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Controlling a Wheelchair According to the Head Movements
    Dimutu Upeksha*, Chameera Wijebandara, Chamila Dilshan Wijayarathna, Sameera Nilupul
Wijayarathna,Milinda Fernando, Akila Pemasiri, Suneth Vijaindu Gamage, Madhushi Niluka Bandara

       Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

   dimuthu.upeksha2@gmail.com; chameerawijebandara@gmail.com; cdwijayarathna@gmail.com;
sameernilupul@gmail.com; milindasf@gmail.com; akilapemasiri@gmail.com; svijayindu@gmail.com;
                                   madhushib@gmail.com;

                                       +94 -719-084-638




                                                                                                 1
Table of Contents


Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………                                   03
1.Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………..                               03
2.Materials and Method
  2.1 Materials………………………………………………………………………………………..                              03
  2.2 Method………………………………………………………………………………………….                                 04
  2.3 Implementation
     2.3.1 Identifying the circuits embedded in the wheelchair………………………………………   05
     2.3.2 Identifying voice commands………………………………………………………………                   05
     2.3.3 Controlling the movements of the wheelchair……………………………………………..       05
     2.3.4 Collision Avoider…………………………………………………………………………...                     05
3. Results……………………………………………………………………………………………….                                 08
4. Discussion…………………………………………………………………………………………...                              08
5. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………..                               09
6. Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………………..                             09
7. Reference……………………………………………………………………………………………                                 09
Appendices ……………………………………………………………………………………………                                  10




                                                                                 2
Abstract - The thirty-year long civil war in our     set about designing a mobility control system
country left many young and able-bodied men          that is capable of interfacing with head
and women with life-long disabilities. The           movements of the officer as that is the only part
soldiers who fought for the defence of our           of his body that can be moved. Based on a
motherland and civilians caught in the crossfire     lightweight harness worn on the head and using
have suffered grievous injuries that led them to     a solid-state gyroscope proving a tilt-sensor
be wheelchair-bound for mobility. However, for       capability.
some of the most severely injured war heroes,
even a wheelchair cannot provide mobility. The       The mobility control system was then interfaced
motivation for this engineering research project     to a battery-powered motorized wheelchair by
is to invent a wheelchair mobility control system    removing the joystick-based control unit of the
for an army officer who has lost all motor           wheelchair and replacing it with our invention.
control functionality below his neck and is only     The prototype was successfully tested for the
able to move his head.                               complete set of motions that the disabled officer
                                                     wishes to make. The next step in this
On a visit to the longterm-care facility in which    engineering project is to further research on
this officer resides, his only request was to be     providing safety and reliability features for the
able to move his wheelchair unassisted by            mobility control unit.
another. Our team of engineering undergraduates
                                                     2. Materials and Method
                                                        2.1 Materials
1. Introduction - As a result of civil war                  Material                       Quantity
   which existed for three decades there are                LYEB103 Wheel                     1
   many soldiers who have been affected. So                 Chair(Electric Wheelchair)
   as engineering students we thought that it is            Arduino Mega 2560                   1
   our responsibility to utilize our knowledge              development board
   and capabilities in a way that is beneficial to          Arduino Compatible Voice            1
   the country. The motivation behind this                  recognition Module
                                                            ZCT245AN-TTL 2-axis tilt            1
   project is to support for such an officer who
                                                            sensor
   has not control below his neck.                          HC-SR04 Ultra Sonic                 8
                                                            range finders
    At the moment he is staying at Mihindu Seth
                                                            PIC 16f876 micro                    1
    Madura. What we noticed was that he                     controller
    cannot do anything of his own. What he                  10kΏ surface mounts 40             40
    requested mainly was a way to move his                  (for R2R Ladder)
    wheel chair of his own.                                 330Ώ surface mounts                10
                                                            7805 Regulator IC                   1
    So we came with up an idea to carry on a                4MHz crystal oscillator             1
    project which results in making a wheel
    chair which can be moved according to the
    head movements of the officer’s head.




                                                                                                      3
2.2 Method
    The overall logic behind this project can                    details refer the state diagram in the
    be illustrated as follow. For further                        appendices




                                                Power on the
                                                 wheelchair




                                                Power In
                                               Wheelchair




   Check voice                                                                                             Check voice
                                 Obstacle is                       Check voice
   command is                                                                                              command is
                                  detected                         command is
     “Drive”                                                                                                 “Stop”
                                                                    “Manual”




   Start Head               Stop the movement                                                             Stop Head
                                                                 Recoded user
    Control                towards the obstacle                                                            Control
                                                               guidance is played




                                                                                      Power off




                                                                                    Yes                      4
2.3 Implementation

2.3.1Identifying the circuits embedded in the     The commands used are “Drive”, “Stop”
wheelchair                                         and “Manual”.

