Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Renewable energy

Renewable enrgy production and prospects.

  • Be the first to comment

Renewable energy

  1. 1. Renewable energy Wind Solar Hydroelectric Geothermal Ocean Biomass Data collection and presentation by Carl Denef, Januari 2014
  2. 2. It has been calculated that massive amounts of renewable energy are available on Earth. The theoretical potential is > 4 million TW . The technical potential totals around 240 TW, which is > 10 times the energy we consume in one year today worldwide. Read more. This number aggrees well with calculations by Greenpeace report Energy [R]evolution (379 TW) In addition to tidal and ocean wave energy there is ocean thermal energy, which is at least 2 orders of magnitude larger than tidal and wave energy. 190 235 4.75 92 124000 4439400 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000 TW Theoretical potential 19 4.5 1.6 8 51 159 1 10 100 1000 TW Technical potential
  3. 3. Technical potential of the different types of renewable energies depends on the geographical location in the World. See next slide It has been calculated (Greenpeace Energy Revolution Report) that in 2050 Africa, the Middle-East and Australia will have the largest relative potential compared to their total primary energy consumption in 2007 (up to a factor of 50). China and Europe have a 10 x lower potential, but still largely sufficient to exclusively rely on renewable energy.
  4. 4. Source: Greenpeace Energy Revolution Report Absolute energy values are expressed in Etajoules/year (1 Etajoule = 31.71 GWyear) RE = renewable energy
  5. 5. Worldwide ~2 TW renewable energy was available in 2011, which is >10% of total energy consumption and 20% of electricity generation. If traditional biomass energy is included sharing of renewables is 16%. CSP = concentrating solar power; PV = photovoltaic panels Belgium has a 5.7 GW capacity for 2011, which is 6.3% of its total (90 GW)[1, 2]. Belgium ranks 4th in solar photovoltaic (PV) panels per capita and is within the world top 15 countries to make biofuel. Energy safety of Belgium is, however, vulnerable as it imports 80 % of its energy as fossil energy, despite it has 2 nuclear power plants (7 reactors). 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 GW Renewable energy capacity in 2011 - World Biofuels Biomass Wind power Solar hot water Solar CSP Solar PV Ocean power Hydropower Geothermal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 GW Renewable energy capacity in 2011 - Belgium Biofuel Biomass Wind Solar PV Hydropowe r
  6. 6. Energy from solar radiation is either passive or active depending on the way capture, conversion and distribution of sunlight occurs. Active solar techniques use photovoltaic panels and heat collectors to convert sunlight into useful outputs. Passive solar techniques include selecting materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate air, and optimizing the position of a building to the sun.  Solar energy Picture from NOAA
  7. 7. How much energy is contained in solar radiation? The solar radiation on Earth at the top of the atmosphere is roughly 1367 W/m² cross section.Thus, for the whole Earth, the solar power is 1367 x 127,500,000,000,000 = 174,292 TW (Mean Earth radius = 6371 km; Earth cross section = 127,500,000 km² ) However, the Earth is a rotating globe and hence the solar energy is distributed across the entire surface area. Taking into account the angle at which the rays strike and that at any one moment half the planet does not receive any solar radiation, roughly only about one-fourth of the solar radiation is recoverable at the top of the atmosphere (approximately 340 W/m² on the average). At the Earth’s surface this is about 50 % less due to reflection and absorption by the atmosphere and clouds, i.e. approximately 170 W/m² on the average. Assuming only energy received over land as usable and land area = 1.481 × 1014 m2, radiative energy = 170 x 148,100,000,000,000 = 25,177 TW. This capacity, that is continuously present, is roughly equal to the total capacity of fossil energy resources estimated to be present today (see slide 14). If we assume that the conversion efficiency of solar energy would be only 10% and that energy capture would be limited to about 10% of land surface, the solar energy resource would be 250 TW. This is about 14 x the total world energy consumption today (18 TW). Thus, theoretically, solar energy alone could be a sustainable energy resource, as world population is expected to stabilize around 10 billion and primary energy consumption predicted for 2100 is 50 TW.
  8. 8. How long can we survive on earth using solar energy? Solar radiation will not decrease but grow by 10% over the next 1.1 billion years and by 40% over the next 3.5 billion years. This will have devastating consequences for life on Earth. The CO2 cycle will acclerate, reducing CO2 concentration to levels lethally low for plants (10 ppm for photosynthesis) in approximately 500-900 million years. This will result in the loss of oxygen in the atmosphere, so animal life will become extinct within several million more years. After another billion years all surface water will have disappearedand the average global temperature will reach 70 oC. From Wikipedia
