14 the presidency 2 classes


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Introduction to American Government. Department of Government and Politics at Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, CT

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14 the presidency 2 classes

  1. 1. Chapter 14: The Presidency
  2. 2. Brown Brothers Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning 3
  3. 3. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
  4. 4. © AP/ Wide World Photos Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning 5
  5. 5. © John Atherton /UPI /Bettmann /Corbis Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning 6
  6. 6. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning 7
  7. 7. © AP/ Wide World Photos
  8. 8. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning 9
  9. 9. 11
  10. 10. AP Photo/Doug Mills
  11. 11. © AP/ Wide World Photos 13
  12. 12. © Kevin Lamarque/Reuters/Corbis 14
  13. 13. © 2002 AP/ Wide World Photos Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning 15
  14. 14. Sec. 1: Election Procedures & Qualifications for Office Executive: President & V.P. 4-year terms Electoral College selection method; each state has a proportional vote
  15. 15. Qualifications: Natural-born citizen 35 years of age Resident of U.S. for 14 years
  16. 16. V.P. takes over when POTUS is removed, dies, resigns, unable to carry out duties Compensated for services Oath: ―preserve, protect, defend Constitution‖
  17. 17. Sec. 2: Powers Commander-in-chief of armed forces Require officers of executive departments to give opinions on subjects relating to their duties Grant reprieves & pardons Make treaties with advice & consent of Senate (2/3 in agreement)
  18. 18. Appoint ambassadors, Supreme Court Justices, other government officers not provided for in Constitution (with Senate majority confirmation) Fill vacancies that may occur during Senate recess
  19. 19. Sec. 3: Duties Provide information on state of union Recommend laws Convene Congress on ―extraordinary‖ occasions Adjourn Congress when chambers cannot agree on time of adjournment Receive ambassadors & other officials Faithfully execute the laws
  20. 20. Washington: first state of union address, NYC Jefferson: Discontinued speech; replaced with letter Wilson: Reestablished speech Roosevelt: used phrase "State of the Union" Calvin Coolidge: first on radio Harry S. Truman: first on T.V. Lyndon Johnson: first delivered in evening Ronald Reagan: Only president to postpone address Bill Clinton: delivered during impeachment trial George W. Bush: first live on world wide web
  21. 21. Sec. 4: Impeachment & Removal from Office All civil officers, POTUS & VP, can be removed for treason, bribery, high crimes & misdemeanors
  22. 22. President Andrew Johnson 1865 - 1869
  23. 23. Process of Becoming President • Nomination by one of two major parties • Majority of votes cast in Electoral College • If no candidate receives majority, house elects president. Each state delegation equals one
  24. 24. Electing the President Electoral College: Sec. 1: Election Procedures • The Choice of Electors • The Electors‘ Commitment • Criticisms of the Electoral College 32
  25. 25. CARLSON © 2004 The Washington Post. Reprinted with permission of Universal Press Syndicate. 33
  26. 26. How EC works: Need greatest number of electors to win  Each state’s EC vote total determined by number of Representatives and Senators  Each state: 2 senators; representatives determined by population  Connecticut: 7 total EC votes  Minimum number of electors per state: 3  District of Columbia’s EC votes same as WY
  27. 27. Breaking down numbers nationally… 538 electoral votes: 100 senators, 435 house members, DC‘s 3 EC-votes Need at least 270 to win (magic number)
  28. 28. How to Win a State‘s Electoral Votes:  Win ‗plurality‘ of popular vote to win ECVs  Except Maine and Nebraska: Proportional plan congressional districts popular vote
  29. 29. Reforms: 12th Amendment  Forces electors to cast separate votes for Pres. & VP - prevent ties  Old system: Electors casted two votes for President. Runner up V.P. Could force enemies to work together: Adams-Jefferson Or, a tie is possible: Jefferson - Burr
  30. 30. Reforms: 23rd Amendment  District of Columbia same as least populous state (WY)  WY chooses 3 electors, hence District limited to 3 electors  District originally envisioned as center of government, not state Did not have powers in EC By 1960 had greater population than 13 of 50 states
  31. 31. United States Presidential Elections and Electoral College 1789-2004
  32. 32. 2004 Election Results
  33. 33. 2004 Election County Results
  34. 34. Real Clear Politics: 2008 Electoral College
  35. 35. Why the Electoral College First: Prevents Tyranny of the Majority Demagogues may attract many votes but no guarantee they‘ll win individual states Founders did not trust direct vote of majority
  36. 36. Second: Individual vote means more with Electoral College Instead of one of 120 million votes nationally… …yours is one of however many voted statewide
  37. 37. Third: Preserves Federalism Gives small states important role. Lightly populated IA sees candidates constantly Without EC candidates promise large cities what they want, get enough percentage there to take election Rural voter‘s concerns and others mean nothing EC respects big and small states, rural areas and cities
  38. 38. WY‘s 3 ELCV‘s have more impact than popular votes of its citizens
  39. 39. THE PARADOX OF THE PRESIDENCY A Story of Great Powers and Great Limits
  40. 40. WHO CAN RUN IS LIMITED The ―Natural Born Citizen‖ requirement. What Does it Mean? 103
