Sec 3 - Chapter 4


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  • Read page 91 aloudPing pong ball demo!! Ping pong ball in the tank and make waves
  • Spring demo!!!
  • Page 98 in their book
  • Because it is mechanical sound cannot pass through a vacuum!!!!
  • Mach 1 is the speed of sound!!!!Supersonic planes can reach Mach 2.
  • The decibel scale is a relative scale that represents the perception of the intensity of sound by the human ear.
  • Lower frequency sounds are lower on a piano keyboard.Higher frequency sounds are higher on the keyboard.
  • Not heard by humansElephants emit infrasounds to communicateDolphins communicate with ultrasounds.Dogs can be trained with ultrsound whistles
  • What are some sources of light?Light comes from many different sources; the sun, a fire, light bulbs…We will be studying reflection and refractionHow do you experience light absorption
  • Bounce a ball to show reflectionWe see objects because they are reflecting the light and it reaches our eyes.
  • Time to do some worksheets – we will start the lab next day!!!
  • The light bends because the light ray travels at a different speed as it passes through a new medium
  • What are lenses used for:EyeglassesMagnifying glassesCamerasMicroscopes and telescopes
  • Page 113
  • Sec 3 - Chapter 4

    1. 1. The Perception of Light and Sound
    2. 2. 1 – What is a wave?  A wave is a disturbance that travels through a medium.  A wave transports energy.  A wave does not transport matter.  What is a disturbance?  A localized and temporary change in the properties of a particular environment.
    3. 3. 1.1 – Wave Characteristics  There are 3 characteristics of waves: 1. How the waves propagate (travel) 2. The amplitude of the wave 3. The frequency of the wave
    4. 4. How waves propagate: Transverse and Longitudinal  A transverse wave is a wave that propagates perpendicular to the motion its medium.  There are crests and troughs
    5. 5.  A longitudinal wave is a wave that propagates parallel to the motion of its medium  The particles move closer together and then farther apart BUT always parallel to the wave’s motion. Close together = area of compression  Farther apart = area of rarefaction 
    6. 6.  The amplitude (A) of a wave corresponds to the maximum distance travelled by a particle in the medium compared to its position at equilibrium.  Amplitude of a transverse wave:  Amplitude of a longitudinal wave: Smaller amplitude because it is not as compressed as in the second spring
    7. 7.  The amplitude depends on the energy transmitted by a wave.  More energy = greater amplitude  Less energy = lower amplitude  Shall we give it a try?
    8. 8.  Wavelength is the length of a wave’s complete cycle.  Symbolized by the Greek letter lamda, λ
    9. 9.  The frequency is the number of cycles per unit time.  How fast the waves go by!  Frequency is measured in Hertz, Hz.  A Hertz is the number of cycles per second. 1 Hz = 1 full cycle per second
    10. 10. 1.2 – Types of Waves  There are two types of waves: 1. Mechanical Waves 2. Electromagnetic Waves
    11. 11.  A mechanical wave is a wave that requires a medium in order to propagate.  The medium may be a solid, a liquid or a gas.  Mechanical waves cannot travel in a vacuum.  Examples:  Waves travel in water  Sound waves travel in air (gas)  Seismic waves travel in the earth (solid)
    12. 12.  Mechanical waves are caused by localized disturbances.  The disturbance changes the physical properties of the medium; such as amplitude and frequency.  The changes are transmitted to the neighboring particles.
