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job observatory
in the
f&b industry

Kitchen chef & Restaurant Manager
In France & Spain
supported by
This booklet presents the third prospective research conducted by the Food & Beverage Research Chair
of École Hôtelière de...
Contents
Introduction.................................................................................................1
Co...
Introduction
The Food & Beverage Industry Research Chair was founded in 2010 by EHL and is supported by Danone Professiona...
Context
Macro-environment
Macro-environment in france
The economic situation in France has paradoxical aspects for food op...
Macro-environment in Spain
Spain has been hit hard by the economic crisis of 2008. The consequences of this crisis are a d...
In order to carry out their various tasks, kitchen chefs must have an array of competencies. Most of them pertain to culin...
Results
Description of the samples
Kitchen chefs’ answers

Restaurant managers’ answers

Bar/pub

1%

Bar/pub

Tea room

1...
Kitchen chefs’ answers

Restaurant managers’ answers
Chain

Chain

6%

9%

TYPE OF
STRUCTURE
SPAIN

TYPE OF
STRUCTURE
FRAN...
Prospective results (2025)
The graphs below show the percentage of positive responses for each variable. A positive respon...
60%
40%
20%
0%

France

Spain

Increase in expectations
for CSR, traceability and
seasonality

France

Increase in snackin...
20%
0%

France

Spain

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%

nits

France

Spain

Implementation of a quality
management process

Spain...
20%
0%

France

Spain

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%

France

........................................................

Decide o...
Kitchen chef activities & skills for technology

40%
20%
0%

France

Spain

Use of robots for basic tasks

France

Use of ...
Kitchen chef activities & skills for stock management and relationships with suppliers

40%
20%
0%

France

Spain

Search ...
The restaurant manager in 2025

20%
0%

France

Spain

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%

France

.....................................
0%

France

Spain

Facial/vocal recognition

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%

France

Spain

Technology for external
communication...
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%

France

Spain

Establish long-term
objectives

France

..................................................
Consequences
on restaurants
A cluster analysis of our results revealed that, according to our respondents’ perception of o...
DISTRIBUTION BY TYPE OF OUTLET

Cluster 2

Cluster 2

44%

37%

FINE
DINING

TRADITIONAL

Cluster 1

56%

Cluster 1

63%
C...
Distribution
These two clusters are distributed
in our sample in the following way :

OVERALL DISTRIBUTION AMONG KITCHEN C...
Most probable scenarios
for restaurants in 2025
Correlations allowed us to define which scenarios are, according to our res...
The strategist
>> Has long-term plans for the restaurant and tries to implement longterm tools to improve operations and t...
Kitchen chefs’ &
restaurant managers’
activities and skills in 2025
Our qualitative and quantitative studies have produced...
Kitchen chefs’ activities and skills
The activities and skills included in the combination of the “leader” and “coach” sce...
Conclusion
There have been big changes in economic, social and F&B structures in the French and Spanish foodservice market...
Recommendations
On the basis of our research, we recommend that kitchen chefs :
>> Get at least basic training in business...
Research team

Food & Beverage Industry Chair - École hôtelière de Lausanne

Clémence Cornuz

dr. christine Demen Meier

N...
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F&B Chair Booklet Kitchen chef and manager

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future skills and activities in 2025 in Spain and France

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F&B Chair Booklet Kitchen chef and manager