  41. 41. 2008 presidential election: Sen. McCain: born, Panama Canal Zone, to two U.S. citizens Is this considered natural-born? The Constitution does not specify...
  42. 42. …yet, his birth status wasn‘t an issue in 2008 Dodged that bullet!
  43. 43. Sen. Obama: mother, natural-born citizen. Father, Kenyan national. Mother age 18 at time of birth, residing in Hawaii.
  44. 44. According to laws at time, if only one parent is a citizen, that parent had to reside in U.S. for at least 10 years prior to birth; at least five of which had to be after the age of 16. Obama‘s mother too young to meet this requirement.
  45. 45. Yet Obama was born in U.S. Question centered on interpretation of ―natural-born‖ requirement No naturalized citizen can run for presidency
  46. 46. OPPONENTS Repeal clause Excludes gifted people due to technicalities Doesn‘t appreciate value of immigrants Prominent leaders barred from presidency
  47. 47. SUPPORTERS OF CLAUSE… Requirement "protects" U.S. from foreign interference Who has better argument?
  48. 48. Head of State Ceremonial: decorate war heroes, dedications, hosting heads of state, funerals, etc. Washington assumed this power… like recognizing nations
  49. 49. Chief Executive Powers of Appointment, Removal, Grant Reprieves and Pardons Naming supreme court justices a great power. Why?
  50. 50. Commander-in-Chief Wartime Powers Ultimate decision-maker in military matters Powers shifted away from Congress during past century
  51. 51. ―President shall be commander in chief of Army & Navy of U.S., and militia of states‖ Vague
  52. 52. Clarifying Confusion War Powers Act, 1973 1.POTUS informs Congress 48 hours before sending troops into action 2.Withdraw after 60 days unless Congress declares war; passes resolution
  53. 53. Truman sent troops to Korea Reagan invaded Grenada Clinton deployed troops to Haiti All without asking Congress.
  54. 54. But Congress technically declares War! Last ―war‖ was W.W. II Korean, Vietnam, Iraq not technically wars
  55. 55. Democracy v. Constitutional Dictatorship When does Democracy works best? During time of War or Peace?
  56. 56. Times of peace! Democracy requires debate and compromise Weakness is during fast moving crisis: o President needs to move fast o Reason POTUS‘s war powers vague
  57. 57. Chief Legislator Influencing Legislation Saying No to Legislation The Line-Item Veto
  58. 58. POTUS proposes legislation Congress not required to pass it. POTUS must be persuasive to move legislation through Congress.
  59. 59. Power of veto is most important tool to influence legislation A President can…
  60. 60. 1. sign bill into law
  61. 61. 2. Veto bill ~ Withhold signature ~ Return bill with explanation by 10 days ~ Measure nullified unless both chambers override veto by 2/3rds vote
  62. 62. 3. Take no action ~ Becomes law in 10 days without signature ~ Unless congress adjourns by 10 days Bill dies (pocket veto) No explanation required No override possible
  63. 63. POTUS is leader of his party because: Most visible Highest ranking
  64. 64. Great sway over choice of national committee chairperson Chair oversees platform and supporting party candidates.
  65. 65. Leads National Party and Fifty State Organizations: Some presidents campaign hard Each one different Popularity ratings vs. party building
  66. 66. Limitations as Party Leader:  President of all Americans, not just party  Elected officials usually please constituents before President
  67. 67. © 2004 AP/ Wide World Photos 131
  68. 68. 132
  69. 69. Only three presidents — Eisenhower, Reagan, and Clinton — left office with ratings at a level comparable to that when they entered.
  70. 70. Some great or near great Some average Some below average or poor
  71. 71. Presidential Greatness 135
  72. 72. Greatest source of strength: public approval Particularly with legislative leadership President Obama’s Approval Ratings
  73. 73. Should a president‘s decision making be shaped by public opinion polls?
  74. 74. Executive order: Rule issued by POTUS Has effect of law
  75. 75. Executive Privilege: Concerns keeping communication between president and advisers private Constitution silent on issue Though widely recognized as legitimate Element of separation of powers
  76. 76. SCOTUS Limits Executive Privilege in cases of criminal investigation: United States v. Nixon – (8 – 0 ruling)
  77. 77. No president ever impeached and convicted Pres. Johnson impeached by House, acquitted by Senate Nixon resigned Clinton, 2 counts of impeachment, acquitted by Senate
  78. 78. Despite scandals BC left office with 66% approval rating. Investigated, but never charged for fraudulent real estate dealings. Improper relationship with intern Lewinsky led to impeachment charges
  79. 79. Nixon resigned presidency August 9, 1974. Later pardoned by Ford for any federal crimes committed while in office.
  80. 80.  The 25th Amendment: When the Vice Presidency Becomes Vacant When the President is temporarily incapacitated
  81. 81. The Vice President Called to Duty
  82. 82. Before 1967: No provision to fill vacancy - POTUS dies, VP succeeds, VP remains vacant. JFK Assassination: LBJ sworn in; Air Force one; 2 hrs. 8 min. after assassination
  83. 83. Since 1967: 25th Amendment: ―…Whenever there is a vacancy in office of V.P., President shall nominate a V.P. who shall take office upon confirmation by majority vote of both Houses of Congress‖ First Time Used: V.P. Agnew resigns due to criminal charges Ford nominated by Nixon for V.P. Oct. 12, 1973 Confirmed by Congress
  84. 84. What if POTUS temporarily disabled? surgery; mental instability; kidnapped Amendment also provides for this situation
  85. 85. President Reagan shot; incapacitated during surgery No presidential succession took place
  86. 86. Last office created is last to control Presidency