or human attibutes. A B=person
  15. 15.  Pathetic fallacy: Human feelings are given to objects which cannot by their nature have them. Mental landscape: The surroundings (landscape or townscape) expresses or reflects what an individual is feeling.
  16. 16. http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/james_geary_metaphorically_speaking.html
  17. 17. Exaggeration for puposes emphasis,expressing emotion, etc.
  18. 18. A word that stands for or points to a realitybeyond itself.
  19. 19.  Sensory Images: Words and details that appeal to a readers senses (visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile and kinesthetic) Syn(a)esthesia: The description of one kind of sensation in terms of another.
  20. 20. Way of using language where we meansomething different from what we say orwrite. Sarcasm: Type of verbal irony in which a very marked tone of voice communicated the attitude of disbelief implicitly.
  21. 21. There is a difference between what isexpected and what actually happens.
  22. 22. An old man turned ninety-eight Well life has a funny way of sneaking up on youHe won the lottery and died the next day When you think everythings okay and everythingsIts a black fly in your Chardonnay going rightIts a death row pardon two minutes too late And life has a funny way of helping you out whenAnd isnt it ironic... dont you think You think everythings gone wrong and everything blows upIts like rain on your wedding day In your faceIts a free ride when youve already paidIts the good advice that you just didnt take A traffic jam when youre already lateWho wouldve thought... it figures A no-smoking sign on your cigarette break Its like ten thousand spoons when all you need is aMr. Play It Safe was afraid to fly knifeHe packed his suitcase and kissed his kids goodbye Its meeting the man of my dreamsHe waited his whole damn life to take that flight And then meeting his beautiful wifeAnd as the plane crashed down he thought And isnt it ironic...dont you think"Well isnt this nice..." A little too ironic...and, yeah, I really do think...And isnt it ironic... dont you think Its like rain on your wedding dayIts like rain on your wedding day Its a free ride when youve already paidIts a free ride when youve already paid Its the good advice that you just didnt takeIts the good advice that you just didnt take Who wouldve thought... it figuresWho wouldve thought... it figures Life has a funny way of sneaking up on you Life has a funny, funny way of helping you out Helping you out
  23. 23. A character on stage that is involved in adramatic action has a specific belief whichthe audience knows to be false.
  24. 24.  The Truman Showhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3gI9ms8Fdc Forrest Gumphttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dYcjKcOV8Ho The Lion Kinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ie72bX3gas0
  25. 25. A form of irony where something isintentionally represented as less than it is
  26. 26. ed.”
  27. 27.  To show humor To show anger and fierce criticism To show the sadness of a situation
  28. 28. The vowel sound and the sound of the finalconsonant or consonant group are repeatedin nearby words.
  29. 29.  External/end rhyme: Rhyme at the end of a line of verse usually organized into patterns or rhyme schemes. Internal rhyme: Rhyme within a line of verse.
  30. 30. Repetition of sounds made by initialconsonants or consonant clusters of nearbywords. Also called, initial rhyme. The whole cluster must be repeated. The 3 Rs: reading, writing and arithmetic.
  31. 31.  Assonance [c-V-c]: A sequence of repeated vowel sounds especially in stresses sylables. Consonance [c-v-C]: Repetition of sounds made by the final consonants or consonant groups of nearby words. Pararhyme (half-rhyme)[C-v-C]: The sounds of both initial and the final consonant or consonant groups in nearby words are repeated.
  32. 32. The naming of a thing or action by a vocalimitation of the sound associated with it.
  33. 33.  Accidental patterning Cohesive function Emphasizing or foregrounding Creating or reinforcing parallelism Sound symbolism
  34. 34.  Anaphora: Repetition of a word or expression at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, sentences, or verses. Parallel structures: Repetition at the level of sentence structure. Lexicalparallelism: Two or more words that belong to the same area of meaning or semantic field.
  35. 35.  Cohesivefunction Mnemonic function
  36. 36.  Hyperbaton: Different positioning of words and phrases to create Hypallage: Reversal of the syntactic function of two words. Usually, a modifier, especially an adjective, is applied to the "wrong" word in the sentence.
