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DEFINE HEALTH
The World Health Organization (WHO) is considered to have the most
popular
definition of health.
“Health is a state of complete physical, mental, & social well-being & not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”
Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 11) (2nd ed.).
New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
DEFINE PUBLIC HEALTH
The World Health Organization:
“Public health refers to all organized measures (whether public or private) to prevent
disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole. Its
activities aim to provide conditions in which people can be healthy and focus on
entire populations, not on individual patients or diseases. Thus, public health is
concerned with the total system and not only the eradication of a particular disease.”
The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention Foundation:
“Public health is the science of protecting and improving the health of families and
communities through promotion of healthy lifestyles, research for disease and injury
prevention and detection and control of infectious diseases. Overall, public health is
concerned with protecting the health of entire populations. These populations can be
as
small as a local neighborhood, or as big as an entire country or region of the world.”
World Health Organization.(2016). Public
health. Retrieved from
http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story076/e
n/
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention
Foundation. (2016). What is public health?.
Retrieved from
http://www.cdcfoundation.org/content/what
-public-health
3 TYPES OF PREVENTION
Primary prevention
“Intends to prevent the development of disease & the occurrence of injury, & thus,
to reduce their incidence in the population.”
Secondary prevention
“Treating disease after it has developed so that there are no permanent adverse
consequences.”
Tertiary prevention
“Focuses on the optimum treatment of clinically apparent & clearly identified
disease to reduce complications to the greatest possible degree.”
Primary
Prevention
Secondary
Prevention
Tertiary
Prevention
Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 6) (2nd ed.). New
York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
PUBLIC HEALTH & PREVENTION
Public health focuses on primary prevention, however, there is also
an interest in secondary & tertiary preventions.
Public health focuses secondary & tertiary preventions to ensure “access
to effective
clinical care, rather than providing the care itself.”
“Preventing long-term consequences of health problems & limiting the
progression of illness, disability, & disease is dependent on access to
excellent medical care”
“Access to primary care & specialties has historically been a target of
public health initiatives.”
Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 8) (2nd ed.). New
York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
There are many factors that influence the health of the individual & the
community.
Determinants
Physical
Environment
Social
Environment
Genetic
Inheritance
Health
Behavior
Health Care
Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 12-16) (2nd
ed.). New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH:
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Natural
Environment
• “Defined by the features of an
area that include its
topography, weather, soil,
water, animal life, & other
such attributes.”
• Health threats “include
weather related disasters
such as tornados, hurricanes,
& earth quakes, as well as
exposure to infectious
disease agents that are
endemic to a region.”
Built
Environment
• “Defined by the structures
that people have created for
housing, commerce,
transportation, government,
recreation, & so forth.”
• Health threats “include
exposure to toxins & unsafe
conditions, particularly in
occupational & residential
settings.”
Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 12) (2nd ed.).
New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH:
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
Human
Life
Society
Community
Religion
Social Network
Family
Occupation
These are the major
organizational concepts
of human life
Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 13) (2nd ed.).
New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH:
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
Informal
Rules
• Religious,
political,
economic, &
organizational
Formal
Rules
• Religious,
political,
economic, &
organizational
Informal & formal rules
govern our everyday
lives. These rules are
based upon values,
beliefs, & norms.
Ultimately, these rules
“affect how individuals live
& behave; their
relationships with others;
& what resources &
opportunities individuals
have to influence their
lives
Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 13) (2nd ed.).
New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH:
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
Status,
Resources,
& Power
Socioeconomic
status
Racial & ethnic
groups
“An important aspect of the social
environment is the status,
resources, & power that individuals
have within their social environment.”
Socioeconomic status is “a
combination of education,
occupation, & income/wealth” which
is “associated with significant
variations in health status & risk for
health problems.”
Racial & ethnic status “indicate that
disparities exist between racial &
ethnic minority groups.”
Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 13-14) (2nd ed.).
New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH:
GENETIC INHERITANCE
“Disease processes are determined both by environmental & genetic
factors.“
“These usually interact, & individuals with a particular set of genes may be
either more or less likely, if exposed, to be at risk of developing a
particular disease.”
Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 15) (2nd ed.).
New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
DETERMINANT OF HEALTH: HEALTH BEHAVIOR
Health behaviors “refers to behaviors that harm health.”
Some of the nation’s leading causes of death are due to health behavior
causing disease or a condition
• Suicide
• Chronic liver disease
• Cirrhosis
• Essential hypertension
• Hypersensitive renal disease
• Assault
Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 15) (2nd
THE END
Subjects covered:
• Definition of health
• Definitions of public health
• 3 types of prevention
• Determinants of health

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Intro to public health 1

  • 1.