  1. 1. job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & Restaurant Manager In France & Spain supported by
  2. 2. This booklet presents the third prospective research conducted by the Food & Beverage Research Chair of École Hôtelière de Lausanne (EHL, Switzerland). The first two prospective studies conducted by the F&B Chair focused on the purchasing function in 2025 in six European countries and in Shanghai. The study summarised here focuses on two other restaurant jobs : the restaurant manager and the kitchen chef in 2025. The countries studied are France and Spain. As a basis for this research, we did a literature review on the two jobs in question and of the macro-environment and foodservice market in each country. We also interviewed experts, who highlighted the main challenges restaurant managers and kitchen chefs will face in 2025. For the qualitative study, we created prospective scenarios for the jobs of kitchen chef and restaurant manager. We identified the most probable scenarios by cross-analysing a variety of variables and requesting feedback from experts. These scenarios were then integrated in the quantitative study, a survey we distributed to French and Spanish F&B professionals. The answers given by our survey respondents allowed us to test these scenarios and identify two types of kitchen chefs and two types of restaurant managers : >> The kitchen chef of 2025 is likely to be a leader and a coach, especially in independent and traditional restaurants. For chained and high-end restaurants, the most probable scenario portrays the kitchen chef as a role model and mentor for the kitchen staff. >> The restaurant manager of 2025 is expected to be either a coach or a strategist. These scenarios highlight the need for managers to have training skills and the ability to run outlets according to long-term objectives. They are relevant to both independent and chained restaurants. The main differences between France and Spain that emerged from this study are : >> The economic situation in Spain explains the higher probability of market concentration. >> French and Spanish restaurateurs do not use technologies in the same way. The attitude towards technologies also differs between location (rural/urban) and the nature of the outlet (chained/independent). Location in the north or the south of the country also has an impact on the management of restaurant operations, albeit more so in Spain than in France, where management is more homogeneous.
  3. 3. Contents Introduction.................................................................................................1 Context....................................................................................................... 2 Results....................................................................................................... 5 Consequences on restaurants...................................................................16 Most probable scenarios for restaurants in 2025.....................................19 Kitchen chefs’ & restaurant managers’ activities and skills in 2025........21 Conclusion.......................................................................................................23 Recommendations.................................................................................... 24 Acknowledgements.................................................................................. 24
  4. 4. Introduction The Food & Beverage Industry Research Chair was founded in 2010 by EHL and is supported by Danone Professional, Nestlé Professional and Unilever Food Solutions. Its objectives are : >> To contribute to the development of innovative trends for operators, suppliers, distribution channels, sellers and marketers. >> To enhance students’ and professors’ understanding of the industry. It has two work axes : >> Observation post for current and prospective jobs in food & beverage outlets. >> Business intelligence (monitoring of strong and weak signals of F&B professionals’ interest in sustainable development). The Chair’s observation post for current and prospective jobs in the catering industry aims to : >> Develop a better understanding of F&B jobs : operators, suppliers, distribution channels, sellers, marketers, etc. >> Provide a framework for job identification and employment trends that includes different methodologies and agree on a common working language. >> Analyse the impact of technological and organisational advances on the skills required for F&B jobs. This booklet summarises the third study conducted by the Chair : the kitchen chef and restaurant manager in France and Spain in 2025. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 1
  5. 5. Context Macro-environment Macro-environment in france The economic situation in France has paradoxical aspects for food operators. The country is clearly identified as rich, and the structure of its foodservice market reveals dynamism. However, France faces major difficulties in terms of public spending (the deficit amounts to 4% of the GDP), unemployment (10.9%) and GDP growth (0.2%). Demography remains a positive factor : the fertility rate is sufficient to replace generations and life expectancy is growing. Moreover, immigration brings more than 200,000 new habitants each year. In spite of these facts, as in all other countries in Europe, the French population is getting older. This will bring forth changes in terms of consumption, as older people require healthier products. Tax policies are positive for the F&B sector : since 2012, the intermediate VAT rate for restaurants is 7%. Legislation-wise, on the other hand, catering outlets are pressured to make their products safe and more sustainable. In terms of consumer behaviour, the following elements are note-worthy : >> Food and non-alcoholic beverages represented 15.9% of French households’ spending in 2011. This figure declined from 1950 to 2007 and has been stable or even in progress since then. >> Positive factors for the foodservice market include the increasing activity rate of women and of people over 50, as well as the increasing transportation time from home to work. >> Consumers are attracted to functional meals and reduce the time they dedicate to meals. >> Price is the main issue for consumers, so they select healthy or sustainable products only as long as it does not have a negative impact on their budget. >> Menus in traditional restaurants can be considered expensive, but the emotional relation with traditional outlets remains strong. >> Consumers are interested in the origins of products. >> Foreign or exotic restaurant concepts are a dynamic segment. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 2