  9. 9. Solar hot water collectors are used to heat water. It can provide 60 to 70% of the domestic hot water use with temperatures up to 60 oC.[55] As of 2010, the total installed world capacity of solar hot water systems was approximately 196 GW (Wiki). China is the world leader with 118 GW installed as of 2010 and a long term goal of 210 GW by 2020.[58 Photovoltaic cells A photovoltaic cell (PV), is a device that converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. Germany is the world's top PV installer, with a solar PV capacity of more than 32 GW in 2012. World capacity is 212 GW. Solar energy types 19 MW solar park in Germany
  10. 10. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) CSP systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. The concentrated heat is then used as a heat source for a conventional power plant to generate electricty. World capacity in 2011 was 2.2 GW. Spain installed 1.9 GW. About 17 GW of CSP projects are under development worldwide. Other solar systems Solar distillation to make potable water from saline or brackish water. Solar water disinfection. Water stabilization pond to treat waste water without chemicals or electricity; Solar cooker; Solar pond; Salt evaporation pond; Solar furnace; Solar chemical and Solar fuel production from artificial photosynthesis Aerial view of the ‘Solar Two’ CSP facility in the Mojave Desert , showing the power tower (left) surrounded by the sun-tracking mirrors
  11. 11. Annual mean insolation at the top of Earth's atmosphere (top) and at the planet's surface in W/m2 Geographical variation in solar power
  12. 12. Earth's geothermal energy originates from radioactive decay of minerals in the Earth's mantle . It can be used either as a non-renewable source i.e. the heat in the first 3000 m of the Earth's mantle which contains enough heat to theoretically supply all of the world's energy for 100,000 years, although only a small percentage of that is technically extractable or as a renewable source i.e. the heat used not more than that replenished each year. The latter can be tapped from deeper Earth layers and would be sustainable for about 2 billion years at the consumption rate of our present energy use.[124][125] . Shallow ground heat energy is mainly of solar energy. Below a depth of 6 m temperature is equal to the mean local surface temperature. Geothermal energy is used for home thermoregulation by heat pumps extracting ground heat in the winter (for heating) and transfering heat back into the ground in the summer (for cooling), for district heating and for generating electricity in power plants. A power plant needs the higher temperatures of deep Earth resources.[10]. To tap the heat, holes are drilled deep in the Earth, water is punped in and, after exchanging the heat (150-270 oC), transports the heat to a turbine (see Figure in next slide). Depths are usually 4-5 km but drilling as deep as 12 km is feasible (Read more). To increase heat conductance the procedure of Enhanced Geothermal Systems is adopted today. Even though geothermal power is renewable, extraction must be monitored to avoid local depletion. Over the course of decades, individual wells may draw down local temperatures, but if extraction rates are then decreased the local temperature rises again.  Geothermal energy
  13. 13. Worldwide, about ~11 GW of geothermal power is deployed in 24 countries (the U.S. being the world leader) and ~28 GW of direct geothermal heating. ++ Source
  14. 14. Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by hydroturbines driven by the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used renewable energy, accounting for 16% of global electricity consumption, and 970 GW of electricity production in 2011 (see Ren21) The Three Gorges Dam in Hubei, China, has the world's largest capacity (22 GW), with the Itaipu Dam (14 GW) in Brazil/Paraguay in second place and Guri Dam (10 GW) in Venezuela as third. Although the Three Gorges Dam reduces the potential for floods downstream by providing flood storage space, the dam is criticized as it flooded archaeological and cultural sites and displaced some 1.3 million people, and is causing significant ecological changes. The Guri Dam is controversial, because the lake created by the dam destroyed thousands of km2 of forest that was renowned for its biodiversity and rare wildlife. A risk of this power supply is power shortage during prolonged drought, as water levels become too low to produce enough electricity.  Hydroelectricity
  15. 15. Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as by wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, or wind pumps for water pumping or drainage. Wind power is proportional to the third power of the wind speed. Wind turbine power worldwide in 2012 was 282 GW, China being number 1 (75 GW) before the U.S. (60 GW). In addition to large turbines, the World Wind Energy Association (WWEA) reported more than 650,000 small wind turbines globally in 2010. Wind power depends on the location of the turbines and has significant variation over short time scales. Power management techniques can greatly mitigate these problems, such as installing excess capacity storage, geographically distributed turbines, dispatchable backing sources, exporting and importing power to neighboring areas or reducing demand when wind production is low.[7] Weather forecasting permits the electricity network to be readied for variations in production.[8][9]  Wind power Since wind speed is not constant, a wind farm's annual energy production is never maximum of the installed capacity (name plate). The ratio of actual productivity to the theoretical maximum is 15–50%[65][66][nb
  16. 16. Geographical variation in wind power Wind speeds (V) at 80 m height in Europe and the U.S. (Source: Archer & Jacobson)
