Community Development Cross Cultural


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Community Development Cross Cultural

  1. 1. WHITNEY MCINTYRE MILLER COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT SOCIETY JULY 27, 2009 Communities in Sierra Leone: Finding Hope After Conflict
  2. 2. Purpose of Presentation <ul><li>Demonstrate how communities in the northern region of Sierra Leone are finding hope and beginning to reemerge from an extended, disastrous period in their history through an examination of agentive, cultural, and structural key factors. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Data Collection <ul><li>Five-week fieldwork in Sierra Leone (Lungi and Makeni communities) </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth qualitative interviews with 14 individuals in each community (based on purposeful demographic sampling) </li></ul><ul><li>Participant Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Informal conversations and meetings </li></ul>
  4. 4. STATSTICS: Republic of Sierra Leone President: Ernest Koroma (2007) Land area: 27,653 sq mi (71,621 sq km); total area: 27,699 sq mi (71,740 sq km) Population (2007 est.): 6,144,562 (growth rate: 2.3%); birth rate: 45.4/1000; infant mortality rate: 158.3/1000; life expectancy: 40.6; density per sq mi: 222 Languages : English (official), Mende (southern vernacular), Temne (northern vernacular), Krio (lingua franca) Ethnicity/race: 20 native African tribes 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 30%); Creole (Krio) 10%; refugees from Liberia's recent civil war, small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians Religions: Islam 60%, indigenous 30%, Christian 10% Literacy rate: 35.1% (2004 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2007 est.): $3.971 billion; per capita $700.
  5. 5. The Roots of the Conflict in Sierra Leone <ul><li>Roots of Conflict in Sierra Leone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of resources- diamonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues of power in local and national government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disenchanted youth </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Overview of Conflict <ul><li>Attacks on communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fleeing of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning and looting of houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amputations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involvement from international community </li></ul><ul><li>Push of rebels into the north </li></ul><ul><li>Formal peace agreement and cessation of violence </li></ul><ul><li>Community building postconflict </li></ul>
  7. 7. Research Findings Organization <ul><li>‘ Mediational System’ of Reflexivity (Datnow, Hubbard, and Mehan, 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agentive Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual’s Actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditions and Practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Constructs </li></ul></ul></ul>Culture Structure Agency Datnow, A., Hubbard, L., & Mehan, H. (2002). Extending educational reform . London: Routledge.  
  8. 8. Agentive Factors for Hope <ul><li>Traditional Leadership (Chief Structure) </li></ul><ul><li>Community Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>District Governmental Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>National Governmental Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Women (Makeni only) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cultural Factors for Hope <ul><li>Agriculture/Farming Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Business Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Community Meeting Spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Community Groups and </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Associations </li></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Societies </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of Community Disputes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Structural Factors for Hope <ul><li>Army and Police </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Education (including skills training) </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>International Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Local NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Media (Makeni only) </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Assistance </li></ul>
  11. 11. Lessons For Other Communities <ul><li>Involve local and traditional leaders and citizens in rebuilding physical and social capital </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage informal and formal community groups, cooperatives, and organizations to work together </li></ul><ul><li>Tap into traditional norms, activities, and events that bring people together </li></ul><ul><li>Meet educational needs for the community’s future </li></ul>
  12. 12. Future Research <ul><li>Wider net of communities in northern region of Sierra Leone </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison with communities in eastern and southern regions of Sierra Leone </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison with other postconflict communities around the world </li></ul>
  13. 13. Contact Information <ul><li>Whitney McIntyre Miller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>619-829-4141 </li></ul></ul>