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  1. 1. II. THE ANGLOSPHERE Population in million (2013 estimate - Censuses) FIGURES ROUNDED United States United Kingdom Canada Australia 317 63.5 34.5 22 Puerto Rico Ireland South Africa New Zealand 4 5 4.5 4.5 20/10/13 1
  2. 2. The Anglosphere: definition The concept refers to a group of English-speaking nations sharing characteristics rooted in or attributed to the historical experience of the British people: - political and judiciary British-inspired democratic political institutions (legislative houses, regular elections, strong executive branch, respect for the rule of law) / common law legal system (trial by judge and/or jury, etc) - ideological and economical: liberalism, capitalism, free market economies - cultural: common artistic references (writers, philosophers, artists, complementing the native cultural corpus (celtic and aboriginal cultures, Hollywood…) BUT THERE ARE EXCEPTIONS …
  3. 3. The Anglosphere: exceptions… . Political: The United States, South Africa, and Ireland have republican systems of government while the others are ruled by constitutional monarchies . Legal: - Quebec and Louisiana do not use Common Law - Scotland and South Africa use hybrid legal systems etc. ->> The concept of the anglosphere is therefore a useful tool to understand common points and strengths, but should not lead to oversimplifications, hence the importance of studying regional and national units separately
  4. 4. Cooperation and alliances The anglosphere counts various networks: - military alliances and intelligence arrangements (the UKUSA Community runs Echelon) Especially between the US, the UK, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand - some free trade areas
  5. 5. The UKUSA Community - alliance of English-speaking nations led by the US & UK to gather intelligence via signals intelligence (Echelon network) - Constituent agencies: . Australia (Defense Signals Directorate, DSD) . Canada (Communications Security Establishment, CSE) . New Zealand (Government Communications Security Bureau, GCSB) . United Kingdom (Government Communications Headquarters, GCHQ) . United States (National Security Agency, NSA)
  6. 6. Differences with other English-speaking international groups - military power - economic prosperity - traditional and established civil rights and personal freedoms - high global cultural influence FREE ALLIES OFTEN ALLIES: military allies in major world conflicts in the 20th century (WWI, WWII, Cold War) the US, the UK, and Australia co-operated in the 2003 invasion of Iraq / other NATO allies of the US did not BUT SOMETIMES DIVIDED 1950s, 1960s: divided during the Suez crisis and the Vietnam War 1980s: New Zealand declared a nuclear-free zone around the country
  7. 7. An anglospheric model ? A 6-country model: the USA, Canada, the UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand • With 3 regions: – North America: United States of America + Canada – Europe: United Kingdom + Ireland – Australasia: Australia + New Zealand • 3 "core" nation states dominating: – 3 smaller "satellite" states – 3 entire cultural region » • The 3 satellite states have developed foreign policies that place a greater emphasis on multilateral rather than unilateral institutions – Ireland: first a neutral nation, then a member of the EU – 2003 invasion of Iraq: refusal of Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand to involve themselves
  8. 8. NAFTA The North American Free Trade Agreement (1992) The NAFTA Secretariat, comprised of a Canadian Section, a Mexican Section and a United States Section, is responsible for the administration of the dispute settlement provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
  9. 9. The APEC 21 countries representing approximately (2007): - 49% of world trade - 55% of world GDP - 49% of world trade
  10. 10. III. ANGLO-SAXON COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD ECONOMY Source: CIA World Factbook 2008 – 2008 estimates
  11. 11. The anglo-saxon model of capitalism 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The philosophical origins Free trade & competition Investment Flexible labour markets Social costs and the question of the minimum wage Welfare Regulation A non-interventionist State
  12. 12. International organizations 20/10/13 12
  13. 13. The World Trade Organization (WTO) GATT 1947 -> WTO 1995, OMC in French
  14. 14. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (1961) OECD member states (2008) Original members are in dark blue
  15. 15. G8 (G 6 1973, G7 1976) Dark green: countries which belong to the G 8 (Group of Eight). Blue : countries which do not but are represented by the EU Yellow: O 5 (Outreach five) countries
  16. 16. The G 20 of industrial nations The G20 of industrial nations is an economic forum of 20 countries, formed in 1999 (G8 + Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey + current European Union presiding country)
  17. 17. Another G 20 ? G 20 is also a trade negotiations bloc of 20 developing nations
  18. 18. What are the major INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS involved in culture and tourism?
