Pronoun ppt


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Pronoun ppt

  1. 1. Unit 3 Pronouns
  2. 2. What is a Pronoun? <ul><li>A word that takes the place of one or more nouns and the words that describe those nouns. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Personal Pronouns <ul><li>Used to refer to people or things. </li></ul><ul><li>Singular or plural </li></ul><ul><li>Two Kinds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as the subject of the sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> OR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as the object of the verb or preposition </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Personal Pronouns us you them me you him, her, it Used as Objects we you they I you he, she, it Used as Subjects Plural Singular
  5. 5. Subject Pronouns <ul><li>Used as the subject of the sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rita likes books. She particularly likes novels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dog ran down the street. It was so fast no one could keep up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mom and Dad left this morning for vacation. They went to Jamaica. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Object Pronouns <ul><li>Used as the object of the verb or preposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The novel amuses Rita. The novel amuses her . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy knocked the chair over. The boy knocked it over. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The officer showed handcuffs to the class. The officer showed handcuffs to them . </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Underline the pronoun and above each one, label “S” for subject pronoun or “O” for object pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>Jimmy writes poems; they are about everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>they – subject </li></ul><ul><li>“ They” is a subject pronoun because it is the subject of the second sentence in a compound sentence. </li></ul>Personal Pronoun Practice…
  8. 8. <ul><li>She was born in Topeka, Kansas, but grew up in Chicago. </li></ul><ul><li>She – subject </li></ul><ul><li>The poet Langston Hughes gave them literary advice. </li></ul><ul><li>them – object </li></ul><ul><li>The combination of street talk and American verse will amaze you. </li></ul><ul><li>you – object </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>They were the scariest Halloween costumes that I have ever seen. </li></ul><ul><li> They – subject, I – subject (I is subject of clause) </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001, she won an award for her role in the school play. </li></ul><ul><li>She – subject (her is a possessive pronoun) </li></ul><ul><li>I saw Mrs. Landon hand the sealed letter to you. </li></ul><ul><li>I – subject, you – object </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pronouns and Antecedents <ul><li>Antecedent – the noun or groups of words that a pronoun refers to </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Louisa May Alcott lived near Boston. She </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>had many famous neighbors. </li></ul></ul></ul>Antecedent Pronoun
  11. 11. Pronouns and Antecedents: Singular and Plural <ul><li>Be sure every pronoun agrees with its antecedent in number (singular or plural) and gender. </li></ul><ul><li>Puccini and Verdi wrote many great operas. They wrote them in Italian. </li></ul><ul><li>The plural pronoun they refers to Puccini and Verdi. The plural pronoun them refers to operas. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pronouns and Antecedents: Gender <ul><li>The gender of a noun or pronoun may be masculine, feminine, or neither (referring to things). </li></ul><ul><li>Mary sent a letter to Aunt Fran. Mary sent it to her . </li></ul><ul><li>The singular pronoun it refers to letter. The singular pronoun her refers to Aunt Fran. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Circle the antecedent in the first sentence and underlined the pronoun it refers to in the second sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcott came from a poor family. She wanted to help earn money. </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent – Alcott </li></ul><ul><li>Pronoun - She </li></ul>Pronouns and Antecedents Practice…
  14. 14. <ul><li>The job was not enough. It did not pay well. </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent – Job </li></ul><ul><li>Pronoun – It </li></ul><ul><li>Two more books by Alcott appeared quickly. They described her hospital work and teaching days. </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent – books </li></ul><ul><li>Pronoun – They </li></ul><ul><li>(her possessive pronoun) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>At the theatre we saw the movie, The Blind Side. It was interesting to me because I love football. </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent – movie or The Blind Side </li></ul><ul><li>Pronoun – It </li></ul><ul><li>My dad and brother taught me everything I know about hunting. They have been bringing me into the woods since I was eight years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent – dad, brother </li></ul><ul><li>Pronoun – They </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>I love helping Grandma make chocolate chip cookies. Her baking is absolutely delicious! </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent – Grandma </li></ul><ul><li>Pronoun – Her </li></ul><ul><li>The pitcher threw the runner out at third base. It was an exciting attempt at a steal, but he didn’t make it to the bag in time. </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent – runner </li></ul><ul><li>Pronoun – he </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The My Sister’s Keeper by Jodi Picoult is my favorite book. I could read it over and over again. </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent – My Sister’s Keeper </li></ul><ul><li>Pronoun – it </li></ul><ul><li>My class sent me balloons when I was in the hospital. They signed a card, wishing me a speedy recovery. </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent – class </li></ul><ul><li>Pronoun – They </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>I love listening to Elton John. The way he plays the piano makes me want to run out and take lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent – Elton John </li></ul><ul><li>Pronoun – he </li></ul><ul><li>In math we are learning long division. It seems to be a piece of cake! </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent – long division </li></ul><ul><li>Pronoun – It </li></ul>
