Lecture
THE UNITED KINGDOM
Geography, history, culture & heritage

2013
Terrain

Ben Nevis: 1 343 m. (centre west of the Grampian Mountains)
Geography
Terrain:

mostly rugged hills and low mountains

ENGLAND
A mainly lowland country with a few upland regions :
- ...
Geography
Climate
temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic
more than one-half of the day...
Population density

2011 Census update: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/interactive/census-map-2-1---pop-density/index.html
Population
UK:
. Land: 242 sq km (= Oregon)
(79th biggest in the world (total: 223)
. Coastline: 12,429 km
. Total populat...
Main conurbations and cities
(2008 figures)
Greater London

7.7 million (inner london: 3)

Metropolitan Counties:

Major C...
Ethnicity, Religion
Ethnic composition:
- 92 % White (of which English 84 %, Scottish 9 %, Welsh 5 %, Northern Irish 3 %)
...
2011 census data - key points
Paul Owen guardian.co.uk, Tuesday 11 December 2012 11.51 GMT
Population
• Population up 7% s...
2011 Census
Nationality
• 37% of Londoners born in foreign country.
• Figure is 5% for north-east.
• 13% in England and Wa...
National identity
A multicultural society?
« In our attempt to avoid imposing a single British identity and culture, have
...
History &
Administration
4 Nations:
• England
• Wales
• Scotland
• Northern Ireland
divided in counties
(Home counties?, s...
Airports in
the UK

20/10/13

13
Land use

Greater London and the industrial cities of the West Midlands, the North West,
Yorkshire and Humberside, and the...
The main
economic areas
in the UK
Urban centre undergoing
Regeneration
Most dynamic urban centres
More marginal regions
Ne...
A few economic facts
GDP per capita: 37,500 (2012 est. ) (34), 36,600 (2011-2010 (37) /36,100 (2009 est.) (32)
Data are in...
The 9 English Regions
The region, also known as the
government office region, is
currently the highest tier
(level) of sub...
Subdivisions in England

districts = boroughs in everyday use
(Administrative organization)
UK Administrative reorganizations:
-1986: Greater London and the other metropolitan counties...
(Non metropolitan counties or shires)
A non-metropolitan county, or shire
county, is a county-level entity in England
that...
2009:
9 new unitary
authorities created in
County Durham,
Shropshire and
Wiltshire +
the remainder of
Bedfordshire and
Che...
The UK Government:
a Constitutional or Parliamentary
Monarchy
A few dates on the formation of the UK as a Country:
Act of ...
Executive Power
Chief of State:
Heir:

Queen Elizabeth (since 06/02/1952) reigns but does not rule
(mainly symbolic role, ...
1. House of
Commons

Legislative Power

Last elections held in May 2010
Percentage of vote by party
Labour
Conservative
Li...
House of
Lords

Source: House of Lords, 2013

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26
Houses of Parliament

The public are welcome to visit both
Houses during debates and tour the
building during recess (holi...
Major dates
1940

The Battle of Britain, the Blitz (Britain fights alone against Germany and
faces invasion)
1942
Beveridg...
Swinging
London
Time, Apr. 15, 1966
Music: The Beatlemania
Fashion: Mary Quant,
Carnaby Street
Conflicting sub cultures
(M...
1970s-1980s
Conservative culture
Heritage movies
1976-1980s: punk scene
Sex Pistols

http://www.citedelamusique.fr/francai...
New Labour New Britain?
From mid 1990s cultural Renaissance: London becomes popular again –
contemporary arts (Young Briti...
Banksy
http://www.banksy.co.uk/menu.html
http://www.banksy.co.uk/QA/qaa.html

