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Engineering Design Project
   Department of Computer Science and Engineering
               University of Moratuwa


Group Name:- Phoenix
     • Gunasinghe U. L. D. N            100162X
     • Sashika W. A. D                  100487X
     • Siriwardena M.P                  100512X
     • Udara Y.B.N                      100544V
     • Wijayarathna D.G.C.D             100596F
A machine which is built to follow
a specific path is defined as a Line
Follower. The line may have different
appearances

  A Black line on a white surface or
 vice-versa.
  An Invisible line as a magnetic
 field.
•   Basic knowledge about electronic
    components.
•   Basic knowledge on electronic circuit
    designing      and making.
•   Basic knowledge on C Programing.
•   Innovative brain and perseverance.
As we analyze the problem we
realize that we have to get seven
inputs and four outputs. So we
decided that the most suitable
microcontroller for our requirements
is the 16F877A microcontroller.
     It consists of four input/output
ports and PWM module. This
persuades us to use it in our circuit.
We have used seven IR sensors and below
you can see the arrangement of those sensors.


                      1



 6      4      2             3      5      7
 Sensors 1,2 and 3 are used to detect the
 road.
 Sensors 4 and 5 are used to recognize
 the mark given to indicate the side which
 the robot should turn at the four-way
 junction.
 Sensors 6 and 7 are used to recognize
 the four-way junction.
The IR LED emits a beam of IR and the
surface below reflect the beam. When the
sensors senses the beam it generates a
voltage. This voltage depends on the
amount of the light sense by the sensor.
When the intensity is higher the generated
voltage is higher and when the intensity is
lower the generated voltage is lower.
We used three       circuit   panels   to
complete the robot.

   Analog to Digital Converter
   PIC Simulation Circuit
   Motor Interface and Control Circuit
Analog output given by the sensors is converted to
digital by the above circuit .
This part of circuit can be considered
as the mother board of our robot.
     The circuit gets all the outputs of
sensors as the inputs of the PIC. Then the
PIC gives us required outputs.
     According to the design of this circuit
we can also program the PIC while it is
attached to the circuit.
This part of circuit controls the motors according to the outputs
given by the PIC.
 We used PIC C language to program
the IC. We used PIC C because it is
familiar to us and similar to C language.
 We have written the program as
getting inputs from the sensors and
rotating the motors forward and backward
according to our requirements.
 In this project we didn’t use PWM(Pulse With
 Module) Method. Because we didn’t have
 enough knowledge about using it. If we used it
 we could improve the performances.

Although we use a 6V power pack with a lengthy
 wire, we could make the robot more portable if
 we used a rechargeable battery.
 Discussion with Mr. Aruna Upul (Department of
 Electronics and Tele communication.)
We used following links to get an idea about the
 path following robot.
• http://robotika.yweb.sk/skola/AVR/visionrobo%20com/Line%20Follower%20tutorial%20v1.1.pdf
• http://www.botskool.com/tutorials/electronics/8051/line-follower
• http://www.kmitl.ac.th/~kswichit/ROBOT/Follower.pdf
• http://www.docstoc.com/docs/64977263/Line-following-robot-tutorial
• http://www.richardvannoy.info/building-a-line-following-robot.pdf
• http://www.tombot.net/beam/linefollowingcircuit.html
• http://www.ermicro.com/blog/?p=1097
• http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:WXamZCglK3UJ:vjtirobotics.files.wordpress.com/2008/0
  9/linefollower_tricks.doc+build+line+follower&hl=en&gl=lk&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShm4TXBoqBpvNTwSc
  bQKoI_Wayxn0HBz_QMKTbHpnaf8pVJAK2wPJUIjkFJdz2No0UjmtN8BWTi1BOmqTi0a-
  QGbgootbW42Px3xw2nz6dY-j_oFezBrJojYMM-
  QFs84oBD5kjz&sig=AHIEtbS8vwB7pLdTJEJoU0PeJOoDoLeBmA&pli=1
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_NU2ruzyc4
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BLfXXRfRIzY
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6QznAAwL8rI
Path following robot