  19. 19. Using Pronouns Correctly <ul><li>Subject pronouns are used in compound subjects and object pronouns are used in compound objects. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tina and Sam recently read Hamlet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She and he recently read Hamlet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( She and he form the compound subject) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamlet appealed to Sam and Tina. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamlet appealed to him and her . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( him and her form the compound object) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Using Pronouns Correctly Cont… <ul><li>When the subject pronoun I or the object pronoun me is part of the compound subject or object, I or me should come last. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tina and I liked the book. (not I and Tina…) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes a pronoun and noun are used together for emphasis. The form of the pronoun depends on its function in the sentence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We students read the book. ( We is the subject) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The book delighted us . ( Us is the direct object) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Using Pronouns Correctly Cont… <ul><li>Sometimes sentences make incomplete comparisons. The form of the pronoun can affect the meaning of such sentences. In any incomplete comparison, use the pronoun that would be correct if the comparison were complete. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jane liked Peter more than she (did). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>**Explanation - Jane and Claire liked Peter, but Jane liked him more than Claire did. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jane liked Peter more than (she liked) her. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>**Explanation - Jane liked Peter and Claire but Jane liked Peter more than she liked Claire. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>In formal writing, use a subject pronoun after a linking verb. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jane’s closest friend is he. </li></ul></ul>Using Pronouns Correctly Cont…
  23. 23. <ul><li>Choose the correct pronoun in parentheses to complete the sentence and tell if it is subject or object. </li></ul><ul><li>The coach trained (we, us) basketball players. </li></ul><ul><li>us – object </li></ul><ul><li>Jack and (me, I) went to the dance last Friday. </li></ul><ul><li>I – subject </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Between John and (she, her), they would help take care of the cows. </li></ul><ul><li>her – object of preposition </li></ul><ul><li>(Terry and I, Terry and me) guessed the surprise behind door number one. </li></ul><ul><li>Terry and I – subject </li></ul><ul><li>We sang happy birthday to Mom and (he, him). </li></ul><ul><li>him – object </li></ul>
  25. 25. Demonstrative Pronouns <ul><li>Pronouns that point something out. The demonstrative pronouns are this, that, these, and those. </li></ul><ul><li>This (singular) and these (plural) refer to something nearby. </li></ul><ul><li>That (singular) and those (plural) refer to something at a distance. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Demonstrative Pronouns <ul><li>This is an interesting book. (singular, nearby) </li></ul><ul><li>These are interesting books. (plural, nearby) </li></ul><ul><li>That is a long book. (singular, at a distance) </li></ul><ul><li>Those are long books. (plural, at a distance) </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Circle the correct word given in the parentheses. </li></ul><ul><li>(This, Those) are her bridal robes. </li></ul><ul><li>Those </li></ul><ul><li>(This, These) is the mansion of Miss Havisham. </li></ul><ul><li>This </li></ul><ul><li>(That, These) is a mystery. </li></ul><ul><li>That </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>(This, These) papers need to be tossed in the recycle bin. </li></ul><ul><li>These </li></ul><ul><li>(That, Those) car has been parked in front of our house for hours. </li></ul><ul><li>That </li></ul><ul><li>(This, Those) is my favorite pair of running shoes. </li></ul><ul><li>This </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>(These, Those) jets in the sky are doing figure eights. </li></ul><ul><li>Those </li></ul><ul><li>(This, These) dots on my arms are from having the chicken pox. </li></ul><ul><li>These </li></ul><ul><li>(This, Those) Legos were left all over the carpet last night. </li></ul><ul><li>Those </li></ul>
  30. 30. Interrogative Pronouns <ul><li>Pronouns used to introduce a question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Interrogative Pronouns Cont. <ul><li>Who and Whom both refer to people. </li></ul><ul><li>Who is used when the interrogative pronoun is the subject. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who borrowed the book? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Whom is used when the interrogative pronoun is the object of the verb or preposition. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whom did the librarian call? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For whom did you borrow the book? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Interrogative Pronouns Cont. <ul><li>Which and what are used to refer to things and ideas. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which is it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What interests you? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Whose shows that someone owns or has something. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I found a copy of Great Expectations. Whose is it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*****Do NOT confuse whose with who’s. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who’s is a contraction (who + is = who’s) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Choose the correct word from the parentheses. </li></ul><ul><li>(Whose, Who’s) Joe? </li></ul><ul><li>Who’s </li></ul><ul><li>(Who, Whom) did Miss Havisham see? </li></ul><ul><li>Whom </li></ul><ul><li>(This, What) are Pip’s great expectations? </li></ul><ul><li>What </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>From (who, whom) did you get that bouquet of roses? </li></ul><ul><li>Whom </li></ul><ul><li>(Who, Whom) showed you the way to the secret fort? </li></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><li>(What, Which) did Mom go to pick up at the grocery store? </li></ul><ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>(What, Which) of the candies do your prefer? </li></ul><ul><li>Which </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>(Who, Whom) did Joe score three points on? </li></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><li>With (whom, which) did you travel? </li></ul><ul><li>Whom </li></ul><ul><li>(Whose, Who’s) dirty laundry is laying on the floor? </li></ul><ul><li>Whose </li></ul><ul><li>(Whose, Who’s) coming along to see New Moon ? </li></ul><ul><li>Who’s </li></ul>