  6. 6. Macro-environment in Spain Spain has been hit hard by the economic crisis of 2008. The consequences of this crisis are a decline in gross domestic product, an explosion of the real estate bubble, a high unemployment rate (27.6%), and a large fiscal debt. The average disposable income has been decreasing : since 2009, it has been lower than the average disposable income of 2005. The main reasons for this drop are the measures of austerity imposed by the government and the rise of the unemployment rate. In terms of demography, Spain has to face an ageing population and an important immigration rate. These factors have a significant impact on the economy. In terms of agriculture, Spain is the fifth food producer and second organic food producer in Europe, which represents an opportunity for the upcoming years. However, global warming is affecting its traditional agricultural practices. The foodservice market The foodservice market in france The French foodservice market accounts for 40 billion and represents 20% of the European foodservice market. It remains highly fragmented, with 62% of the revenue accounted for by independent restaurants. However, the share of restaurant chains is rapidly increasing. The number of transactions and their global value are growing very slowly or decreasing. As a whole, the French foodservice market is progressing, even though some segments – cafes/bars and full-service restaurants (FSRs) – are decreasing both in number and in value. Most notably, the number of units for take-away outlets and chains keeps growing. The French market is not mature compared to the UK and German markets. There are more than 400 brands in France, but their networks are small or ill-organised. The average network consists of 20 units, compared to 60 in the UK and 50 in Germany. The foodservice market in Spain 20% of Spaniards used to eat at a restaurant every day. Since the economic downturn, they eat out less, but still go out after work (e.g. in bars). Restaurant units and sales dropped in 2009 even though F&B operators made very competitive offers. Nowadays, cafés and bars are too numerous compared to the demand. Independents outlets suffer the most. McDonald’s, Tele Pizza and Burger King are the three main actors in the Spanish foodservice market. Foreign actors from Europe are developping their brands. Fast food and home delivery are the only types of restaurant whose sales have increased because of low-priced menus. Analysts predict that there will be no economic recovery for Spain before 2020, and this will affect consumer expenditures. Furthermore, the number of foodservice units, transactions and sales for certain types of foodservice outlets (FSR, for instance) will continue to decrease, whereas fast food and take-away outlets will continue to attract more customers. Description of the functions : activities & skills The kitchen chef The kitchen chef’s activities can be divided into five categories : >> Production : cooking ; managing and coordinating the activities of the kitchen staff ; checking the quality of the dishes ; selecting the equipment and designing the kitchen… >> Human resources : hiring and dismissing kitchen employees ; managing and training the kitchen staff ; communicating his ideas… >> Purchases : analysing the supplier market ; selecting suppliers and managing the relationships ; placing orders ; monitoring deliveries and stocks ; organising storage ; analysing costs… >> Sanitation : establishing, monitoring and checking the respects of norms ; keeping up-to-date with legal aspects of hygiene and food safety… >> Menu planning and innovation : creating dishes while taking into account the evolution of tastes, food consumption habits and culinary technologies ; learning new techniques ; balancing creativity and cost constraints… Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 3
  7. 7. In order to carry out their various tasks, kitchen chefs must have an array of competencies. Most of them pertain to culinary skills and to leadership and corporate culture. Competencies that should evolve in the future are administrative skills (e.g. creation of new methods and processes), the capacity to generate a vision and strategy, the ability to have a helicopter view, market competencies (anticipation of the customers’ needs), and the ability to manage suppliers. The restaurant manager The restaurant manager’s activities can be divided into seven groups : >> Menu planning : menu creation ; designing the wine list ; seasonal adaptation ; menu pricing… >> Finance : cost control ; accounting ; improving buying strength (for example by regularly analysing the suppliers’ market) ; investments ; generating additional revenue… >> Sanitation : ensuring the respect of norms and legislation ; guaranteeing food safety (transportation, storage, preparation…) and hygiene ; providing training to the staff… >> HR management : hiring and dismissing employees ; coordinating, supervising and motivating the staff ; assessing the staff’s performance ; giving objectives ; communicating effectively ; scheduling ; reducing labour costs ; providing employee training ; ensuring job satisfaction… >> Production and service : offering online reservation ; making better use of the table mix ; guaranteeing food and service quality ; managing purchases, stocks and suppliers… >> Business dynamics : adapting to societal and technological changes ; developing a commercial and marketing policy ; capturing customer feedback ; setting indicators and using the results… >> General management : taking risks ; being critical towards the business ; anticipating malfunctions… In addition to these activities, several transversal competencies emerged from the literature review. These competencies especially concern human resources (in terms of efficiency and reliability, but also of creating an agreeable work atmosphere and empowering employees), adaptation to the context and customers, decision-making, and general management. Competencies that should evolve in the future are those related to the use of technologies for communication and marketing (new media, social media), the use of technologies for production, the awareness of the outside world, the understanding of market trends, the management of changes and growth, and strategy management. Creation of prospective scenarios The goal of our qualitative research was to create prospective scenarios for the jobs of restaurant manager and kitchen chef. To construct these scenarios, we first defined, on the basis of our literature review and of comments made by experts, the main skills and activities of restaurant managers and kitchen chefs. We also identified important elements of the macro-environment and the foodservice market. For each of these variables, we identified different degrees of intensity or proficiency. Then, to identify the most probable scenarios, we did a cross-analysis of the different levels of proficiency or intensity of the variables. We contacted experts again to validate and refine this analysis. Thus, four series of three scenarios emerged : one series for the macro-environment, one for the foodservice market, one for the restaurant manager, and one for the kitchen chef. Data collection To know which changes restaurant managers and kitchen chefs anticipate for 2025, we distributed the questionnaire in France and Spain via an internet link, by email, by fax and by phone. We thus gathered a total of 325 questionnaires. Analysis of the results The variables were analysed using several methods. The most relevant are the following : >> Analysis of the frequencies (used for the descriptive analysis), which helped bring out the mean, median, standard deviations, variances and proportions of responses for each variable. >> Sample tests (the Khi-2 test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Wilcoxon test). >> One-way ANOVA. >> Cluster analysis, a method which helps identify groups of individuals that are similar to each other but different from individuals in other groups. >> Correlations (using the method of Pearson), which allowed us to identify the strength of the links between the most important variables for each scenario. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 4