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2.hcp.uk.2013
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  • {"27":"The present-day Palace of Westminster, built in the perpendicular Gothic style, was designed by architect Sir Charles Barry. The construction of the new palace began in 1840 after the Houses of Parliament were destroyed by fire in 1834. The grade I listed building became part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. \nVictoria Tower \nThe Victoria Tower dominates the southern end of the 300-metre long Palace of Westminster. The latest tower was rebuilt after the fire in May 1860. It stands at 98.5 metres - that’s two metres taller than Big Ben. \nThe 12 floors in the tower house the Parliamentary Archives in special environmentally controlled conditions. These are open to members of the public for academic, business and educational research. \nThe gateways of the tower were constructed to be wide enough for royal coaches at State Opening. The Queen’s entrance is known at the Sovereign’s Entrance, which leads to the Royal Staircase and Norman Porch, where she starts her processions through the building. The tower was restored between 1990 and 1994. \n","30":"Has much reduced public ownership and contained the growth of social welfare programmes since the 80s (Thatcherism)\nIncentives and regenerations schemes to solve the high unemployment linked to the decline of traditional industries and to support new industrial and service sectors (investment in higher education)\nThe relatively good economic performance has complicated the Labour governments’ efforts to make a case for Britain to join the European Economic and Monetary Union while its economy is still much involved with the rest of the world and public opinion polls show a majority of Britons are opposed to the euro.\n","31":"Since 1997 the labour governments (T. Blair then G. Brown) have been speeding up the improvement of education, transport, health services, affordable housing + introduction of the minimum wage -> higher taxes & public deficit. \nNew Coalition gvt vowed to reduce deficit -> cuts in public spending, higher taxes\n"}
  • 2.hcp.uk.2013