  19. 19. The Organization Introducing UNESCO Governing bodies Director General Secretariat Main Programming Documents Medium-Term Strategy (2008 - 2013) Programme and Budget (2012 - 2013) Global Priorities Africa Gender Equality Overarching Objectives Culture of Peace Sustainable Development Priority Groups Youth Small Island Developing States Least-developed Countries Thematic Issues HIV & AIDS Re-thinking the Development Agenda 20/10/13 19
  20. 20. Unesco: the International Decade for Rapprochement of Cultures CULTURE / UNESCO: 2013-2022 set as the International Decade for Rapprochement of Cultures Following a suggestion from the Republic of Kazakhstan, the UNESCO General Conference gather in Paris in October and November 2012 during its 36th session, that the period 2013-2022 be proclaimed as the International Decade for the Rapprochement of Culture (36C/Resolution 40). UNESCO is expected to mobilize a variety of actors, at all levels and in all regions, to help build bridges and promote mutual understanding conducive to harmonious coexistence among the peoples and countries of the world. According to UNESCO the new International Decade proves a unique occasion to reaffirm the ideals of a plural humanity where cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue are mutually reinforcing, and where international cooperation can be enhanced through education, the sciences, culture and communication and information, bringing about a real rapprochement of cultures and countries. Activities during this period expected to nurture social inclusion and intercultural dialogue in order to improve the world’s global understanding. Special emphasis will be placed on the role and empowerment of young women and men who have enormous possibilities or access to, and participation in, global conversations. A broad range of stakeholders are called upon to participate actively in the International Decade: Member States, National Commissions for UNESCO, organizations of the United Nations system, other intergovernmental and international organizations, NOGS, Goodwill Ambassadors and Artists for peace, the world of culture and many more. For more information about the background behind the International Decade for the Rapprochement of Cultures: 20/10/13 20
  21. 21. Article on Unesco (photocopy given out) 20/10/13 21
  22. 22. World Tourism Organization World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism. UNWTO encourages the implementation of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, to maximize tourism’s socio-economic contribution while minimizing its possible negative impacts, and is committed to promoting tourism as an instrument in achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), geared towards reducing poverty and fostering sustainable development. UNWTO’s membership includes 156 countries, 6 Associate Members and over 400 Affiliate Members representing the private sector, educational institutions, tourism associations and local tourism authorities. Source: (22/09/2013) 20/10/13 22
  23. 23. Current developments & forecasts International tourist arrivals grew by nearly 4% in 2011 to 983 million; International tourism generated in 2011 US$ 1,032 billion (€ 741 billion) in export earnings; UNWTO forecasts a growth in international tourist arrivals of between 3% and 4% in 2012. Tourism Enriches Tourism: Millions of travelers, spending billions of dollars, creating millions of jobs. 20/10/13 23
  24. 24. Why tourism? “Why Tourism? Tourism – an Economic and Social Phenomenon Over the decades, tourism has experienced continued growth and deepening diversification to become one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world. Modern tourism is closely linked to development and encompasses a growing number of new destinations. These dynamics have turned tourism into a key driver for socio-economic progress. Today, the business volume of tourism equals or even surpasses that of oil exports, food products or automobiles. Tourism has become one of the major players in international commerce, and represents at the same time one of the main income sources for many developing countries. This growth goes hand in hand with an increasing diversification and competition among destinations. This global spread of tourism in industrialised and developed states has produced economic and employment benefits in many related sectors - from construction to agriculture or telecommunications. The contribution of tourism to economic well-being depends on the quality and the revenues of the tourism offer. UNWTO assists destinations in their sustainable positioning in ever more complex national and international markets. As the UN agency dedicated to tourism, UNWTO points out that particularly developing countries stand to benefit from sustainable tourism and acts to help make this a reality.” 20/10/13 24