  • 2. DEFINE HEALTH The World Health Organization (WHO) is considered to have the most popular definition of health. “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, & social well-being & not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 11) (2nd ed.). New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
  • 3. DEFINE PUBLIC HEALTH The World Health Organization: “Public health refers to all organized measures (whether public or private) to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole. Its activities aim to provide conditions in which people can be healthy and focus on entire populations, not on individual patients or diseases. Thus, public health is concerned with the total system and not only the eradication of a particular disease.” The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention Foundation: “Public health is the science of protecting and improving the health of families and communities through promotion of healthy lifestyles, research for disease and injury prevention and detection and control of infectious diseases. Overall, public health is concerned with protecting the health of entire populations. These populations can be as small as a local neighborhood, or as big as an entire country or region of the world.” World Health Organization.(2016). Public health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story076/e n/ Centers for Disease Control & Prevention Foundation. (2016). What is public health?. Retrieved from http://www.cdcfoundation.org/content/what -public-health
  • 4. 3 TYPES OF PREVENTION Primary prevention “Intends to prevent the development of disease & the occurrence of injury, & thus, to reduce their incidence in the population.” Secondary prevention “Treating disease after it has developed so that there are no permanent adverse consequences.” Tertiary prevention “Focuses on the optimum treatment of clinically apparent & clearly identified disease to reduce complications to the greatest possible degree.” Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention Tertiary Prevention Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 6) (2nd ed.). New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
  • 5. PUBLIC HEALTH & PREVENTION Public health focuses on primary prevention, however, there is also an interest in secondary & tertiary preventions. Public health focuses secondary & tertiary preventions to ensure “access to effective clinical care, rather than providing the care itself.” “Preventing long-term consequences of health problems & limiting the progression of illness, disability, & disease is dependent on access to excellent medical care” “Access to primary care & specialties has historically been a target of public health initiatives.” Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 8) (2nd ed.). New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
  • 6. DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH There are many factors that influence the health of the individual & the community. Determinants Physical Environment Social Environment Genetic Inheritance Health Behavior Health Care Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 12-16) (2nd ed.). New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
  • 7. DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Natural Environment • “Defined by the features of an area that include its topography, weather, soil, water, animal life, & other such attributes.” • Health threats “include weather related disasters such as tornados, hurricanes, & earth quakes, as well as exposure to infectious disease agents that are endemic to a region.” Built Environment • “Defined by the structures that people have created for housing, commerce, transportation, government, recreation, & so forth.” • Health threats “include exposure to toxins & unsafe conditions, particularly in occupational & residential settings.” Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 12) (2nd ed.). New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
  • 8. DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT Human Life Society Community Religion Social Network Family Occupation These are the major organizational concepts of human life Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 13) (2nd ed.). New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
  • 9. DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT Informal Rules • Religious, political, economic, & organizational Formal Rules • Religious, political, economic, & organizational Informal & formal rules govern our everyday lives. These rules are based upon values, beliefs, & norms. Ultimately, these rules “affect how individuals live & behave; their relationships with others; & what resources & opportunities individuals have to influence their lives Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 13) (2nd ed.). New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
  • 10. DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT Status, Resources, & Power Socioeconomic status Racial & ethnic groups “An important aspect of the social environment is the status, resources, & power that individuals have within their social environment.” Socioeconomic status is “a combination of education, occupation, & income/wealth” which is “associated with significant variations in health status & risk for health problems.” Racial & ethnic status “indicate that disparities exist between racial & ethnic minority groups.” Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 13-14) (2nd ed.). New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
  • 11. DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: GENETIC INHERITANCE “Disease processes are determined both by environmental & genetic factors.“ “These usually interact, & individuals with a particular set of genes may be either more or less likely, if exposed, to be at risk of developing a particular disease.” Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 15) (2nd ed.). New York City, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
  • 12. DETERMINANT OF HEALTH: HEALTH BEHAVIOR Health behaviors “refers to behaviors that harm health.” Some of the nation’s leading causes of death are due to health behavior causing disease or a condition • Suicide • Chronic liver disease • Cirrhosis • Essential hypertension • Hypersensitive renal disease • Assault Goldsteen, R.L., Goldsteen, K., & Dwelle, T.L. (2015). Introduction to public health: promises & practices (pp. 15) (2nd
  • 13. THE END Subjects covered: • Definition of health • Definitions of public health • 3 types of prevention • Determinants of health