  8. 8. Results Description of the samples Kitchen chefs’ answers Restaurant managers’ answers Bar/pub 1% Bar/pub Tea room 1% Fast food 4% Fast food 3% Other 4% Fast casual 5% 2% Tea room 1% Other Fast casual 3% 2% Fine dining 30% TYPE OF RESTAURANT FRANCE TYPE OF RESTAURANT FRANCE Fine dining 34% Traditional 55% Traditional 55% Bar lounge Bar/pub Fast food 11% 2% Tea room 2% 3% Fast food Fast casual 17% Other 7% Fast casual 11% TYPE OF RESTAURANT SPAIN 7% Bar/pub 4% Tea room 2% Other 2% TYPE OF RESTAURANT SPAIN Fine dining 24% Fine dining 23% Traditional 45% Traditional 40% 40% and 55% of traditional restaurants The large shares of traditional and fine dining restaurants are representative of the population of restaurants in France and Spain. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 5
  9. 9. Kitchen chefs’ answers Restaurant managers’ answers Chain Chain 6% 9% TYPE OF STRUCTURE SPAIN TYPE OF STRUCTURE FRANCE Independent Independent 94% 91% Chain Chain 9% 21% INDEPENDENT VS. CHAIN SPAIN INDEPENDENT VS. CHAIN FRANCE Independent Independent 91% 79% Between 80% and 90% of independent restaurants This distribution is fairly similar to that of the Chair’s first study (the purchasing function in Europe) and corresponds to the structure of the market. Kitchen chefs’ answers Restaurant managers’ answers less than 50 covers 17% less than 50 covers 24% no answer COVER/DAY FRANCE 51 to 100 45% 4% COVER/DAY SPAIN no answer 12% 53% 101 to 200 26% More than 201 8% 51 to 100 101 to 200 11% 45% and 53% of the managers working in an outlet that serves 51 to 100 meals per day The second most common answer is “less than 50 covers”, which confirms that, in France and Spain, most restaurants are very small enterprises. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 6
  10. 10. Prospective results (2025) The graphs below show the percentage of positive responses for each variable. A positive response generally means that the respondent agrees with the assertion in question, though in some cases it corresponds to the selection of one option over the others. As a reminder, the questions concern what restaurant managers and kitchen chefs think they will do or need in 2025, as well as how they think the F&B market and the macro-environment will evolve. They therefore indicate their opinions on the future. The macro-environment in 2025 60% 40% 20% 0% France Spain Purchasing power will have significantly increased France Spain Job market will be more flexible France ........................................................ 80% ........................................................ 100% ........................................................ Restaurant manager Yes No Undefined Spain Unemployment rate will be lower than 10% In both samples, our respondents are globally unsure about how the macro-environment will evolve in terms of purchasing power and the unemployment rate. On the other hand, there is a difference between the two countries regarding the way the flexibility of the job market is anticipated : in Spain, most of the respondents have no opinion, while in France, most of them anticipate a greater flexibility. This is due to the fact that the job market is currently more flexible in Spain than in France. The foodservice market in 2025 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% France Spain Concentration of the market due to the pooling of independent restaurants France ........................................................ 100% ........................................................ Restaurant manager Yes No Undefined Spain Concentration of the market because of chains Both samples expect a concentration of the market due to restaurant chains. The results for the variable “concentration due to a pooling of independent restaurants” are less clear-cut ; overall, they are positive in Spain and neutral in France. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 7
  11. 11. 60% 40% 20% 0% France Spain Increase in expectations for CSR, traceability and seasonality France Increase in snacking and fast food Spain France ........................................................ 80% ........................................................ 100% ........................................................ Kitchen chef Yes No Undefined Spain Increase in the number of transactions and bills Most of the Spanish respondents are unsure about how customer expectations regarding CSR, traceability and seasonality will evolve ; because of the economic crisis, these issues are not a priority for them. On the other hand, an overwhelming majority of the French respondents expect them to grow. This is inked to the fact that homemade meals are highly valued and get a lot of exposure in France. Snacking and fast food are already increasing due to customers’ lack of time and money ; this trend is expected to continue in both countries, although more markedly in France than in Spain. Both samples are undecided regarding the possibility of the number of transactions and bills increasing. This is not a surprising result : people have trouble anticipating the future in times of uncertainty or crisis, especially regarding the evolution of the economic situation and of the foodservice market. The kitchen chef in 2025 Kitchen chef activities & skills for menu planing 40% 20% 0% France Use mostly fresh & seasonal products Spain France Spain Able to optimise profitability France Highlight innovation & creativity Spain France ........................................................ 60% ........................................................ 80% ........................................................ 100% ........................................................ Yes No Undefined Spain Determine food costs with manager All our assertions pertaining to menu planning are accepted, even though the constraints related to the use of fresh products and to favouring creativity in menu creation are not always compatible with the objectives of cost control and profitability. This suggests that kitchen chefs understand the various demands and expectations they need to meet ; some of them might nonetheless have difficulties balancing them. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 8
  12. 12. 20% 0% France Spain 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% nits France Spain Implementation of a quality management process Spain Develop staff's competencies France Spain Deleguate tasks and check staff's work France Yes 100% No 80% Undefined 60% 40% 20% 0% Spain France In charge of several units France Implementati management Spain Communication through processes In both countries, improving skills and practices – their own and the staff’s – appears to be essential for kitchen chefs. While the French respondents disagree with the assertion “the kitchen chef will be in charge of several outlets”, they are still more positive than the Spanish, who think that the economic context will not allow restaurants to open new outlets. The two samples have very different overall answers for the variables “delegating tasks and checking the staff’s work” (ambivalence in Spain, agreement in France) and “communicating through processes” (agreement in Spain, ambivalent rejection in France). These differences can be explained by the increasingly less qualified workforce in Spain : the high unemployment rate means that people working in the foodservice industry come from other sectors, and must therefore be supervised. Kitchen chef activities & skills for hygiene & food safety 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% France ........................................................ Spain ........................................................ Constantly improve his skills France ........................................................ 40% ........................................................ 60% ........................................................ 80% ........................................................ 100% ........................................................ Kitchen chef activities & skills for production Yes No Undefined Spain Expert on hygiene and food safety The assertion that the kitchen chef of 2025 will be an expert on hygiene and food safety is accepted in both countries, but much more markedly in Spain. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 9