    1. 1. Lecture THE UNITED KINGDOM Geography, history, culture & heritage 2013
    2. 2. Terrain Ben Nevis: 1 343 m. (centre west of the Grampian Mountains)
    3. 3. Geography Terrain: mostly rugged hills and low mountains ENGLAND A mainly lowland country with a few upland regions : - North (Pennine Chain, Cumbrian Mountains, Yorkshire Moorlands) - South West (Cornwall, Devon, Somerset) SCOTLAND - populated central lowlands - sparsely populated highlands and the northern islands WALES: agriculture accounts for 80% of the land area: - cattle rearing in the hill regions - dairy farming in the lowlands NORTHERN IRELAND Population and industry concentrated on the eastern seaboard / the rest is mainly rural
    4. 4. Geography Climate temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic more than one-half of the days are overcast Natural resources coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, lead, zinc, gold, tin, limestone, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, potash, silica sand, slate, arable land Environment continues to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (has met Kyoto Protocol target of a 12.5% reduction from 1990 levels and intends to meet the legally binding target and move toward a domestic goal of a 20% cut in emissions by 2010); by 2005 the government reduced the amount of industrial and commercial waste disposed of in landfill sites to 85% of 1998 levels and recycled or composted at least 25% of household waste, increasing to 33% by 2015
    5. 5. Population density 2011 Census update: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/interactive/census-map-2-1---pop-density/index.html
    6. 6. Population UK: . Land: 242 sq km (= Oregon) (79th biggest in the world (total: 223) . Coastline: 12,429 km . Total population: 63 million (22nd most populated country in the world) Arable land: 23 % Urban pop. 80 % / rural pop. 10 % 0,5 % annual rate of change (2005-2010 est.) Population density: UK (2005) : - England (2001) : - Scotland (2001) : - Wales (2001) : - Northern Ireland (2001) : 247 p./sq 380 65 141 125 (2012 est.) Age breakdown: - Under 15: 17 % - 65 and over 65: 16 % Median age: 40 Life expectancy at birth: 80 (30) Fertility rate: 1.9 (138) 1.7 (175) in 2010 (average per woman of child bearing age) Immigration rate: 2.59 (29) 2.16 migrants / 1 000 p. (40) (2005: total of 235 000) Sources: Encyclopedia Britannica, CIA world factbook 2010, 2012 Office for National Statistics, 2005
    7. 7. Main conurbations and cities (2008 figures) Greater London 7.7 million (inner london: 3) Metropolitan Counties: Major Cities: Greater Manchester Merseyside South Yorkshire Tyne and Wear 2.5 million -> 1.4 million -> 1.3 million -> 1.1 million -> Manchester 470 000 Liverpool440 000 (—) Sheffield 540 000 Newscastle 280 000 Gateshead 200 000 West Midlands West Yorkshire 2.6 million -> 2.1 million -> Birmingham Leeds & Bradford Scotland: Glasgow Edinburgh Wales: Cardiff Northern Ireland: Belfast 580 000 (—) 470 000 330 000 370 000 1 000 000 780 000 500 000 (ONS, 2012)
    8. 8. Ethnicity, Religion Ethnic composition: - 92 % White (of which English 84 %, Scottish 9 %, Welsh 5 %, Northern Irish 3 %) - 2 % black - 1.8 % Indian - 1.3 % Pakistani - 1.2 % mixed Languages: Welsh (26% of the pop. of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 1/10th of the pop. in Scotland) Religion: Christian : 72 % (of which Anglican 29 %, Roman Catholics 11 %) Muslim: 2.7 % Hindu: 1% Unspecified or none: 23 % (Source: 2001 Census) See 2011 census data - key points | UK news | guardian.co.uk
    9. 9. 2011 census data - key points Paul Owen guardian.co.uk, Tuesday 11 December 2012 11.51 GMT Population • Population up 7% since 2001. Population grew in all regions. • 23.4 million households; 2.4 residents per household. Religion • Christians down 13 percentage points to 59%. • Respondents with no religion up 10 points to 25%. • Muslim population up from 3% to 5%. Ethnicity • White ethnic group down five points to 86%. • Whites in London 59.8%. • 80% in England and Wales are white British, down seven points. • In London white British figure is 45%, down from 58% in 2001. • Other ethnic groups in England and Wales: Asian (Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi, other) 6.8% (2001: 4.4%), black 3.4% (2001: 2.2%), Chinese 0.7% (2001: 0.4%), Arab 0.4% (2001: not listed), other 0.6% (2001: 0.4%). • 2.2% in England and Wales are mixed race (up from 1.27% in 2001). • 12% of households had partners or household members of different ethnic groups, three points up from 2001.
    10. 10. 2011 Census Nationality • 37% of Londoners born in foreign country. • Figure is 5% for north-east. • 13% in England and Wales born outside UK. • Just over half of these arrived in last 10 years. • India, Poland and Pakistan are top three countries foreign-born people in England and Wales come from. • 7.4% of people in England and Wales hold non-UK passport. Language • In 91% of households, everyone speaks English. In 4% no one speaks English as main language. Age • 16% are 65 or over (an increase of 0.9 million). • 0.8% are 90 or over (up from 0.7%). • 6% are under five (increase of 406,000 since 2001, although same proportion). http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2012/dec/11/census-2011-religion-race-education