 The wheelchair selected was LYEB103.            2.3.4Controlling the movements of the
 Dissembled the control unit in the                   wheelchair
  wheelchair.                                        According to the head movements
 We identified that a removal of one                  According to the input signal (which
  component will even lead the wheelchair to             was generated by tilt sensor),
  be locked, to the safety of the user.                  Arduino Uno board generates the
 Then we identified the inputs and outputs of           relevant digital signal.
  the joystick by the means of an oscilloscope         Those signals are converted to
  (Figure (a))                                           signals which are analogous to the
 We supplied the analog voltages using two              output signals of the joy stick and
  variable resistors and deceived the circuit.           given to the relevant ports of the
 As the prior step was successful we supplied           control circuit.
  digital values using digital to analog             According to the voice commands
  converters (Figure (b))                              The original control circuit uses
                                                         inputs from switches to control
                                                         power and speed.
2.3.2 Identifying the head movements.
                                                       According to the input signal (which
 ZCT245AN-TTL 2-axis tilt sensor was used,              was     generated      by    Arduino
  which is connected to the head of the user.            compatible, voice recognition),
 This can measure the angles with reference             Arduino Uno board generates the
  to the x axis as well as the y axis of the             relevant signal.
  horizontal plane(Figure (c)).                        The circuit is developed so that the
 Through a serial interface the angle                   tasks done by switches take place
  measured by the tilt sensor is caught by an            according to the generated signals.
  Arduino Mega board which contains the
  driving program of the wheelchair.             2.3.4 Collision Avoider
                                                      8 sonar sensors were used to identify the
                                                       barriers which are along and on the sides
2.3.3 Identifying the voice commands                   of the moving wheelchair.
                                                      By measuring the distance to the
 Arduino compatible, voice recognition
                                                       obstacles from the wheelchair, position
  shield was mounted on the Arduino Uno
                                                       of the obstacle is found.
  board.
                                                      By using a clock interrupt the obstacles
 It can be configured to recognize 15 voice
                                                       are checked in regular intervals and the
  commands.
                                                       movement of the wheelchair is
 It generates and sends a signal to the
                                                       terminated if there is an obstacle in the
  Arduino Uno board according to the
                                                       relevant direction
  command received.




                                                                                              5
1   2         3      4
                                      1.   Vref
                                      2.   Vcc
                                      3.   X
                                      4.   Y
                                      5.   X
5   6         7      8                6.   Y
                                      7.   GND
        Figure (a)                    8.   Vref/ Not Connected




                         Figure (b)




                                                                 6
Figure (c)




             7
3. Results - Some quantitative factors were                                         100
   taken into the accountant to measure the                                          90




                                                               Accuracy Level (%)
   accuracy and reliability of the system                                            80
 The response time of the tilt sensor – The                                         70
   time taken between giving the input and                                           60
   receiving the output (response time) was                                          50
                                                                                     40
   measured
                                                                                     30
                                                                                     20
                        225                                                          10
                        200                                                           0
   Response Time (ms)




                        175                                                               1st   2nd     3rd     4th       5th
                        150
                                                                                                  Testing Session
                        125
                        100
                         75
                         50
                         25                                 4. Discussion - The movement detecting
                          0                                    module of the developed system is very
                              1st   2nd   3rd   4th   5th      flexible as it takes relative readings. That
                                    Testing Session            makes it enable for the user to operate the
                                                               system having any initial position. The user
                                                               can move not only to a limited number of
In the final result the response time is 10ms
(approximately) and at the time of stopping the                directions, but he also can move to any
wheel chair, in first few test sessions a                      direction that he wishes. Also he can turn,
                                                               while moving forward or backward.
significant time was taken to slowdown and to
stop. But after few improvements it was reduced                    The voice recognition and responsible
and a sudden stop can be handled now.                              module works accurately in general
                                                                   circumstances. But in some practical
 The accuracy level of the voice recognition
  module – To measure the accuracy level of                        situations when there is a very large noise
                                                                   this module may not be able to recognize the
  the voice recognition module testing was
  carried out by giving voice commands and                         commands and distinguish between the
  getting the responses.                                           commands.

                                                                   The obstacle avoidance module of the
                                                                   system works in proper manner. But it needs
                                                                   a well maintenance because the dust
                                                                   particles on the sensors may reduce its
                                                                   detecting ability and the accuracy.