  17. 17. Since solar energy is absent during the night and since wind is not always blowing, it is important that the captured energy can be stored and later be used if power supply is absent. See : • Deployment of solar power to energy grids • Thermal mass applications • Seasonal thermal energy storage • Grid energy storage • Vehicle-to-grid systems Left: The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity even when the sun isn't shining.[102] Wind power complements very well with hydroelectricity power. When the wind is blowing strongly, nearby hydroelectric plants can temporarily hold back their water, and when the wind drops they can rapidly increase production again giving a very even power supply. Pumped-storage hydroelectricity or other forms of grid energy storage can store energy developed by high- wind periods and release it when needed [100].Belgium is planning to build a Pumped-storage hydroelectricity in the North Sea. Solar and wind energy storage
  18. 18. Biomass energy is energy from the sun that has been stored in plants through photosynthesis. Traditional biomass includes firewood, charcoal, manure and crop residues, the natural energy source that humans used since the discovery of making fire. It is still widely used in developing countries for cooking and heating. Modern biomass includes either dead forest residues, yard clippings, wood chips, municipal rotting garbage, agricultural and human waste or plants grown on purpose (such as switchgrass, hemp, corn, sugarcane, bamboo, eucalyptus and oil palm) that can be converted into methane, hydrogen or transportation biofuels, like bioethanol and biodiesel. Ethanol is made from sugars, biodiesel from oils. Biomass production from algae is a promising future source of biofuels. It has the great advantage that it can use waste water and even sea water as nutrients and sequester CO2 when joined to a fossil power plant. Read more Biomass is used either to generate electricity (via steam turbines or gasifiers), or to produce heat via direct combustion. Often both energy conversions are combined in the same power plant. Biomass is also used to produce biofuels for transportation (2.7% of the world's transport fuel in 2010), either in pure form or (usually) as an additive (see slide 81b). Bioethanol (from corn or sugar cane) is primarily used in the US and Brazil, biodiesel (from rapeseed) in Europe.  Biomass Collection and chipping of crop for bioenergy use and biofuel production.
  19. 19. Traditional biomass capacity worldwide was ~1 TW in 2010. Its share in residential energy use is high in developing countries. Modern biomass capacity was ~0.35 TW [x]
  20. 20. • Little or no impact on health and environmental except biomass • Little or no greenhouse gas emissions - except for biomass - once the energy device is constructed and therefore a convincing mitigation method for climate change. • Minimal land and freshwater requirements. Geothermal and wind power use 3.5 km2 and 12 km2 per GW electric energy produced, respectively vs 32 km2 for coal.[10] Geothermal plants use 20 l of water per MWh vs over 1,000 l per MWh for nuclear, coal, or oil.[10] • Supply safety provided there is back-up installation (e.g. in case of no wind), local energy security and reduced import dependency • Short construction periods compared to conventional energy generation • Relatively low operational complexity compared to other energy generation. Onshore wind and solar PV projects have well established operational track records. • Predictable cash flows as it is not subject to fuel price volatility because the primary energy resource is generally freely available. • Job creation: According to the Renewables 2012 global status report, renewable energy investments created 5 million jobs worldwide, of which more than 1 million in the European Union, 1.6 million in China and almost a million in Brazil. • Biofuels may attenuate the increase of oil price and delay ‘peak oil’
  21. 21. • Renewable energy is sustainable, but the machinery to generate this energy needs numerous critical materials. The table on the right overviews these materials. • The availablity of these materials is limited which may become a problem. These materials are unevenly distributed over the World, which can become an issue during economical competition, increasing demands of these materials or conflicts. Prices may increase when resources are declining. • Decision makings as to a transition to a renewable energy-driven economy has to seriously take these issues into consideration. For many of these elements, we have historically devoted almost no effort in discovery and recovery after use. Thus renewable energy deployment will require efforts for reuse, recovery and recycling of materials. Source: Caltech
  22. 22. • Wind and solar power Wind and solar devices may have land, visual and noice impacts. • Geothermal power plants Like nuclear power plants, geothermal plants are heat pollutants as they add heat energy to the biosphere that would not otherwise be released. This is not the case for wind, solar, tidal and hydroelectric power generation. Fluids drawn from the deep Earth carry a mixture of greenhouse gases (CO2, hydrogen sulfide, methane and ammonia), but it is 8 times less than a coal power plant [6]. If pumps are driven by conventional power plant electricity, considerable greenhouse gas is emitted. Plant construction can adversely affect land stability. Enhanced geothermal systems can trigger earthquakes as part of hydraulic fracturing. The project in Basel, Switzerland was suspended because more than 10,000 seismic events measuring up to 3.4 on the Richter Scale occurred over the first 6 days of water injection.[49] • Hydropower stations Since they often generate electricity for large areas, power failures can cause serious discomfort. Moreover, there are quite numerous examples of hydropower station failures and of dam failures, that caused large damage to humans and land. Very large hydropower installations have also been criticized for having forced people to move and damage ecosystems.