  13. 13. 20% 0% France Spain 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% France ........................................................ Decide on objectives, salaries, etc. with manager No responsibilities given to staff Spain France 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Spain France Motivate staff through oral communication France Yes No Undefined ........................................................ 40% 100% Spain No responsibilities given to staff Spain In charge of recruitment for kitchen staff France ........................................................ 60% ........................................................ 80% ........................................................ 100% ........................................................ Kitchen chef activities & skills for human resources In charg for kitch Spain Cooking certificate mandatory Most variables related to human resources elicited a positive response from both samples. It is interesting to see that the respondents think many activities will be done in collaboration with the restaurant manager and that they deem communication to be very important. The prospect of a cooking certificate being mandatory convinces more than half of our respondents, and could indeed well be a requirement in the future. However, in both countries, most of the respondents disagree with the statement that no responsibilities will be given to the staff. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager Fr 10
  14. 14. Kitchen chef activities & skills for technology 40% 20% 0% France Spain Use of robots for basic tasks France Use of 3D printers Spain France Use of software for food costs Spain France ........................................................ 60% ........................................................ 80% ........................................................ 100% ........................................................ Yes No Undefined Spain Use of intelligent, touchscreen devices Apart for the use of intelligent, touchscreen devices (accepted by both samples), the variables related to technology garnered different responses in each country. In Spain, kitchen chefs are divided on the use of 3D printers. This possibility is clearly rejected by the French. The use of software to manage food costs is approved by two thirds the French sample ; in Spain, on the other hand, neutrality and rejection are both prominent answers. Most of the Spanish respondents agree that robots will be used for basic tasks, whereas most of the French reject this idea. This striking divergence might be due to a different understanding of the term “robot” : we referred to humanoid robots and robot arms, which is most likely how the French respondents interpreted the word, but the Spanish might have thought the question pertained to food processors and other kitchen appliances. Moreover, in France, using robots is probably perceived as putting the country’s gastronomic tradition in jeopardy. It is indeed considered to be the kitchen chefs’ mission to protect and perpetuate their know-how, especially now that French cuisine has been declared a “world intangible heritage” by UNESCO. It should be noted that our survey evokes technologies that our respondents can easily imagine, but is not meant to be exhaustive ; our primary aim was to evaluate their interest in technology in general. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 11
  15. 15. Kitchen chef activities & skills for stock management and relationships with suppliers 40% 20% 0% France Spain Search for suppliers & negotiate France Deleguate orders Spain France Spain Use of software & tablets to contact suppliers France ........................................................ 60% ........................................................ 80% ........................................................ 100% ........................................................ Yes No Undefined Spain Software to manage stock Kitchen chefs from both countries think that searching for suppliers and negotiating with them will still be part of the kitchen chef’s tasks. This does not correspond to the result we obtained in our study on the purchasing function, but this is because the situation is different : in our first study, our respondents were asked to examine the possibility of attributing all purchasesrelated tasks to a specialised person, which was not the case here. The possibility of delegating orders appears very plausible to the Spanish kitchen chefs (but they would remain responsible for the process), while the French are divided on this matter. Our Spanish sample predominantly disagrees with the idea of using software and tablets to contact suppliers, but thinks software will be used for stock management. Stock management is indeed crucial for them : it is necessary to manage costs and profitability. Conversely, the French chefs agree that technology will be used for both tasks. 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% France ........................................................ Kitchen chef activities & skills for other matters Yes No Undefined Spain Follow trends The idea that it will be important for the kitchen chef of 2025 to devote time to his network and follow trends is accepted in both countries. This will allow him to keep up with the competitors and to meet customers’ expectations, thus increasing the revenue. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 12
  16. 16. The restaurant manager in 2025 20% 0% France Spain 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% France ........................................................ Internal communication Spain Recruitment only for key positions France 60% 40% 20% 0% Spain France Internal training & specialisation for staff France Spain Polyvalence of staff ........................................................ 40% 80% Spain Recruitment only for key positions France ........................................................ 60% ........................................................ 80% Yes No Undefined 100% ........................................................ 100% ........................................................ Restaurant manager activities & skills for human resources & internal communication Polyvalen Spain Written processes The answers to questions on human resources and internal communication are more markedly positive (or, in the case of the variable “recruitment only for key positions”, less negative) in France than in Spain. Interestingly, contrary to kitchen chefs, French restaurant managers think that they will use processes in the future. Restaurant manager activities & skills for collaboration with the kitchen chef 40% 20% 0% France Stock management Spain France Spain Selection and management of suppliers France Menu planning Spain Undefined No France ........................................................ 60% ........................................................ 80% ........................................................ 100% ........................................................ Yes Spain Food costs Our questions related to the collaboration with the kitchen chef at all levels of the purchasing process received largely positive responses, although slightly more so in France than in Spain. When examining these results, it is worth remembering that, as mentioned above, this study did not suggest the possibility of having a purchasing specialist. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager Franc 13