    13. 13.  An electromagnetic wave is a wave that can travel through both vacuum and a medium.  Light from the Sun is electromagnetic.  Travels through space and the atmosphere  The speed of electromagnetic waves depends on the medium it is travelling in.  The speed of light in a vacuum is 300 000 km/s OR 300 000 000 m/s
    14. 14. Types of Waves Mechanical Waves Electromagnetic Waves Medium Can only move in a medium Can travel in a medium or a vacuum. Examples Seismic waves, sound waves, water waves Radio waves, light waves, ultraviolet waves, x-rays, infrared waves, gamma rays
    15. 15. The Electromagnetic Spectrum  This organizes all electromagnetic waves according to their wavelength and frequency
    16. 16. E D R A N G E E L L O W R E E N L U E N D I G O I O L E T
    17. 17. Radio waves  The smallest frequency and the longest wavelength  They are invisible and transport little energy.  Microwaves are radio waves with a higher frequency which makes certain particles vibrate and raises their temperature.  Radio, television  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  Microwave ovens, cell phones, radar
    18. 18. Infrared  They are invisible but we feel the warmth they emit  Heat waves!!!!  Infrared thermography, night vision goggles, space observation satellites, short distance communication (remote controls, optical scanners, optical computer mouse, wireless keyboard)
    19. 19. Visible Light  Can be seen by humans  ROYGBIV  Each color has its own wavelength  All of these colors together make up white light  Lighting, laser technology, photography, cinema, computer screens, microscopes, telescopes
    20. 20. Ultraviolet Rays  UV rays are invisible to humans but can be seen by some animals.  The greater frequency means more energy is transported by UV light.  Cause suntans and can cause cancer  Our body needs UV rays to produce vitamin D  Treatment of rickets and jaundice, sterilization of medical equipment
    21. 21. X-Rays  High frequency  Transmit a large quantity of energy!!!  Allow us to see through many opaque objects  Used to examine bones!!  Prolonged exposure can cause cancer and burns.  Radiography, baggage inspection, study of crystalline substances
    22. 22. Gamma Rays  Travel very easily through matter.  1 cm lead, 6 cm concrete or 9 cm of earth only block 50% of UV rays.  Can cause burns, cancer and genetic mutations.  Cancer treatment  Food preservation
    23. 23. 2 – Sound Waves  Sound is a longitudinal mechanical wave produced by the vibration of an object and transmitted to the objects environment.
    24. 24.  Anything that creates sound produces a longitudinal mechanical wave!!!!  Our larynx has folds on tissues that act like guitar strings.  They vibrate with the passage of air, creating sounds.  We only here sounds when the sound waves contact the eardrum.  The eardrum vibrates in rhythm with the sound waves.
    25. 25.  The eardrum vibrates near the fluid filled cochlea.  The cochlea has many receptor cells that capture the impulses.  The auditory nerve transmits this information to the brain where it is analyzed.  Sound travels through solids and liquids, as well.  The vibrations can be felt!!!
    26. 26. 2.1 – The Speed of Sound  The speed of sound varies depending on the medium it is travelling in. Medium Air Speed (m/s) 346 Speed (km/h) 1246 Water Plastic Wood Steel 1490 1800 4000 5200 5364 6480 14400 18720
    27. 27. 2.2 – The Decibel Scale  The volume of a sound depends on the energy it is transmitting.  Greater energy = louder  Greater amplitude = louder  The decibel scale is by factors of 10.
    28. 28.  Example:  When a sound increases by 10 dB, it is 10 times louder.  A sound measuring 20dB is 100 times louder than a 0 dB sound  (10 x 10)  A 40 dB sound is 100 times louder than a 20 dB sound  Prolonged exposure to 100 dB sounds can lead to permanent hearing damage.  Sounds 120dB and above can cause pain and immediate damage
    29. 29. Sound Source Intensity (dB) Human breathing ( at a distance of 3 m away) Murmuring ( at a distance of 2 m away) Calm classroom Soft Music Busy department store Intense road traffic (3 m away) Motorcycle – no muffler (2 m away) Rock music concert Jet engine (14 m away) Spacecraft engine (50 m away) 10 20 35-40 50 60 70 100 110-120 120 200
    30. 30. 2.3 – Frequency and the Perception of Sound  Sound can also have different tones – higher and lower pitch (frequency).  The tone of a sound depends on the frequency  The average humans can hear sounds with frequencies ranging from 20 to 20 000 Hz.
    31. 31. Read page 104. Thoughts?
    32. 32. Infra-sounds and Ultra-sounds  Sounds under 20 Hz infra-sounds  Sounds higher than 20 000 Hz are ultrasounds
    33. 33.  Bats use echolocation  Ultrasonic waves are emitted and their echoes are used to find objects  Sonars used in boats use the same principles
    34. 34. 3 – Light Waves  Light is an electromagnetic wave that is visible to the human eye.  Light travels in a straight line – hence, light rays!!  Light rays are reflected, refracted or absorbed when they strike an object.