  23. 23. • Biomass o Large-scale production of biomass entails heavy demand for land, water, and labor. Biomass cropland is competitive with cropland for food, causes deforestation, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity and has a negative impact on water resources as a consequence of artificial irrigation necessary for its cultivation. Deforestation causes a decrease of ~150 tonnes carbon sequestration/ha (IPCC, 2006) o Biofuels display lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, nitrogen oxides) than fossil fuels (10-90% less) but can replace fossil liquid fuels only for 10-15% in the transport sector due to lack of adequate land and sustainability constraints. o If GHG emissions due to the industrial processes needed for production and transport of the crops, and refining of the fuel are included in evaluating its greenhouse gas emissions (life cycle assesment, LCA), the GHG balance can be negative. There are LCA studies showing that CO2 emission is lower than CO2 squestration by photosynthesis during crop growth, other studies show the opposite (see table in next slide). o LCA has shown that it would take between 75 and 93 years for the CO2 emissions saved through replacing fossil fuel with biofuel to compensate for the loss in CO2 sequestration through deforestation. If the original habitat was peatland, it would take more than 600 years. (read more). o A metaanalysis LCA study showed that, with the exception of a few studies, oil-palm biodiesel is a net emitter of GHG. Today, oil-palm plantations cover over 130,000 km2, primarily in Southeast Asia, where they have directly or indirectly replaced tropical rainforest.
  24. 24. o The table below shows greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from biofuels in megagrams (kilotonnes) per hectare per year, showing the inconsistency between studies: o Negative values indicate a net uptake of GHG by the crops (i.e. removal from the atmosphere) and positive values indicating a net emission of GHG (i.e. added to atmospheric concentrations) o In a number of countries (e.g. European Union) planting of biomass crops is mandated by law, which resulted in large quantities of biomass being transported from Africa, Asia, Canada, USA, Brazil and other regions).[37] The GHG emitted by these continuous transportations is substantial and is counterproductive in terms of GHG mitigation strategies. o In addition to GHG biomass as a fuel produces air pollution: CO, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and particulates (in some cases at levels above those from traditional coal). Read more
  25. 25. • When alcohols are oxidized, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and other aldehydes are produced. When only a 10% mixture of ethanol is added to gasoline (as is common in American E10 gasohol and elsewhere), aldehyde emissions increase 40%. • The energy balance (EROEI) (the amount of energy put into the manufacturing of the fuel compared to the amount of energy released when it is burned in a vehicle)[29] of biofuel is low (1-2 in most studies) and in some studies negative (<1) when the industrial processes needed to grow the plants (fertilizers and irrigation), extract, refine and transport the fuel from the plants is taken into account.
  26. 26.  In developing countries biomass fuel is used inefficiently for heating and cooking, causing smoke indoors and possibly fatal intoxication, particularly in children.  Friends of the Earth state that "the current rush to develop biofuels on a large scale is ill- conceived and will contribute to an already unsustainable trade whilst not solving the problems of climate change or energy security".[65]
  27. 27. • Renewable energy facilities are rapidly growing worldwide with a 60% increase between 2009 and 2011. Investments rose from 39 billion dollars equivants in 2004 to 257 billion in 2011. Growth is highest in wind and solar sector. More than 200 million households use solar hot water collectors today, 80 % of which are in China. In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that solar energy technologies could provide a third of the world’s energy by 2060 if politicians commit to limiting climate change. • At least 118 countries, more than half of which are developing countries, had renewable energy targets in place by early 2012. • Thousands of cities and local governments around the world also have active policies, or targets for renewable energy and climate change mitigation. • Almost two-thirds of the world’s largest cities had adopted climate change action plans by the end of 2011, with more than half of them planning to increase their uptake of renewable energy. There is increasing co-operation among cities, including the EU Covenant of Mayors (with over 3,000 member cities) and some 100 demonstration cities in China. Read more… • Next slides show various diagrams of the fast growth of the renewable energy facitities
  28. 28. Source WIND POWER Source