  17. 17. 0% France Spain Facial/vocal recognition 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% France Spain Technology for external communication France Spain Automatised service France France ........................................................ 20% Yes 100% No 80% Undefined 60% 40% 20% 0% Spain Automatised orders Spain Technology for internal communication France ........................................................ 40% ........................................................ 60% ........................................................ 80% ........................................................ 100% ........................................................ Spain Restaurant manager activities & skills for technologies France Technology for communicatio Spain Use of intelligent, touchscreen devices For the most part, Spanish managers are unsure about the prospect of using facial and vocal recognition in restaurants. As for the French, they are clearly unconvinced by this suggestion. Because this is an advanced type of technology that will take longer to be widely available, this question primarily indicates to what extent the respondents are willing to integrate technology in their outlets. The Spanish respondents’ reaction to automatised service is divided between agreement and disagreement, while this possibility is rejected in France. Indeed, restaurant managers do not see what technology could bring to waiting activities ; they think that direct contact with the customers will remain necessary to create a warm atmosphere. As for the assertion that customer orders will be automatised, it is accepted in Spain, but leaves the French divided. Both samples agree that technology will be used for external communication. However, only in Spain is its use for internal communication anticipated : the French are ambivalent in this regard. Finally, the use of intelligent, touchscreen devices is clearly expected in both countries – which is unsurprising, as they are already commonly used. The remark made in the description of the results for the kitchen chef sample applies here as well : our survey evokes technologies that our respondents can easily imagine, but is not meant to be exhaustive ; our primary aim was to evaluate their interest in technology in general. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 14
  18. 18. 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% France Spain Establish long-term objectives France ........................................................ 100% ........................................................ Restaurant manager activities & skills for finances Yes No Undefined Spain Key figures monitored with software Both samples consider that the restaurant manager will establish business plans and long-term objectives. It is probably because of the currently chaotic context in Spain that the Spanish restaurant managers anticipate this type of management less strongly than the French. The reaction to the assertion “the manager will use IT tools to monitor key figures” is largely positive in both countries as well. 20% 0% France Spain 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% France ........................................................ Menu adapted to trends Spain Economies of scale through multiple outlets France 60% 40% 20% 0% Spain France Economies of scale through partnerships France Proactive for hygiene Yes No Undefined Spain ........................................................ 40% 80% Spain Economies of scale through multiple outlets France ........................................................ 60% 100% ........................................................ 80% ........................................................ 100% ........................................................ Restaurant manager activities & skills for other matters Proactive Spain Highlight sustainable development practices Both samples think that restaurant managers will be proactive in terms of hygiene and will highlight sustainable development practices. Interestingly, however, French managers give more importance to hygiene, while the Spanish managers think they will be more inclined to focus on sustainable practices. For all the other variables in this section, the overall responses differ between the two countries. This shows that it is difficult for restaurant managers to imagine solutions that go beyond the structure of their outlet. It can also be noted that the French managers do not anticipate making economies of scale ; tradition might limit business efficiency in France. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager Fran 15
  19. 19. Consequences on restaurants A cluster analysis of our results revealed that, according to our respondents’ perception of our the future, there will be two kinds of restaurant managers and two kinds of kitchen chefs in 2025. Restaurant managers in France & Spain Differences Cluster 1 Cluster 2 >> written processes >> no written procedures >> in charge of recruiting >> partially delegate recruitment >> collaboration with the staff, will favour collective decisions >> bossy Collaboration with kitchen chef >> intense collaboration to choose and manage suppliers and stocks >> will somewhat help the kitchen chef choose and manage suppliers and stocks Finance >> business plans (investments, debts) and long-term objectives >> no business plans (investments, debts), short-term objectives Technologies >> will not integrate facial recognition in the restaurant >> unsure about the future of facial recognition in restaurants Hygiene and food safety >> proactive to improve hygiene and food safety >> not proactive, but will follow the trends HR and internal communication Distribution These two clusters are distributed in our sample in the following way : Cluster 2 47% Cluster 1 53% OVERALL DISTRIBUTION AMONG RESTAURANT MANAGERS Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 16
  20. 20. DISTRIBUTION BY TYPE OF OUTLET Cluster 2 Cluster 2 44% 37% FINE DINING TRADITIONAL Cluster 1 56% Cluster 1 63% Cluster 1 11% Cluster 1 20% FAST CASUAL BAR/PUB Cluster 2 80% Cluster 2 89% Cluster 2 50% Cluster 1 TEA ROOM OTHER Cluster 1 50% 43% Cluster 2 57% Kitchen chefs in France & Spain The SPSS clusters indicated three ways in which the kitchen chefs anticipate the future of their job. Only two are described in this booklet, though, as they are the most distinctive and representative. Differences Cluster 3 Technologies >> will not communicate through processes >> communication through processes >> delegates responsibilities Production Cluster 4 >> delegation only of basic tasks, plays an important role in operations >> will not use robots >> unsure about the use of robots for basic tasks >> no 3D printers >> IT literate, will use software to manage food costs >> unsure about the use of 3D printers >> not IT literate Stock management and relations with suppliers >> will use software and tablets to contact suppliers >> will possibly not use software and tablets to contact his suppliers. Hygiene and food safety >> not particularly concerned by hygiene and food safety issues >> expert in hygiene and food safety, will supervise internal and external practices Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 17
