School segregation today exists because of de facto segregation. Busing to achieve integration appears to have failed in its goal to improve educational outcomes for all children. The modern focus is on improving education, not integration.
Harry Burn after the vote. The Tennessee State Senate Chamber.
Many active women’s political organizations work towards increasing the number of female elected officials at all levels. The 111th Congress has 93 female members: 17 senators and 76 representatives. The past (and first female) Speaker of the House is Nancy Pelosi of California, and the Secretary of State is Hillary Clinton.
6 civil rights 2 classes
Chapter 6: Civil Rights
Civil Liberties prevents
government from denying you
People can invalidate
Civil Rights protect minorities from
Stops race, religion, gender, ethnic
Invalidates actions by people
Right to vote, women‟s suffrage,
separate is not equal
EMANCIPATION, CIVIL RIGHTS
AND AFRICAN AMERICANS
and “Jim Crow”
Dred Scott (1795–1858)
American slave born in Virginia
Moved with owner to Illinois
Slavery illegal in Illinois
Tried to gain freedom on grounds that he
lived in free state of Illinois
SCOTUS ruled against him
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Black people (slave and free):
not protected by Constitution
not U.S. citizens
Regarded as worst decision ever
made by SCOTUS!
Civil War (1861–1865) identified
Republican Party as party of
Republican-dominated Congress forced
Reconstruction on South via
To the Rescue!
Ending Servitude: Reconstruction
Thirteenth Amendment (1865)
prohibits slavery within U.S.
Fourteenth Amendment (1868):
• All persons born in U.S. are citizens
• States cannot deprive citizens of
• Secured rights of former slaves &
descendants (overruled Dred Scott v.
• Equal access (Equal Protection
Fifteenth Amendment (1870)
established right of citizens
Separate but Equal Doctrine!
Plessy v. State of Louisiana
Homer Plessy, part black-part white
Under Louisiana law: Plessy black
Boards train car designated whites only
Plessy denied 13th and 14th Amendment rights
Judge: Feds cannot regulate within state
Constitution only applied to federal government
Lost appeal to State Supreme Court
Lost appeal to SCOTUS, Plessy v. Ferguson
Okay if both races had equal, but separate,
Two Types of Segregation
De jure: Imposed by law
• Southern Democrat „Jim Crow Laws‟
• Separate but equal doctrine
De facto: Fact of life
• Economic, social conditions, personal
The End of Separate-but-Equal Doctrine!
Brown vs. Board of Education (1954):
Struck down separate but equal
Desegregated public schools
De jure segregation violates 14th
14th amendment now applies to states
• White Flight
• Public schools still segregated
• Schools still unequal
• De jure turned into de facto
Would school choice
solve problems of
De Facto segregation?
The Civil Rights Movement
• Martin Luther
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964
Migration of black Americans to north
Gained jobs and education
Black middle class develops
Black vote now important in national
NAACP, National Urban League
Civil disobedience strategies by MLK
JFK campaigns on new Civil Rights Act
70% of black Americans vote JFK
73 to 27 in U.S. Senate
• Right to Vote
• Banned racial discrimination
in public places
• Required equal employment
• Could withhold federal funds
Received full citizenship rights
Millions of dollars in claims
settled for Indian tribes
Some tribal lands restored
Cherokee Nation v.
Tribes not "states"
with many sovereign
Congress has full power over Indian
Has repeatedly acted to limit
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION: IS IT
“Affirmative action” is when
government takes positive
steps to increase
representation of women and
minorities in areas of
employment, education, and
business from which they have
been historically excluded
Rights past wrongs… helps disenfranchised
Agree with equal opportunities
Disagree with guaranteed results
Want success based on merit
Oppose "reverse discrimination"
Applicant to Univ. of Michigan
High credentials; not accepted
Made federal case of rejection
Believed rejected because of race
Admission‟s point system
110 academics, 40 “other factors”
Should race and ethnicity be
considered for college admissions?
If Affirmative Action was
necessary at one point, is it
What is equality?
Struck down point system
Upheld right of public
universities to use race
factors in admissions
And yet, today…?
Ricci vs. DeStefano
(SCOTUS nomination of Sotomayer)
White” New Haven Firefighters
Passed examinations, but denied
No minority applicant passed
New Haven quota system for
New Haven invalidated exams
White firefighters sued
White Firefighters win by 5-4
Saudi Arabia still bans women
received right to
Women barred from World
Activists Stanton and Mott
start women‟s rights
Back seat to abolition
Combining two might doom
Const. Amendment proposed (1878):
"Right of citizens to vote shall not be
abridged by U.S. or States on account of sex"
Introduced in next 41 sessions of Congress
WY (territory) already allowed women to vote
WY admitted as state (1890)
UT, CO, ID join WY (1900)
Progressive Bull Moose Party 1st to include
suffrage plank (1912)
Proposal wins 2/3rds vote
in Congress favoring
Proposed amendment sent
to states for ratification
Need one more state to
pass amendment (1920)
One more vote needed in
Tennessee State House
24 year old Rep. Harry
Burn casted deciding vote
At time, Harry Burns had in his
pocket a letter from mom
be a good
Ended struggle that
lasted 72 years, 1
month, and 5 days.
Women in the Work Force
Progress or not that 70% of women in U.S.
work full time?
Is full equality between sexes possible?
Men still dominate national political
institutions. Fair or unfair?
o Some career fields divided by sex:
o Do natural differences between genders
exist causing career divisions?
Pre-1973 crime at state level except to save
1960s: 12 states permit for rape, incest,
1970: NY, AK, HI, WA allow for any reason with
SCOTUS (1973): “Liberty” in Constitution
Ruled “person” in Constitution didn't include
In 1973 sonograms & ultrasounds did not exist
If they did would Roe been ruled differently?
Regulations and Other Issues
Tax funds not to be used for abortions (Hyde
No funding under Medicaid (care for poor)
Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act
Failed to pass Congress in 2006 (Anesthesia)
SCOTUS (5–4, 2007):
Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act constitutional
RU486 – Morning after pill