  29. 29. Source The figure to the right shows the evolution of the different power plant markets worldwide between 1970 and 2010 either with China included (top) or without China (bottom) . For each year the capacity added in that year is depicted. It is clear that there is a steady increase in the added capacity of renewable energy plants during the last 10 years. The rise in coal plants added is mainly due to the expansion of coal plants in China. Excluding the data from China, the added capacity of renewables in 2010 was higher than the added capacity of traditional power plants, whereas coal is phasing out.
  30. 30. The figure below shows a similar evolution of the different power plant markets in the European Union (EU27) between 1970 and 2010. There is a steady increase in the added capacity of renewable energy plants during the last 10 years, and, in addition, coal plant additions are much lower than is seen mundially. Gas remains the largest power plant market, but gas is emitting 50% less CO2 than coal and oil. The EU is therefore an example for the World. Source
  31. 31. As shown in the figure to the right, there are large differences in renewable energy development among the different countries in the European Union. Sweden uses nenewable energy for > 45% of its energy consumption, while Belgium only 6 %. The best score in Europe goes to Norway, where 60 % of energy consumption is shared by renewables (see Eurostat). Source
  32. 32. • Different scenarios (from IEA and Greenpeace) of further growth of renewable energy have been advanced up to 2030. Solar and wind energy are the most promising. Wind energy is predicted to grow from 238 GW to 1300-2900 GW, solar photovoltaics from 70 GW to 700-1700 GW and concentrating solar power from 2 to 140-700 GW. • An independent study estimated that in 2030 the world can be fully powered by electricity and electrolytic hydrogen using only a mix of the following facilities:  3,800,000 5 MW wind turbines,  49,000 300 MW concentrated solar plants,  40,000 300 MW solar photovoltaic power plants,  1.7 billion 3 kW rooftop photovoltaic systems,  5350 100 MW geothermal powerplants,  270 new 1300 MW hydroelectric power plants,  720,000 0.75 MW ocean wave devices,  490,000 1 MW tidal turbines These facilities would have a total capacity of 53 TW and would require only 0.41% and 0.59% more of the world’s land for footprint and spacing, respectively. Energy costs with this system mix are expected to be similar to today's fossil and nuclear energy costs • A 2009 paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that a global network of windmills operating at 20% of capacity could produce 83 TW — about five times the current energy consumption worldwide (~17 TW). The latter estimate is much higher than a previous evaluation of global wind power (Archer and Jacobson 2005), which estimated a similar network’s output at 14 TW.
  33. 33. Source Wind and solar energy devices for electricity generation can be deployed in a decentralized way, favoring energy safety. This is an important advantage over fossil energy-based power stations that not infrequently suffer of blackouts. See list of power failures in reference1 and 2.
  34. 34. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Percent Sector share of energy consumption by energy type Coal Oil Gas Nuclear Renewable In the industrial, residential and commercial sector fossil energy supply can be replaced by a mix of renewable energy sources by 2030 (see previous slides). Coal in power plants for electricity generation, can be replaced by renewable energy and backed up by nuclear energy generated by fast breeder reactors A major challenge for the near future will be replacement of oil used in transportation. As of 2011 there were more than one billion cars in use in the world,[2][3]and these are on the average only in use for 1 hour/24 with 1.6 people/car. Only around 70 million use alternative fuel and advanced technology (< 7%). A switch to alternatives will take time but is actually in progress (read more). Leading countries are Brazil and USA
  35. 35. Alternatives to petroleum-based vehicles are: – Vehicles that use natural gas (temporarily), bioethanol, flexible-fuel, biodiesel or hydrogen. – Electric vehicles: battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. For large distance and heavy truck traffic or if speed is mandatory, present electric vehicles are not suited. A switch from road to rail (electric) seems imperative, and is currently developed in Europe. Synthetic fuel and biofuels are also alternatives of kerosene as jet fuel, several companies already flying with this fuel. Biofuels can replace fossil liquid fuels only for 10-15% due to lack of adequate land and sustainability constraints. The most difficult change that will be necessary is our change in behavior. The era of easy point- to-point transportation, with easily obtainable oil, at high speed, as single driver, at whatever time, and as often as we like, has ended. We, in developed countries, should realize that people in developing countries have the same right to drive cars as we. China built > 14 million new cars in 2011, India 3 million (as many as the U.S.) [Ref]
  36. 36. View more slide shows on renewable energy •

    Be the first to comment

    Login to see the comments

  • gowtham0319

    Feb. 1, 2015
  • dictiondevi

    Mar. 24, 2018
  • HinaJaved22

    May. 23, 2021
  • NayifDalgamouni

    Jun. 6, 2021

Renewable enrgy production and prospects.

Views

Total views

1,156

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

2

Actions

Downloads

83

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

4

×