  37. 37. Powerful you have become, the dark side I sense in you.Grave danger you are in. Impatient you are.Once you start down the dark path, forever will it dominate your destiny, consume you itwill.Always in motion is the future.Around the survivors a perimeter create.Size matters not.May the force be with you.Blind we are, if creation of this clone army we could not see.Agree with you the council does. Your apprentice Skywalker will be.When 900 years you reach, look as good, you will not.
  38. 38. “Our gayness and our gift are besmirchedWith rainy marching in the painful field” - Shakespeare, Henry V 4.3.110-111“The eye of man hath not heard, the ear ofman hath not seen, mans hand is not ableto taste, his tongue to conceive, nor hisheart to report, what my dream was.” —Shakespeare, A Midsummer Nights Dream 4.1.211-214
  39. 39.  Antithesis: Two words or sentences of contrasting meanings in close proximity to one another. Paradox: The use of concepts/ ideas that are contradictory to one another, yet, when placed together they hold significant value on several levels. Oxymoron: Contrasting concepts placed together in a manner that actually ends up making sense in a strange, and slightly complex manner.
  40. 40. Fourteen lines with a structured rhymescheme and a definite rhythm pattern
  41. 41. SHAKESPEAREANPETRARCHAN OR OR ENGLISHITALIAN SONNET SONNET Divided into an octave and a  Divided into three quatrains sestet and a couplet Rhyme scheme:  Rhyme scheme: ababa cdcd abbbaabbba cdecde/cdcdcd efef gg
  42. 42. Shall I compare thee to a summers day?Thou art more lovely and more temperate:Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,And summers lease hath all too short a date:Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,And often is his gold complexion dimmd;And every fair from fair sometime declines,By chance or natures changing course untrimmd;But thy eternal summer shall not fadeNor lose possession of that fair thou owest;Nor shall Death brag thou wanderst in his shade,When in eternal lines to time thou growest:So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,So long lives this and this gives life to thee.
  43. 43.  Tellsa story: narrative or dramatic poem Rhyming quatrains Refrain or incremental repetition
  44. 44. Poetry which does not have form, structure,rhyme or rhythm and allows poets to uselanguage in whatever ways seemappropriate to their purpose and to createthe effects they desire in their work.
  45. 45.  Ode Elegy Dramatic monologue
  46. 46. Do you ever feel like a plastic bag You dont have to feel like a waste of spaceDrifting through the wind Youre original, cannot be replacedWanting to start again If you only knew what the future holdsDo you ever feel, feel so paper thin After a hurricane comes a rainbowLike a house of cardsOne blow from caving in Maybe youre reason why all the doors are closedDo you ever feel already buried deep So you can open one that leads you to the perfect roadSix feet under screamBut no one seems to hear a thing Like a lightning bolt, your heart will blowDo you know that theres still a chance for you And when its time, youll KnowCause theres a spark in you [CHORUS]You just gotta unite the lightAnd let It Shine Boom, boom, boomJust own the nightLike the fourth of July Even brighter than the moon, moon, moon Its always been inside Of you, you, youCause baby youre a firework And now its time to let it throughCome on show em what your worthMake em go "Oh, oh, oh!"As you shoot across the sky-y-y [CHORUS]Baby youre a firework Boom, Boom, BoomCome on let your colors burst Even Brighter Than The Moon, Moon, MoonMake em go "Oh, oh, oh!"Youre gonna leave em fallin down-own-own Boom, Boom, Boom Even Brighter Than The Moon, Moon, Moon http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QGJuMBdaqIw&ob=av3e
  47. 47. You change your mind We used to beLike a girl changes clothes Just like twinsYeah you, PMS So in syncLike a bitch The same energyI would know Nows a dead battery Used to laugh bout nothingAnd you over think Now youre plain boringAlways speakCryptically I should know that Youre not gonna changeI should knowThat youre no good for me [CHORUS][CHORUS] Someone call the doctorCause youre hot then youre cold Got a case of a love bi-polarYoure yes then youre no Stuck on a roller coasterYoure in then youre out Cant get off this rideYoure up then youre downYoure wrong when its right You change your mindIts black and its white Like a girl changes clothesWe fight, we break upWe kiss, we make up [CHORUS 2:](you) You dont really want to stay, no(but you) But you dont really want to go-oYoure hot then youre coldYoure yes then youre no http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yY3CehyfUkoYoure in then youre outYoure up then youre down
  48. 48.  http://literary-devices.com/