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Intro to public health3

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intro to public health 3

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Intro to public health3

  1. 1. FACTORS OF GOOD HEALTH SYSTEMS • Delivers quality services to all people, when & where they need them • A robust financing mechanism • A well-trained & adequately paid workforce • Reliable information on which to base decisions & policies • Well maintained facilities & logistics to deliver quality medicines & technologies The World Health Organization. (2016, March, 3). Health Systems. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/health_systems/en/
  2. 2. FACTORS OF FAILING HEALTH SYSTEMS • Many health ministries focus on the public sector & often disregard the frequently much larger private sector of health care. • In many countries, some if not most physicians work simultaneously for the public sector & in private practice. This means the public sector ends up subsidizing unofficial private practice. • Many governments fail to prevent a “black market” in health, where widespread corruption, bribery, “moonlighting”, & other illegal practices flourish. • Many health ministries fail to enforce regulations that they themselves have created or are supposed to implement in the public interest. The World Health Organization. (2016, March, 3). World Health Report: World Health Organization Assesses the World’s Health Systems. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/whr/2000/media_centre/press_release/en/
  3. 3. ESSENTIAL SERVICES OF PUBLIC HEALTH • Monitor health status • Diagnose & investigate • Inform, educate, & empower • Mobilize community partnerships • Develop policies & plans • Enforce laws & regulations • Link people to needed services/assure care • Assure a competent workforce • Evaluate health services • Research Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2016, March 3). Public Health 101. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/stltpublichealth/about/index.html
  4. 4. HEALTH SYSTEM AGENTS Public Health Medical Care Environmental Health Occupational Health Health System Local State National-Federal-Tribal Individual Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2016, March 3). Public Health 101. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/stltpublichealth/about/index.html
  5. 5. U.S. PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM U.S. Public Health System Federal Public Health State Public Health Departments Local Public Health Departments Local Boards of Health Tribal Public Health
  6. 6. U.S. PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM THE FEDERAL PUBLIC HEALTH • Ensure all levels of government have the capabilities to provide essential public health services • Act when health threats may span more than one state, a region, or the entire nation • Act where the solutions may be beyond the jurisdictions of the individual states • Act to assist the states when they lack the expertise or resources to effectively respond in a public health emergency (e.g., a disaster, bioterrorism, or an emerging disease) • Facilitate the formulation of public health goals (in collaboration with state & local governments & other relevant stakeholders Other important roles… • Providing leadership, through regulatory powers, in setting health goals, policies, & standards • Contributing operational & financial resources • Financing research & higher education • Supporting the development of scientific & technological tools needed to improve the effectiveness of public health infrastructure at all levels Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2016, March 3). Public Health 101. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/stltpublichealth/about/index.html
  7. 7. U.S. PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM STATE PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENTS • Screening for diseases & conditions • Treatment for diseases • Technical assistance & training • State laboratory services • Epidemiology & surveillance Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2016, March 3). Public Health 101. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/stltpublichealth/about/index.html
  8. 8. U.S. PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM LOCAL PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENTS • Local/Decentralized: Local health departments are units led by local governments, which make most fiscal decisions • Mixed: Some local health departments are led by state government, & some are led by local government. No one arrangement predominates in the state. • State/Centralized: All local health departments are units of state government, which makes most fiscal decisions • Shared: All local health departments are governed by both state & local authorities Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2016, March 3). Public Health 101. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/stltpublichealth/about/index.html
  9. 9. U.S. PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM LOCAL BOARDS OF HEALTH • A legally designated body whose role is to protect & promote the health of its community Most local boards of health… • Provide oversight to the public health agency • Foster activities such as community health assessment, assurance, & policy management Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2016, March 3). Public Health 101. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/stltpublichealth/about/index.html
  10. 10. U.S. PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM TRIBAL HEALTH DEPARTMENTS • A corporation or organization operated under the jurisdiction of a federally recognized tribe, or association of federally recognized tribes, & is funded by the tribes(s) &/or contract services(s) from the Indian Health Service TRIBAL HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS • Include Tribal Health Departments, Indian Health Service Units, Area Indian health Boards, & Urban Indian health Centers (a much broader group, & related to a variety of entities that might provide health services in a tribal setting) Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2016, March 3). Public Health 101. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/stltpublichealth/about/index.html
  11. 11. HEALTH SYSTEM FINANCING OPTIONS Tax-Based System National Health Insurance System Social health Insurance System Out-of-Pocket Model Physicians for A National Health Program. (2016, March, 3). Health Care Systems – Four Basic Models. Retrieved from http://www.pnhp.org/single_payer_resources/health_care_systems_four_basic_models.php
  12. 12. HEALTH SYSTEM FINANCING Tax-Based System (Beveridge Model): Health care is provided & financed by the government through tax payments, just like the police force or the public library. Many, but not all, hospitals & clinics are owned by the government; some doctors are government employees, but there are also private doctors who collect their fees from the government. • Systems tend to have low costs per capita, because the government, as the sole payer, controls what doctors can do & what they can charge Countries: Great Britain, Spain, Scandinavia, New Zealand Hong Kong, & Cuba Physicians for A National Health Program. (2016, March, 3). Health Care Systems – Four Basic Models. Retrieved from http://www.pnhp.org/single_payer_resources/health_care_systems_four_basic_models.php
  13. 13. HEALTH SYSTEM FINANCING Social Health Insurance System (Bismarck Model): “Sickness funds” – usually financed jointly by employers & employees through payroll deduction. Health insurance plans cover everybody & they don’t make a profit. Doctors & hospitals tend to be private. Countries: Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Japan, Switzerland, & Latin America. Physicians for A National Health Program. (2016, March, 3). Health Care Systems – Four Basic Models. Retrieved from http://www.pnhp.org/single_payer_resources/health_care_systems_four_basic_models.php
  14. 14. HEALTH SYSTEM FINANCING National Health Insurance System: It uses private-sector providers, but payment comes from the government-run insurance program that every citizen pays into. • The single payer tends to have considerable market power to negotiate for lower prices. • They control costs by limiting the medical services they will pay for or by making patients wait to be treated. Countries: Canada, Taiwan, & South Korea Physicians for A National Health Program. (2016, March, 3). Health Care Systems – Four Basic Models. Retrieved from http://www.pnhp.org/single_payer_resources/health_care_systems_four_basic_models.php
  15. 15. HEALTH SYSTEM FINANCING Out-of-Pocket Model: If a person has access to a doctor, then they may pay with money, agriculture, livestock, or homemade goods. • Most of the nations on the planet are too poor & too disorganized to provide any kind of mass medical care • The basic rule is that the rich get medical care; the poor stay sick or die Countries: Rural Africa, India, & China Physicians for A National Health Program. (2016, March, 3). Health Care Systems – Four Basic Models. Retrieved from http://www.pnhp.org/single_payer_resources/health_care_systems_four_basic_models.php
  16. 16. WHO ANNUAL REPORT • In Europe, health systems in Mediterranean countries such as France, Italy, & Spain are rated higher than others in the continent. • Columbia, Chile, Costa Rica, & Cuba are rated highest among the Latin American nations • Singapore & Japan are the highest ranked Asian nations • In the Pacific, Australia & New Zealand are ranked the highest. • The Middle East & North Africa are ranked highly overall • Nations with the most responsive health systems are the United States, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Denmark, Germany, Japan, Canada, Norway, Netherlands, & Sweden The World Health Organization. (2016, March, 3). World Health Report: World Health Organization Assesses the World’s Health Systems. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/whr/2000/media_centre/press_release/en/

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