                                                                   The main benefit of this system is this can
                                                                   be easy interfaced to any kind of wheelchair
                                                                   through an appropriate motor controller and
                                                                   the voice commands can be tailored to the
                                                                   each user according to their preference.


                                                                                                                      8
5. Conclusion - The prototype we developed is     Also we would like to convey our gratitude to
   fully functional and it provides a very good   Dr. Upali Khomban, President of Computer
   solution to the identified problem.            Science and Engineering Society, who gave us
                                                  necessary information to proceed in project. He
   Even though in the short term we aimed         always communicated with us, look at current
   only for this particular army officer, he is
                                                  progress and motivate us to do the project. We
   not the only one with this problem. There
   are many army soldiers and officers in the     also thank Lt. Col. Athula Samarasinghe who
   same condition in Sri Lanka.                   motivated us to do this project.

   Moreover considering about the whole           We would also like to convey our special thanks
   world it has been estimated that there are     to “Brandix Apperal Ltd” who donated an
   more than 50,000 individuals who don’t         electric wheelchair for this task.
   have use of their arms and legs
   (quadriplegics). Majority of them are war      In addition we like to thank Maj. Madugoda of
   heroes of developing countries as Sri Lanka.   “Mihindu Seth Madura” and official there, who
                                                  helped us to go there and do necessary tastings.
   As this invention is a safe, reliable and
                                                  They also helped us in finding a suitable
   economical for the purpose, these people
   would be able to upgrade their living          motored wheelchair for our project.
   standard at least for some extent by using
                                                  At last but not in least we would like to thank all
   this product.
                                                  who helped and motivated us.
   So our idea is, that by expanding this
                                                  7. References –
   product we would be able to support to the
                                                      http://arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoard
   social and economical development as a
                                                        Mega/
   whole, while supporting to those suffering
   lives.                                             Data sheet of Arduino Compatible
                                                        Voice recognition Module
6. Acknowledgement - First on foremost, we            Data sheet of ZCT245AN-TTL 2-axis
   would like to thank, Head of the Department          tilt sensor
   of Computer Science and Engineering,               Data sheet of HC-SR04 Ultra Sonic
   University of Moratuwa, Eng. Lt. Col. Dr.            range finders
   Chandana Gamage who guided us through              Data sheet of PIC 16f876 micro
   doing this project, provided important               controller
   advices, helped us in difficult periods and        Data sheet of 10kΏ surface mounts 40
   provided equipment for our project. His              (for R2R Ladder)
   willingness to motivate us contributed             Data sheet of 330Ώ surface mounts
   tremendously to our project. Besides we            Data sheet of 7805 Regulator IC
   would like to thank CSE staff who helped us
   by giving advices and providing equipment
   which we needed.




                                                                                                    9
Appendices

The system architecture is depicted below.



                         Main sensor which
                          tracks the head                                      Main Circuit
                                                         Module
                            movement                                          Board of Wheel
                                                       converting                 Chair

                                   Tilt Sensor        digital signal
                                                      in to analog
    US1
                                                               R2R

                                                              Ladder


    US2

                                      Arduino Board

                                             (PIC)                            Voice Recognition
                                                                                   Model
     US3


                                                                                       To activate the

      US4                                                                              system by voice
                                        MP3 module                                        command
                                          for voice
            To avoid                     responses
                                                           Show the current
          obstacles and
                                                                  state
            for safety
                                                          Of the wheelchair




                                                                                                  10
The state chart of the system is depicted below




                                                  11

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Shirsha Yaathra - Head Movement controlled Wheelchair - Research Paper

