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Memory Technologies
Wijayarathna D.G.C.D.                100596F


   DDR-DRAM
   When we consider the RAM, there are two major types of
   RAMs, Static RAM (SRAM) and Dynamic RAM(DRAM).
   Static RAM is developed using transistors and DRAM is
   developed using capacitors. Since DRAM is developed using
   capacitors, they are slower in speed, but cheap than SRAM
   and consume low power. DRAM is using in main memory of a
   computer and SRAM in registers and cache.
   RAM is working according to a clock like a flip-flop. It
   transfers its commands, addresses, and data on the rising edge
   of the clock.
   But DDR-DRAM transfers data not only in the rising edge of
   the clock, but also in the falling edge of the clock cycle. S
   DDR can transfer two data words per clock cycle.



   DDR-SDRAM
   SDRAM(Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) is
   dynamic random access memory (DRAM) that is synchronized
   with the system bus.Classic DRAM has an asynchronous
   interface, which means that it responds as quickly as possible
   to changes in control inputs. SDRAM has a synchronous
   interface, meaning that it waits for a clock signal before
   responding to control inputs and is therefore synchronized
   with the computer's system bus. The clock is used to drive an
   internal finite state machine that pipelines incoming
instructions. This allows the chip to have a more complex
pattern of operation than an asynchronous DRAM, enabling
higher speeds.

FCRAM
FCRAM (Fast Cycle RAM) is a new technology that
approaches the problem of DRAM/Processor speed in a
different way. With the improvements in CPU speeds over the
last few years, designers have looked for a solution that would
get them over the ever present problem of relative slower
memory.Specifically, this memory technology was developed
to reduce random cycle latency (random access and cycle
times) while increasing peak bandwidth.FCRAM achieves this
by implementing several architectural enhancements including:
1. Three-stage row pipelining
2. Fast access core
3. Simplified DDR feature set
4. Fast bus turnaround times

FPM-DRAM
FPM DRAM (Fast Page Mode DRAM) is a common kind of
DRAM in personal computers. Page mode DRAM essentially
accesses a row of RAM without having to continually
respecify the row. A row access strobe (RAS) signal is kept
active while the column access strobe (CAS) signal changes to
read a sequence of contiguous memory cells. This reduces
access time and lowers power requirements. Clock timings for
FPM DRAM are typically 6-3-3-3 (meaning 3 clock cycles for
access setup, and 3 clock cycles for the first and each of three
successive accesses based on the initial setup).
QDR-DRAM
Quad Data Rate (QDR) DRAM can transfer up to four words
of data in each clock cycle.Like Double Data-Rate (DDR)
DRAM, QDR DRAM transfers data on both rising and falling
edges of the clock signal.QDR DRAM uses two clocks, one
for read data and one for write data and has separate read and
write data buses (also known as Separate I/O), whereas DDR
DRAM uses a single clock and has a single common data bus
used for both reads and writes (also known as Common I/O).

QDR-SRAM
This is a Static RAM which has the same QDR features as the
QDR DRAM.

SDRAM
This is a Dynamic RAM, which uses capacitors as described in
DDR-DRAM. This has synchronized with a system bus. It
waits for a clock signal before responding to control inputs and
is therefore synchronized with the computer's system bus.

SSRAM
This is Static RAM which has the same features as SDRAM.

ZBT-SRAM
The ZBT memories are synchronous: they require a clock
input, and their inputs are only sampled on the rising edges of
that clock.They are also pipelined, with the data bus being
delayed by two cycles after the address and control signals. In
other words, if a read cycle is initiated on clock cycle n, then
the data read from that address will be available on cycle n+2.
Similarly, for a write cycle, the data to be written is supplied
on cycle n+2.

RDRAM
RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) is a
memory subsystem that promises to transfer up to 1.6 billion
bytes per second. The subsystem consists of the random access
memory (RAM), the RAM controller, and the bus (path)
connecting RAM to the microprocessor and devices in the
computer that use it.Direct Rambus (DRDRAM) is the latest
version and is expected to help accelerate the growth of
visually intensive interfaces such as 3-D,interactive games,
and streaming multimedia.