  21. 21. Distribution These two clusters are distributed in our sample in the following way : OVERALL DISTRIBUTION AMONG KITCHEN CHEFS Other 27% Cluster 3 41% Cluster 4 32% DISTRIBUTION BY TYPE OF OUTLET Other 40% 24% Cluster 3 Other 36% FINE DINING TRADITIONAL Cluster 3 FAST FOOD Cluster 3 49% Cluster 4 27% Cluster 4 24% Cluster 3 18% FAST CASUAL Cluster 4 52% 48% Cluster 4 82% Cluster 4 50% BAR/PUB Cluster 3 50% Cluster 4 50% TEA ROOM Cluster 3 50% Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 18
  22. 22. Most probable scenarios for restaurants in 2025 Correlations allowed us to define which scenarios are, according to our respondents’ answers, most likely to occur. In other words, this analysis enabled us to identify the scenarios that correspond the most to their perception of the future of their jobs. Restaurant manager Out of the three restaurant manager scenarios, two are confirmed : the restaurant manager as a coach and as a strategist. The coach >> Manages the recruitment for key positions and the integration of key competencies. >> Empowers employees by making them understand the objectives of the business and involving them in the overall functioning of the restaurant. >> Is moderately involved in menu creation; tries to consider customer requests and advice; values creativity, but gives priority to financial constraints. >> Has relevant initial training in hygiene and safety, is proactive to improve his knowledge. >> Uses IT tools to manage and monitor financial data (in collaboration with the kitchen chef for food costs); only moderately uses them to monitor reservations and deliveries, to inform clients of new products and offers, etc. >> Has an entrepreneurial attitude : meets potential suppliers, communicates using diverse media, and watches the competitors. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 19
  23. 23. The strategist >> Has long-term plans for the restaurant and tries to implement longterm tools to improve operations and their profitability. >> In terms of menu creation, takes into consideration customer advice, recommendations and trends. >> Collaborates with the chef on a regular basis and in a formalised manner; both of them use shared software for food cost management. >> Meets hygiene and food security constraints perfectly, supervises standards both internally and externally (supplier and supply chain), and trains the staff in food safety. >> Constantly uses IT tools; the main figures regarding turnover, profitability, number of meals and sales of most profitable items are monitored and compared in databases. >> Very proactive in terms of analysis of the supplier market. >> Ensures the restaurant’s strong presence in every media. Kitchen chef All three kitchen chef scenarios are confirmed by the correlations, indicating that our analysis corresponds to the way kitchen chefs picture the evolution of their job. However, two of them – the leader and the coach in the kitchen – can be merged, forming a new scenario. The role model and mentor >> High level of delegation. >> Tries to make the staff integrate new skills and to specialise them. >> Communication is oral and written, several processes are formalised and standardised. >> Has complete creative freedom for menu creation, is able to design profitable dishes. >> In terms of purchasing, delegates the ordering but monitors the quality of products; optimises stock management. >> Manages production globally and encourages innovation in cooking. >> Tablets are present in the kitchen to ease communication with colleagues and suppliers and to monitor and take in consideration customers’ remarks. >> Expert in hygiene and food safety, supervises internal (kitchen) and external (suppliers, transportation…) practices; aims to transmit his expertise to his most important employees The leader and coach >> Tries to empower the staff, uses co-decision as a style of management. >> Trains employees to execute all basic cooking activities. >> IT tools are seldom used in the restaurant and in the kitchen. >> In terms of menu creation, gives priority to financial constraints; changes the menu every season or to respect the food costs. >> Manages the food purchases himself once he has taken note of the food costs and of the supplier listing provided by the manager; manages F&B stocks daily in a just-in-time manner. >> Fresh and local products are part of his purchases, but are not particularly highlighted in the menu. >> Monitors production with oral and written processes and quality management. >> Dedicates time to his network and is on the look-out for new trends and inspirations. Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 20
  24. 24. Kitchen chefs’ & restaurant managers’ activities and skills in 2025 Our qualitative and quantitative studies have produced new data on the skills and activities that will be required for restaurant managers and kitchen chefs in 2025. Restaurant managers’ activities & skills For the restaurant managers who correspond to the profile of the “coach” and “strategist” scenario, the activities and required skills will be : Coach >> Coordinate the staff >> Long-term plans for the restaurant >> Take care of recruitment for service staff and for key positions in kitchen staff >> Supervise operations, but not take part in them often >> Attribute specific tasks >> Foster flexibility and polyvalence >> Reward & empower employees >> Look for specialised staff >> Collaborate with the kitchen chef for menu planning >> Train employees >> Collaborate with the kitchen chef for food costs >> Implement some written processes >> Collective decisions are important >> Collaborate with the restaurant manager for menu planning >> Listen to customers’ suggestion >> Implement innovation and creativity >> Use technological tools for promotion and reservations >> Monitor trends >> Manage relationships with suppliers >> Proactive for hygiene and food safety >> Think about expanding restaurant concept Activities Strategist >> Technological tools such as touchscreens, intelligent devices and software part of almost all operations (finance, service, purchases, external communication) >> Analyse the market >> Implement a concept in two or more locations Skills >> Communication skills >> Ability to be proactive >> Organisation skills >> Ability to anticipate future trends >> Ability to collaborate with the kitchen chef and the staff >> Polyvalence and ability to multitask >> Basic financial skills >> Ability to recruit specific people >> Ability to listen to employees and customers >> Ability to teach >> Ability to use social media, the internet, and simple technological tools >> Ability to formalise activities >> Ability to negotiate >> Ability to collaborate with the chef and the staff >> Ability to follow and understand changes in the macro-environment >> Ability to implement hygiene and food safety practices >> Ability to teach hygiene and food safety practices >> Ability to use technological tools and understand their potential >> Ability to manage and follow activities in two outlets or more Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 21