  • 1. Controlling a Wheelchair According to the Head Movements Dimutu Upeksha*, Chameera Wijebandara, Chamila Dilshan Wijayarathna, Sameera Nilupul Wijayarathna,Milinda Fernando, Akila Pemasiri, Suneth Vijaindu Gamage, Madhushi Niluka Bandara Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka dimuthu.upeksha2@gmail.com; chameerawijebandara@gmail.com; cdwijayarathna@gmail.com; sameernilupul@gmail.com; milindasf@gmail.com; akilapemasiri@gmail.com; svijayindu@gmail.com; madhushib@gmail.com; +94 -719-084-638 1
  • 2. Table of Contents Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………… 03 1.Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………….. 03 2.Materials and Method 2.1 Materials……………………………………………………………………………………….. 03 2.2 Method…………………………………………………………………………………………. 04 2.3 Implementation 2.3.1 Identifying the circuits embedded in the wheelchair……………………………………… 05 2.3.2 Identifying voice commands……………………………………………………………… 05 2.3.3 Controlling the movements of the wheelchair…………………………………………….. 05 2.3.4 Collision Avoider…………………………………………………………………………... 05 3. Results………………………………………………………………………………………………. 08 4. Discussion…………………………………………………………………………………………... 08 5. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………….. 09 6. Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………………….. 09 7. Reference…………………………………………………………………………………………… 09 Appendices …………………………………………………………………………………………… 10 2
  • 3. Abstract - The thirty-year long civil war in our set about designing a mobility control system country left many young and able-bodied men that is capable of interfacing with head and women with life-long disabilities. The movements of the officer as that is the only part soldiers who fought for the defence of our of his body that can be moved. Based on a motherland and civilians caught in the crossfire lightweight harness worn on the head and using have suffered grievous injuries that led them to a solid-state gyroscope proving a tilt-sensor be wheelchair-bound for mobility. However, for capability. some of the most severely injured war heroes, even a wheelchair cannot provide mobility. The The mobility control system was then interfaced motivation for this engineering research project to a battery-powered motorized wheelchair by is to invent a wheelchair mobility control system removing the joystick-based control unit of the for an army officer who has lost all motor wheelchair and replacing it with our invention. control functionality below his neck and is only The prototype was successfully tested for the able to move his head. complete set of motions that the disabled officer wishes to make. The next step in this On a visit to the longterm-care facility in which engineering project is to further research on this officer resides, his only request was to be providing safety and reliability features for the able to move his wheelchair unassisted by mobility control unit. another. Our team of engineering undergraduates 2. Materials and Method 2.1 Materials 1. Introduction - As a result of civil war Material Quantity which existed for three decades there are LYEB103 Wheel 1 many soldiers who have been affected. So Chair(Electric Wheelchair) as engineering students we thought that it is Arduino Mega 2560 1 our responsibility to utilize our knowledge development board and capabilities in a way that is beneficial to Arduino Compatible Voice 1 the country. The motivation behind this recognition Module ZCT245AN-TTL 2-axis tilt 1 project is to support for such an officer who sensor has not control below his neck. HC-SR04 Ultra Sonic 8 range finders At the moment he is staying at Mihindu Seth PIC 16f876 micro 1 Madura. What we noticed was that he controller cannot do anything of his own. What he 10kΏ surface mounts 40 40 requested mainly was a way to move his (for R2R Ladder) wheel chair of his own. 330Ώ surface mounts 10 7805 Regulator IC 1 So we came with up an idea to carry on a 4MHz crystal oscillator 1 project which results in making a wheel chair which can be moved according to the head movements of the officer’s head. 3
  • 4. 2.2 Method The overall logic behind this project can details refer the state diagram in the be illustrated as follow. For further appendices Power on the wheelchair Power In Wheelchair Check voice Check voice Obstacle is Check voice command is command is detected command is “Drive” “Stop” “Manual” Start Head Stop the movement Stop Head Recoded user Control towards the obstacle Control guidance is played Power off Yes 4
  • 5. 2.3 Implementation 2.3.1Identifying the circuits embedded in the  The commands used are “Drive”, “Stop” wheelchair and “Manual”.  The wheelchair selected was LYEB103. 2.3.4Controlling the movements of the  Dissembled the control unit in the wheelchair wheelchair.  According to the head movements  We identified that a removal of one  According to the input signal (which component will even lead the wheelchair to was generated by tilt sensor), be locked, to the safety of the user. Arduino Uno board generates the  Then we identified the inputs and outputs of relevant digital signal. the joystick by the means of an oscilloscope  Those signals are converted to (Figure (a)) signals which are analogous to the  We supplied the analog voltages using two output signals of the joy stick and variable resistors and deceived the circuit. given to the relevant ports of the  As the prior step was successful we supplied control circuit. digital values using digital to analog  According to the voice commands converters (Figure (b))  The original control circuit uses inputs from switches to control power and speed. 2.3.2 Identifying the head movements.  According to the input signal (which  ZCT245AN-TTL 2-axis tilt sensor was used, was generated by Arduino which is connected to the head of the user. compatible, voice recognition),  This can measure the angles with reference Arduino Uno board generates the to the x axis as well as the y axis of the relevant signal. horizontal plane(Figure (c)).  The circuit is developed so that the  Through a serial interface the angle tasks done by switches take place measured by the tilt sensor is caught by an according to the generated signals. Arduino Mega board which contains the driving program of the wheelchair. 2.3.4 Collision Avoider  8 sonar sensors were used to identify the barriers which are along and on the sides 2.3.3 Identifying the voice commands of the moving wheelchair.  By measuring the distance to the  Arduino compatible, voice recognition obstacles from the wheelchair, position shield was mounted on the Arduino Uno of the obstacle is found. board.  By using a clock interrupt the obstacles  It can be configured to recognize 15 voice are checked in regular intervals and the commands. movement of the wheelchair is  It generates and sends a signal to the terminated if there is an obstacle in the Arduino Uno board according to the relevant direction command received. 5