    11. 11. National identity A multicultural society? « In our attempt to avoid imposing a single British identity and culture, have we ended up with some communities living in isolation of each other, with no common bonds between them? » Ruth Kelly, Sec. State for Communities and Local Gvt, 2005 (just after the bombings in London) British society: diverse or divided ? Only 50 % of English people describe themselves as British 35 % of Welsh people do 15 % of Scottish people do 2007 election results for Scotland: SNP is now the lasgest party in the Scottish Parliament
    12. 12. History & Administration 4 Nations: • England • Wales • Scotland • Northern Ireland divided in counties (Home counties?, shires?) British isles ? Great Britain / Ireland? The UK = Britain ? The English have anglo-saxon origins, wheareas the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish have Celtic origins
    13. 13. Airports in the UK 20/10/13 13
    14. 14. Land use Greater London and the industrial cities of the West Midlands, the North West, Yorkshire and Humberside, and the North include the largest concentrations of manufacturing industry 20/10/13 14
    15. 15. The main economic areas in the UK Urban centre undergoing Regeneration Most dynamic urban centres More marginal regions New technologies, The South East: fast-growing economy Intensive agriculture ` Main fish farming area Coastal areas whose eco was boosted by … 20/10/13 Main North Sea oil and gas fields 15
    16. 16. A few economic facts GDP per capita: 37,500 (2012 est. ) (34), 36,600 (2011-2010 (37) /36,100 (2009 est.) (32) Data are in 2011 US $ Growth rate: 0.2% (2012), 0,9% (2011 est.) (182) 1.8% (2010 est.) (165) — 4.9% (2009 est.)(184); 0.7% 2008 est. (188); 2.6% 2007 est. Labour force (2006) & % of GDP per economic sector: - agriculture: 1.4 % (1.2% of GDP) 0.7 %in 2010-2011-2012 est. - industry: 18.2 % (24 % of GDP) 21,4% 2011 est., 22 % in 2010 est., 21% 2012 - services: 80.4 % (75 % of GDP) 77,8% 2011 est., 77.5% in 2010 est., 78.3% 2012 Average earnings per week : £489 (2009); £ 447 in 2008 http://www.payscale.com/research/UK/Country=United_Kingdom/Salary Unemployment rate: 8% (2012) 8.1 (2011 est.) 7.8 (2010 est) 7.6% (2009 est.) 5.6 % (2008 est.); 5.3% 2007 Population below poverty line: 14 % (2006 est.) Inflation: 2.8% (2012) 4.5% (2011 est.), 3.3% (2010 est.) 2.2% (2009 est.); 3.6 % 2008 Public debt (/GDP) : 90% 2012 (86.3% (17) 2011 est., 76% (2010 est.) 68% of GDP (2009 est.); 51.8% of GDP (2008 est.) (UK 19; Ireland: 10, France: 17, the US: 35 [– 66 in 2010] (estimates - corrected -www.statistics.gov.uk; CIA World Factbook 2008-2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uk.html
    17. 17. The 9 English Regions The region, also known as the government office region, is currently the highest tier (level) of sub-national government entity, used by Central gvt for statistical purposes. London, has a directly elected assembly. The other regions have regional assemblies, which have limited powers and functions devolved from Government departments, with members appointed by local government bodies. The uniquely shaped London City Hall (on the left) is home to the Greater London Authority, which consists of the Mayor of London and a 25-member London Assembly.
    18. 18. Subdivisions in England districts = boroughs in everyday use
    19. 19. (Administrative organization) UK Administrative reorganizations: -1986: Greater London and the other metropolitan counties lost their administrative functions to boroughs /metropolitan districts. Each counties covered large urban areas, typically with populations of 1.2 to 2.8 million. Each divided into several metropolitan districts. In 1986, most of their functions were devolved to the individual boroughs, making them de facto unitary authorities. The remaining functions were taken over by joint boards. The metropolitan counties have population densities of between 800 (South Yorkshire) and 2800 (West Midlands) people/km². Today, residents of metropolitan counties account for around 22% of the population of England, or 18% of the UK Mid nineties: Wales: the 8 administrative counties -> 22 new unitary counties Scotland: the 9 administrative regions -> 32 new unitary local government areas England: 46 new unitary authorities were carved out of or replaced counties. Most of these encompass urban centres, while most English administrative counties now cover slightly smaller and more rural areas. Unitary authorities combine the powers and functions that are normally delivered separately by the councils of non-metropolitan counties and non-metropolitan districts: housing, waste management & collection, council tax collection, education, libraries, social services, transport, planning, consumer protection, licensing, cemeteries and crematoria. 2000: the County of Greater London regains some of its powers Local government: county, city, borough and district councils and unitary authorities
    20. 20. (Non metropolitan counties or shires) A non-metropolitan county, or shire county, is a county-level entity in England that is not a metropolitan county. The counties typically have populations of 300,000 to 1.4 million. The term shire county is, however, an unofficial usage. Many of the non-metropolitan counties bear historic names and most end in the suffix "shire" such as Wiltshire or Staffordshire They are divided in districts