  25. 25. Kitchen chefs’ activities and skills The activities and skills included in the combination of the “leader” and “coach” scenarios and in the scenario “a role model and mentor” are : Leader & coach >> Prioritise financial constraints in menu planning >> Supervise staff >> Change menu every season >> High level of delegation >> Mix fresh and local products and non-fresh ones >> Hire specialised employees >> Empower staff and train them in basic cooking methods >> Encourage employees to become specialised >> Communication is mainly oral >> Communication is both oral and written through processes >> Improve his cooking techniques >> Encourage creativity and innovation in dishes (fine dining) >> Participate in purchases and improve stock management >> Delegate ordering >> Little use of technological tools >> Analyse food costs >> Respect hygiene and food safety constraints Activities Role model & mentor >> Can manage several restaurants >> If famous, exploit his image >> Use software and technological tools to monitor key figures, stock, orders, kitchen operations >> Follow innovations >> Has high expertise in hygiene and food safety >> Check hygiene and food safety practices internally and externally Skills >> Ability to understand financial matters >> Ability to manage the staff >> Ability to create within constraints >> Ability to attribute activities according to the employees’ skills >> Ability to mix products smartly >> Ability to formalise activities >> Ability to empower and motivate the staff >> Ability to understand and regulate financial constraints >> Ability to communicate and lead >> Ability to manage and follow activities in two outlets >> Ability to understand is own shortcomings and make up for them >> Ability to use technological tools and to understand their potential >> Ability to negotiate with suppliers >> Ability to implement hygiene and food safety practices >> Ability to use basic technological tools >> Ability to teach hygiene and food safety practices Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 22
  26. 26. Conclusion There have been big changes in economic, social and F&B structures in the French and Spanish foodservice markets, and such changes will continue to occur. As a consequence, when studying the future of these markets, one must pay attention to emerging trends and to the feelings and expectations of operators. It was therefore useful to collect prospective opinions of French and Spanish experts and professionals : they are, and will remain, on the frontline each time the industry faces a new challenge. Differences between France and Spain emerged from our study. For example, the effects of the economic situation will differ between the French and Spanish foodservice markets : >> Impact of the macro-environment on F&B jobs and restaurant management : the high level of unemployment in Spain has a specific and structural effect on the job market. Contrary to France, it is easier to find staff in restaurant operations. Nevertheless, it can be as difficult to find qualified employees. >> Structure of the market : The economic situation in Spain explains the stronger anticipation of market concentration. Restaurant chains will benefit from the bankruptcy of numerous traditional outlets, while an increasing number of traditional restaurants will have to enter into partnerships or pool resources or activities in order to survive. Regarding technology and management, foodservice operators anticipate the future differently based not only on their country, but also on their location : >> Technology use : Spanish restaurants seem to be more oriented towards the use of new technologies for internal and daily operations. In France, on the other hand, technology is used to enhance supplier and client relationships. This aspect also differs according to area and kind of outlet. For instance, in both countries, technological awareness appears to be stronger in major cities and within chained restaurant. >> Management : In the north of Spain, restaurant operations tend to be managed in a more efficient way than in the south, where very traditional operations remain the norm. In France, on the other hand, restaurant operations seem to be more homogenous across the country. Notable elements of the prospective scenarios for kitchen chefs and restaurant managers include : >> Kitchen chefs : An improvement in menu planning is expected by French and Spanish kitchen chefs, in that both creativity and profitability are supposed to be enhanced. They also anticipate using more fresh and seasonal products. Kitchens chefs are aware of the potential of smart touchscreen devices, which will therefore be more frequently implemented and used in restaurant kitchens. Finally, the time spent by kitchen chefs maintaining and extending their network and following trends will continue to increase. >> Restaurant managers : An increased collaboration with the kitchen chef is anticipated for all aspects of restaurant management : stock management, selection of suppliers, menu planning and food costs. This collaboration will help highlight more sustainable practices within the outlets, as it will favour the selection of sustainable suppliers and the adoption of sustainable practices in food, water and energy consumption. Finally, IT tools will increasingly help restaurant managers monitor key data and plan how they run the outlet. Moreover, both kitchen chefs and restaurant managers anticipate a strong increase in the professionalization level required for their respective function. This is in line with our research on the F&B buyer, a job which restaurateurs also think will be more specialised and professional in 2025. On the basis of our research, we recommend that kitchen chefs: Job observatory in the f&b industry Kitchen chef & restaurant manager 23
  27. 27. Recommendations On the basis of our research, we recommend that kitchen chefs : >> Get at least basic training in business management or (preferably) restaurant management, in order to ease the collaboration with the manager. >> Get training in menu planning or implement processes to better balance profitability with the types of the products used (fresh/processed, organic/non-organic, etc.). >> Implement processes for the training and evolution of the kitchen staff, so as to increase their productivity and to reduce staff turnover. >> In Spain, increase the use of software to monitor and improve food cost management and to ease collaboration with suppliers. >> In France, increase their ability to delegate the ordering of F&B products. >> Keep track of innovations. Regarding restaurant managers, we recommend that they: >> Get training in IT tools for communication and restaurant management. >> Adopt a long-term perspective whenever possible. >> Improve their internal communication and their teaching skills. >> In France, increase the implementation of IT tools used internally and for daily management tasks. >> In Spain, increase the implementation of IT tools dedicated to customer relationship and supplier management. >> Keep track of innovations. For each of these challenges, an external aid and expertise can be provided by other F&B actors (suppliers, equipment providers…). Acknowledgements We would like to thank the following experts and professionals for helping us in the course of this study: >> Mr. Patrick OGHEARD, head of the DHR programme at EHL >> Mr Jean Gabriel Du Jaiflin, F&B management expert for the website and weekly paper L’Hôtellerie-Restauration >> Mr Jean-Luc Fessard, sustainability in foodservice expert for the website and weekly paper L’Hôtellerie-Restauration >> Mr Gecko Legini, professor of F&B management at Swiss Hotel Management School >> Mr Albert Subirós I Mercader, manager at Hotel Empordà >> Mr Timoteo Bravo, Director of Da Bruno Restaurant Group Additionally, two EHL students were very helpful during the collection of data: >> Aline Crouquet >> Ana Glidesantivanes
  28. 28. Research team Food & Beverage Industry Chair - École hôtelière de Lausanne Clémence Cornuz dr. christine Demen Meier Nicolas Siorak Stéphanie Bonsch Scientific collaborator +41 21 785 13 57 clemence.cornuz@ehl.ch Chair holder, PhD +41 21 785 14 92 christine.demen-meier@ehl.ch Researcher +41 21 785 13 07 nicolas.siorak@ehl.ch Scientific collaborator +41 21 785 13 57 stephanie.bonsch@ehl.ch

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