  • 6. 1 2 3 4 1. Vref 2. Vcc 3. X 4. Y 5. X 5 6 7 8 6. Y 7. GND Figure (a) 8. Vref/ Not Connected Figure (b) 6
  • 8. 3. Results - Some quantitative factors were 100 taken into the accountant to measure the 90 Accuracy Level (%) accuracy and reliability of the system 80  The response time of the tilt sensor – The 70 time taken between giving the input and 60 receiving the output (response time) was 50 40 measured 30 20 225 10 200 0 Response Time (ms) 175 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 150 Testing Session 125 100 75 50 25 4. Discussion - The movement detecting 0 module of the developed system is very 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th flexible as it takes relative readings. That Testing Session makes it enable for the user to operate the system having any initial position. The user can move not only to a limited number of In the final result the response time is 10ms (approximately) and at the time of stopping the directions, but he also can move to any wheel chair, in first few test sessions a direction that he wishes. Also he can turn, while moving forward or backward. significant time was taken to slowdown and to stop. But after few improvements it was reduced The voice recognition and responsible and a sudden stop can be handled now. module works accurately in general circumstances. But in some practical  The accuracy level of the voice recognition module – To measure the accuracy level of situations when there is a very large noise this module may not be able to recognize the the voice recognition module testing was carried out by giving voice commands and commands and distinguish between the getting the responses. commands. The obstacle avoidance module of the system works in proper manner. But it needs a well maintenance because the dust particles on the sensors may reduce its detecting ability and the accuracy. The main benefit of this system is this can be easy interfaced to any kind of wheelchair through an appropriate motor controller and the voice commands can be tailored to the each user according to their preference. 8
  • 9. 5. Conclusion - The prototype we developed is Also we would like to convey our gratitude to fully functional and it provides a very good Dr. Upali Khomban, President of Computer solution to the identified problem. Science and Engineering Society, who gave us necessary information to proceed in project. He Even though in the short term we aimed always communicated with us, look at current only for this particular army officer, he is progress and motivate us to do the project. We not the only one with this problem. There are many army soldiers and officers in the also thank Lt. Col. Athula Samarasinghe who same condition in Sri Lanka. motivated us to do this project. Moreover considering about the whole We would also like to convey our special thanks world it has been estimated that there are to “Brandix Apperal Ltd” who donated an more than 50,000 individuals who don’t electric wheelchair for this task. have use of their arms and legs (quadriplegics). Majority of them are war In addition we like to thank Maj. Madugoda of heroes of developing countries as Sri Lanka. “Mihindu Seth Madura” and official there, who helped us to go there and do necessary tastings. As this invention is a safe, reliable and They also helped us in finding a suitable economical for the purpose, these people would be able to upgrade their living motored wheelchair for our project. standard at least for some extent by using At last but not in least we would like to thank all this product. who helped and motivated us. So our idea is, that by expanding this 7. References – product we would be able to support to the  http://arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoard social and economical development as a Mega/ whole, while supporting to those suffering lives.  Data sheet of Arduino Compatible Voice recognition Module 6. Acknowledgement - First on foremost, we  Data sheet of ZCT245AN-TTL 2-axis would like to thank, Head of the Department tilt sensor of Computer Science and Engineering,  Data sheet of HC-SR04 Ultra Sonic University of Moratuwa, Eng. Lt. Col. Dr. range finders Chandana Gamage who guided us through  Data sheet of PIC 16f876 micro doing this project, provided important controller advices, helped us in difficult periods and  Data sheet of 10kΏ surface mounts 40 provided equipment for our project. His (for R2R Ladder) willingness to motivate us contributed  Data sheet of 330Ώ surface mounts tremendously to our project. Besides we  Data sheet of 7805 Regulator IC would like to thank CSE staff who helped us by giving advices and providing equipment which we needed. 9
  • 10. Appendices The system architecture is depicted below. Main sensor which tracks the head Main Circuit Module movement Board of Wheel converting Chair Tilt Sensor digital signal in to analog US1 R2R Ladder US2 Arduino Board (PIC) Voice Recognition Model US3 To activate the US4 system by voice MP3 module command for voice To avoid responses Show the current obstacles and state for safety Of the wheelchair 10
  • 11. The state chart of the system is depicted below 11