RLDRAM
RLDRAM memory is a low-latency, high-bandwidth DRAM
that's designed for demanding networking tasks and L3 cache,
as well as other applications that require back-to-back
READ/WRITE operations or completely random access.

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Memory technologies

  • 1. Memory Technologies Wijayarathna D.G.C.D. 100596F DDR-DRAM When we consider the RAM, there are two major types of RAMs, Static RAM (SRAM) and Dynamic RAM(DRAM). Static RAM is developed using transistors and DRAM is developed using capacitors. Since DRAM is developed using capacitors, they are slower in speed, but cheap than SRAM and consume low power. DRAM is using in main memory of a computer and SRAM in registers and cache. RAM is working according to a clock like a flip-flop. It transfers its commands, addresses, and data on the rising edge of the clock. But DDR-DRAM transfers data not only in the rising edge of the clock, but also in the falling edge of the clock cycle. S DDR can transfer two data words per clock cycle. DDR-SDRAM SDRAM(Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) is dynamic random access memory (DRAM) that is synchronized with the system bus.Classic DRAM has an asynchronous interface, which means that it responds as quickly as possible to changes in control inputs. SDRAM has a synchronous interface, meaning that it waits for a clock signal before responding to control inputs and is therefore synchronized with the computer's system bus. The clock is used to drive an internal finite state machine that pipelines incoming
  • 2. instructions. This allows the chip to have a more complex pattern of operation than an asynchronous DRAM, enabling higher speeds. FCRAM FCRAM (Fast Cycle RAM) is a new technology that approaches the problem of DRAM/Processor speed in a different way. With the improvements in CPU speeds over the last few years, designers have looked for a solution that would get them over the ever present problem of relative slower memory.Specifically, this memory technology was developed to reduce random cycle latency (random access and cycle times) while increasing peak bandwidth.FCRAM achieves this by implementing several architectural enhancements including: 1. Three-stage row pipelining 2. Fast access core 3. Simplified DDR feature set 4. Fast bus turnaround times FPM-DRAM FPM DRAM (Fast Page Mode DRAM) is a common kind of DRAM in personal computers. Page mode DRAM essentially accesses a row of RAM without having to continually respecify the row. A row access strobe (RAS) signal is kept active while the column access strobe (CAS) signal changes to read a sequence of contiguous memory cells. This reduces access time and lowers power requirements. Clock timings for FPM DRAM are typically 6-3-3-3 (meaning 3 clock cycles for access setup, and 3 clock cycles for the first and each of three successive accesses based on the initial setup).
  • 3. QDR-DRAM Quad Data Rate (QDR) DRAM can transfer up to four words of data in each clock cycle.Like Double Data-Rate (DDR) DRAM, QDR DRAM transfers data on both rising and falling edges of the clock signal.QDR DRAM uses two clocks, one for read data and one for write data and has separate read and write data buses (also known as Separate I/O), whereas DDR DRAM uses a single clock and has a single common data bus used for both reads and writes (also known as Common I/O). QDR-SRAM This is a Static RAM which has the same QDR features as the QDR DRAM. SDRAM This is a Dynamic RAM, which uses capacitors as described in DDR-DRAM. This has synchronized with a system bus. It waits for a clock signal before responding to control inputs and is therefore synchronized with the computer's system bus. SSRAM This is Static RAM which has the same features as SDRAM. ZBT-SRAM The ZBT memories are synchronous: they require a clock input, and their inputs are only sampled on the rising edges of that clock.They are also pipelined, with the data bus being delayed by two cycles after the address and control signals. In other words, if a read cycle is initiated on clock cycle n, then the data read from that address will be available on cycle n+2.
  • 4. Similarly, for a write cycle, the data to be written is supplied on cycle n+2. RDRAM RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) is a memory subsystem that promises to transfer up to 1.6 billion bytes per second. The subsystem consists of the random access memory (RAM), the RAM controller, and the bus (path) connecting RAM to the microprocessor and devices in the computer that use it.Direct Rambus (DRDRAM) is the latest version and is expected to help accelerate the growth of visually intensive interfaces such as 3-D,interactive games, and streaming multimedia. RLDRAM RLDRAM memory is a low-latency, high-bandwidth DRAM that's designed for demanding networking tasks and L3 cache, as well as other applications that require back-to-back READ/WRITE operations or completely random access.