    21. 21. 2009: 9 new unitary authorities created in County Durham, Shropshire and Wiltshire + the remainder of Bedfordshire and Cheshire divided into two unitary authorities.
    22. 22. The UK Government: a Constitutional or Parliamentary Monarchy A few dates on the formation of the UK as a Country: Act of Unions: 1536 : Wales formally joins the kingdom of England 1707: England and Scotland unite 1801: Ireland, invaded in the 12th century, ceazes to be a colony and sends MPs to Westminster 1921: Only Ulster remains part of the UK, creation of the Irish free State A few dates on the formation of the Parliamentary Monarchy and Democracy Britain has no written constitution but a series of statutes and acts amount to an unwritten consitution: pragmatic and flexible 1688 Glorious Revolution (a bloodless one contrary to the French Revolution) -> 1689 Bill of rights : the sovereign must govern with Parliament 1832 Beginning of the extension of the franchise (right to vote) to the middle class 1911 The elected House of Commons becomes the supreme legislative body over the House of Lords 1928 All men and women over 21 can vote (1969 over 18)
    23. 23. Executive Power Chief of State: Heir: Queen Elizabeth (since 06/02/1952) reigns but does not rule (mainly symbolic role, politically impartial, cannot vote) Prince Charles (born 14/11/1948) Head of government: the Prime Minister (PM) David Cameron Cons.(2010-), vice PM Nick Clegg Lib. Dem. Gordon Brown (since 27 June 2007) Lab.; Tony Blair (1997-2007) Lab. John Major (1990-1997) Cons.; Margaret Thatcher (1979-1990) Cons. "Cabinet" = Cabinet of Ministers = Members of Parliament (MPs) from the House of Lords or Commons, appointed by the PM Elections The monarchy is hereditary Following the general (=legislative) elections, the leader of the majority party or of the majority coalition becomes the PM
    24. 24. 1. House of Commons Legislative Power Last elections held in May 2010 Percentage of vote by party Labour Conservative Liberal Democrats other 29% 36% 23% 12% Seats by party Labour 258 Conservative 305 Liberal Democrat 57 Other (Scottish National Party/Plaid Cymru 30 Democratic Unionist; Sinn Fein -
    25. 25. House of Lords Source: House of Lords, 2013 20/10/13 26
    26. 26. Houses of Parliament The public are welcome to visit both Houses during debates and tour the building during recess (holidays) and on Saturdays. Gothic style (architect Sir Charles Barry) The construction of the new palace began in 1840 after the Houses of Parliament were destroyed by fire in 1834. The Grade I listed building became part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987.
    27. 27. Major dates 1940 The Battle of Britain, the Blitz (Britain fights alone against Germany and faces invasion) 1942 Beveridge Report (5 giants: Want, Ignorance, Disease, Squalor and Idleness) 1944 Butler Act: free and compulsory education for all 1945 VE Day The newly elected Labour gvt creates the Welfare State: (NHS, welfare payments, unemployment benefits, education for all) 1947-49 Many former colonies reach independence (lecture on Commonwealth) 1951-64 Conservative gvts 1956 Suez Canal crisis 1964-70 Labour Gvt : death penalty abolished, Abortion Act, Sexual Offences Act, Divorce Act 1968 Beginning of the troubles in Ulster between Catholics and Protestants 1973 Britain and Ireland enter the Common Market 1979 Winter of discontent: strikes in ≠ sectors paralyse Britain -> end of the Labour Gvt
    28. 28. Swinging London Time, Apr. 15, 1966 Music: The Beatlemania Fashion: Mary Quant, Carnaby Street Conflicting sub cultures (Mods & Rockers)
    29. 29. 1970s-1980s Conservative culture Heritage movies 1976-1980s: punk scene Sex Pistols http://www.citedelamusique.fr/francais/evenements/europunk/europunk.aspx 1979-90 First woman PM: Margaret Thatcher (nicknamed: "the Iron Lady") introduces liberal policies: "Thatcherism" brings reform to Britain 1982 Falklands War won by Britain after Argentina invades the islands 1984 General (= national) miner’s strike to protest against the closure of pits lasts a year and is defeated 1994 Channel Tunnel opens coal
    30. 30. New Labour New Britain? From mid 1990s cultural Renaissance: London becomes popular again – contemporary arts (Young British Artists, http://artsy.net/gene/young-britishartists-yba) Street Art, music scene, fashion, gastro pubs, … 1997 Labour landslide victory: Tony Blair PM with a "New Labour" approach 1998 Creation of a Welsh Assembly and Scottish Parliament (devolution) 1999 First steps in the reform of the House of Lords 2001 After 9/11, Britain support the US’s war on terrorism 2002 Queen Elizabeth II’s Golden Jubilee 2003 Britain sends troops to Iraq 2005 Tony Blair reelected for a third term Terrorist attacks in London kill 52 people 2007 Blair stands down as PM and is replaced by Gordon Brown 2010David Cameron, Conservative PM head cons/lib dem coalition gvt
    31. 31. Banksy http://www.banksy.co.uk/menu.html http://www.banksy.co.uk/QA/qaa.html 20/10/13 32
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