  36. 36. Indefinite Pronouns <ul><li>Pronouns that do not refer to a specific person, place or thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Each thinks about the plot. </li></ul>no one nothing one somebody someone something everybody everyone everything much neither nobody both few many others several another anybody anyone anything each either Plural Singular
  37. 37. <ul><li>When an indefinite pronoun is used as the subject, the verb must agree with it in number. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone reads a part of the novel. (singular) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several enjoy it very much. (plural) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the story takes place in England. (singular) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the characteristics are memorable. (plural) </li></ul></ul>all, any, most, none, some Singular or Plural
  38. 38. <ul><li>Possessive pronouns often have indefinite pronouns as their antecedents. In such cases, the pronouns must agree in number. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several are presenting their interpretations of the novel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each of the students has his or her ideas about its meaning. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Choose the correct word from the parentheses. </li></ul><ul><li>(Neither, All) of Frost’s poems are enjoyed by their readers. </li></ul><ul><li>All </li></ul><ul><li>(One, Many) of the poems have New England as their setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Many </li></ul><ul><li>(Each, Several) of the readers of Frost's poems has his or her favorite. </li></ul><ul><li>Each </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>(Neither, All) of the Harry Potter books are full of adventure. </li></ul><ul><li>All </li></ul><ul><li>(Each, Several) of the golfers has his or her favorite course. </li></ul><ul><li>Each </li></ul><ul><li>(Both, One) of the students shared her own memory of 9/11. </li></ul><ul><li>One </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Underline the indefinite pronoun in each sentence below. </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone can learn to ride a bike if they so choose. </li></ul><ul><li>There were several waiting outside the door. </li></ul><ul><li>Somebody forgot to shut the freezer this morning. </li></ul><ul><li>To each his own. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Identify the indefinite pronoun and choose the correct word from the parentheses. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone practices (his or her, their) part in the play. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the students (is, are) ready for opening night. </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing (makes, make) you feel at home like a slice of Mom’s apple pie. </li></ul><ul><li>All of the choir students (praise, praises) the director. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Several (offer, offers) Jake a ride back to his car. </li></ul><ul><li>Much (have, has) been written about Amelia Earhart. </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing exciting ever (happen, happens) in our town. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the story (take, takes) place in a hot air balloon. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Two Types of Clauses <ul><li>Main/Independent Clause – the part of the sentence that can stand alone as its own sentence . </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate Clause – the part of the sentence that cannot stand alone as its own sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Example… </li></ul><ul><li>Divers often wear wet suits, which are examples of basic diving equipment. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Adjective Clauses <ul><li>An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies or describes a noun or pronoun in the main clause of a complex sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The Aqua-Lung , which divers strap on, holds oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>The divers breathe through a tube that attaches to the tank. </li></ul><ul><li>An adjective clause begins with a relative pronoun (the underline word in the sentences above.) </li></ul>
  46. 46. Relative Pronouns <ul><li>Pronouns that signal a subordinate clause, which `cannot stand alone. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whoever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whom </li></ul></ul>Divers search for reefs where much sea life exists. Divers sometimes wear weights that they strap on. **Take note: the relative pronouns are located in the half of the sentence that cannot stand alone (the subordinate clause.)
  47. 47. <ul><li>Can you find the relative pronoun in each sentence? </li></ul><ul><li>1. The equipment that da Vinci designed was a leather diving helmet. </li></ul><ul><li>2. One bell, which was made of wood, looked like an upside-down bucket. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Auguste Piccard designed the bathyscaphe, which is a diving vehicle. </li></ul>Relative Pronouns Practice
  48. 48. Locate the adjective clause and identify the relative pronoun in each sentence. 4. Poles, which are used for balance and control, help skiers ski safely. which are used for balance and control 5. Thomas Jefferson, who is famous president, wrote the Declaration of Independence. who is famous president 6. At the end of a rope was an anchor that kept the boat in place. that kept the boat in place
  49. 49. Locate the adjective clause and identify the relative pronoun in each sentence. 7. George Washington, who was our first president, was also a fierce leader in Revolutionary War. who was our first president 8. The distance from here to the door is one yard, which is equal to three feet. which is equal to three feet 9. Scientists sometime wear goggles that they strap on. that they strap on 10. Rosa Parks, who was a civil rights activist, refused to give up her seat on a city bus. who was a civil rights activist