    35. 35. 3.1 - Reflection  This occurs when a light ray travels through one medium and rebounds when it strikes another medium.  Air  mirror (simple example)  air  All objects reflect light to varying degrees.
    36. 36. Something to think about:  Black objects absorb all colors of light  White objects reflect all colors of light.  The actual color we see is the colors that are reflected!!  Colors are not usually pure.  An object has the main color and a bit of the colors on each side of the main color!!!
    37. 37. Some terms to know:  Incident ray – the ray that contacts the surface of an object  Reflected ray – the ray that rebounds from the object.  The Normal – a line perpendicular to the surface at the point of reflection.  Angle of Incidence – the angle formed by the incidence ray and the normal.  Angle of Reflection – the angle formed by the reflected ray and the normal
    38. 38. Lab Time!!!  Lab 33 – Image in a Plane mirror Some terms to know:  A virtual image is an image that cannot be formed on a screen  A real image can be formed on a screen.  Inverted - An image in which up and down, as well as left and right, are interchanged.  When an object is laterally inverted, the left and right are interchanged.  If the object is “upside-down” it is dorsally inverted
    39. 39. Lab 33 – Answers and thoughts!!!
    40. 40. What we learned from our lab on plane mirrors!!!  The angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection.  The incidence ray and the reflected ray are always on the same plane.
    41. 41.  There are two types of reflection:  Diffuse reflection which occurs when objects have a rough surface  What happens?  Parallel light rays hit a rough surface and the rays are reflected in all directions.
    42. 42.  Specular reflection occurs when light rays hit a smooth surface.  When parallel light rays contact the smooth surface, the reflected rays are parallel.  Produces a mirror image
    43. 43. Things to remember about images in plane mirrors:  The image appears to be behind the mirror, at a distance equal to the distance between the mirror and the object
    44. 44.  The image is virtual, the image cannot be captured on a screen.
    45. 45.  The image is the same size as the object.  The image is horizontally inverted (left is right and right is left)
    46. 46. Application of plane mirrors:  The uses of plane mirrors are based on these two principles: 1. They change the trajectory of light rays by reflection 2. They increase the observer’s field of vision  Uses:  Rear view mirrors, mirrors used by dentists, mirrors in cameras, microscopes…
    47. 47. 3.2 - Refraction  The deviation of a light ray as it passes from one transparent medium to another.  When light bends as it passes from one medium to another
    48. 48. 3.3 - Lenses  Lenses use the principle of refraction.  Lenses are made of transparent material and have at least one curved surface.  There are two types of lenses  Converging lenses bring the light rays together as the light passes through the lens.  Diverging lenses spread the light rays aart as the light passes through the lens
    49. 49.  The optical center (OC) is the center of the lens.  The principal axis is the straight line that runs perpendicular to the surface of the lens and through the OC.
    50. 50. Focal Point of a Lens  Converging lenses  The focal length of a converging lens is the real point where the refracted rays actually meet when the incident rays run parallel.
    51. 51.  Diverging Lens  The virtual point from which the refracted light rays appear to emanate when the incident rays run parallel
    52. 52.  Images obtained with a diverging lens are always the same, no matter where the object was placed in relation to the lens.  The image is always: virtual not inverted (right side up) smaller than the object
    53. 53. Normal Vision The cornea of an eye is a converging lens Muscles adjust the shape to allow objects to be focused on the retina The image formed on the retina is smaller and inverted. The brain analyzes the image
    54. 54. Myopia - Nearsightedness – cannot clearly see objects that are at a distance - Caused by the image forming in front of the retina - Corrected with a diverging lens
    55. 55. Hyperopia - Farsightedness – cannot clearly see objects that are up close - Caused by the image forming behind the retina - Corrected with a converging lens
    56. 56. Presbyopia  Presbyopia is caused by the aging of the lens ‘ muscles  The lens can no longer adjust its shape to clearly see objects close up – no longer as elastic  The image is formed behind the retina.  Corrected by a converging lens.
    57. 57. Laser surgery  Laser surgery helps reshape the cornea  Laser surgery can correct myopia and hyperopia  It cannot correct presbyopia