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Path following robot

  • 1. Engineering Design Project Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Moratuwa Group Name:- Phoenix • Gunasinghe U. L. D. N 100162X • Sashika W. A. D 100487X • Siriwardena M.P 100512X • Udara Y.B.N 100544V • Wijayarathna D.G.C.D 100596F
  • 2. A machine which is built to follow a specific path is defined as a Line Follower. The line may have different appearances  A Black line on a white surface or vice-versa.  An Invisible line as a magnetic field.
  • 3. Basic knowledge about electronic components. • Basic knowledge on electronic circuit designing and making. • Basic knowledge on C Programing. • Innovative brain and perseverance.
  • 4. As we analyze the problem we realize that we have to get seven inputs and four outputs. So we decided that the most suitable microcontroller for our requirements is the 16F877A microcontroller. It consists of four input/output ports and PWM module. This persuades us to use it in our circuit.
  • 5.
  • 6. We have used seven IR sensors and below you can see the arrangement of those sensors. 1 6 4 2 3 5 7
  • 7.  Sensors 1,2 and 3 are used to detect the road.  Sensors 4 and 5 are used to recognize the mark given to indicate the side which the robot should turn at the four-way junction.  Sensors 6 and 7 are used to recognize the four-way junction.
  • 8.
  • 9. The IR LED emits a beam of IR and the surface below reflect the beam. When the sensors senses the beam it generates a voltage. This voltage depends on the amount of the light sense by the sensor. When the intensity is higher the generated voltage is higher and when the intensity is lower the generated voltage is lower.
  • 10. We used three circuit panels to complete the robot.  Analog to Digital Converter  PIC Simulation Circuit  Motor Interface and Control Circuit
  • 11. Analog output given by the sensors is converted to digital by the above circuit .
  • 12.
  • 13. This part of circuit can be considered as the mother board of our robot. The circuit gets all the outputs of sensors as the inputs of the PIC. Then the PIC gives us required outputs. According to the design of this circuit we can also program the PIC while it is attached to the circuit.
  • 14. This part of circuit controls the motors according to the outputs given by the PIC.
  • 15.  We used PIC C language to program the IC. We used PIC C because it is familiar to us and similar to C language.  We have written the program as getting inputs from the sensors and rotating the motors forward and backward according to our requirements.
  • 16.  In this project we didn’t use PWM(Pulse With Module) Method. Because we didn’t have enough knowledge about using it. If we used it we could improve the performances. Although we use a 6V power pack with a lengthy wire, we could make the robot more portable if we used a rechargeable battery.
  • 17.  Discussion with Mr. Aruna Upul (Department of Electronics and Tele communication.) We used following links to get an idea about the path following robot. • http://robotika.yweb.sk/skola/AVR/visionrobo%20com/Line%20Follower%20tutorial%20v1.1.pdf • http://www.botskool.com/tutorials/electronics/8051/line-follower • http://www.kmitl.ac.th/~kswichit/ROBOT/Follower.pdf • http://www.docstoc.com/docs/64977263/Line-following-robot-tutorial • http://www.richardvannoy.info/building-a-line-following-robot.pdf • http://www.tombot.net/beam/linefollowingcircuit.html • http://www.ermicro.com/blog/?p=1097 • http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:WXamZCglK3UJ:vjtirobotics.files.wordpress.com/2008/0 9/linefollower_tricks.doc+build+line+follower&hl=en&gl=lk&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShm4TXBoqBpvNTwSc bQKoI_Wayxn0HBz_QMKTbHpnaf8pVJAK2wPJUIjkFJdz2No0UjmtN8BWTi1BOmqTi0a- QGbgootbW42Px3xw2nz6dY-j_oFezBrJojYMM- QFs84oBD5kjz&sig=AHIEtbS8vwB7pLdTJEJoU0PeJOoDoLeBmA&pli=1 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_NU2ruzyc4 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BLfXXRfRIzY • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6QznAAwL8rI