Mandarin chinese curriculum

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Mandarin chinese curriculum

  1. 1. SaskatchewanEducation Mandarin 10, 20, 30 A Curriculum Guide for International Languages September 2001
  2. 2. Mandarin 10, 20, 30 A Curriculum Guide For International Languages September 2001 Prepared by Social Sciences UnitCurriculum and Instruction Branch Saskatchewan Education
  3. 3. Table of ContentsIntroduction ............................................................................................................................. 1 Rationale for Learning an International Language................................................................ 3 The Rationale for Learning Mandarin Chinese ..................................................................... 3 About Mandarin Chinese ...................................................................................................... 4 Aim ....................................................................................................................................... 4 Goals .................................................................................................................................... 4 Core Curriculum ................................................................................................................... 4 Common Essential Learnings .......................................................................................... 5 Adaptive Dimension ......................................................................................................... 7 Supporting Initiatives within Core Curriculum................................................................... 7 The Mandarin Program......................................................................................................... 9 Foundational Objectives .................................................................................................. 9 Specific Learning Outcomes.......................................................................................... 11 Effective Language Learning......................................................................................... 26Instructional Approaches and Methods.............................................................................. 29 The Communicative-Experiential Approach........................................................................ 31 Instructional Methods ......................................................................................................... 33 Brainstorming ................................................................................................................. 34 Cooperative Learning ..................................................................................................... 34 Role Play or Drama ........................................................................................................ 34 Interactive Tasks ............................................................................................................ 34 Language Experience Approach .................................................................................... 34 Journal Writing ............................................................................................................... 35 Surveys .......................................................................................................................... 35 Language-rich Environment ........................................................................................... 35 Research Projects .......................................................................................................... 35 Computer-Assisted Learning.......................................................................................... 35 Grammatical Problem-Solving........................................................................................ 36 Graphic Organizers ........................................................................................................ 36 Concept Mapping or Webbing ........................................................................................ 36Assessment and Evaluation ................................................................................................ 39 Types of Evaluation ............................................................................................................ 41 Diagnostic Evaluation..................................................................................................... 41 Formative Evaluation...................................................................................................... 41 Summative Evaluation.................................................................................................... 41 Guiding Principles for Student Evaluation .......................................................................... 41 The Evaluation Process...................................................................................................... 42 Preparation Phase.......................................................................................................... 42 Assessment Phase......................................................................................................... 42 Evaluation Phase ........................................................................................................... 42 Reflection Phase ............................................................................................................ 42 The Final Grade ............................................................................................................. 42 i
  4. 4. Assessment and Evaluation Techniques............................................................................ 42 Observation Checklists and Rating Scales..................................................................... 43 Sample Assessment Techniques ................................................................................... 45 Program Evaluation........................................................................................................ 49 Teacher Self-Evaluation ................................................................................................. 49Course Overview................................................................................................................... 51 Scope and Sequence ......................................................................................................... 53 Planning.............................................................................................................................. 54 Task-based Syllabus ...................................................................................................... 54 Criteria for Judging the Difficulty of Tasks ...................................................................... 54 How to Design a Task .................................................................................................... 54 Global Task List.............................................................................................................. 55 Grammar Checklist......................................................................................................... 56 Steps for Unit Planning................................................................................................... 58 Unit Planning Template .................................................................................................. 59Units and Sample Units........................................................................................................ 61Mandarin 10........................................................................................................................... 63 Unit 10.1 – Make a Family Tree.......................................................................................... 66 Unit 10.2 – Do a Role-Play about Visiting the Doctor ......................................................... 72 Unit 10.3 – Make a Chinese Calendar................................................................................ 77 Unit 10.4 – Produce a Weather Forecast ........................................................................... 82 Unit 10.5 – Plan and Carry Out a Field Trip to a Local Chinese Restaurant....................... 91 Unit 10.6 – Research a Famous Athlete ............................................................................. 96 Unit 10.7 – Celebrate Lantern Festival and Make Lanterns.............................................. 101Mandarin 20......................................................................................................................... 107 Unit 20.1 – Create a Family Web Page ............................................................................ 110 Unit 20.2 – Write and Present a Biographical Profile of a Classmate ............................... 116 Unit 20.3 – Learn Chinese Calligraphy ............................................................................. 121 Unit 20.4 – Role Play a Variety of Travel Situations ......................................................... 127 Unit 20.5 – Design a Fire Escape Plan for a School......................................................... 133 Unit 20.6 – Create a Catalogue of Favourite Clothing ...................................................... 139 Unit 20.7 – Create Promotional Materials for Community Activity (Sample Unit).............. 144Mandarin 30......................................................................................................................... 153 Unit 30.1 – Role Play a Job Interview (A Sample Unit)..................................................... 156 Unit 30.2 – Write a Letter to the Editor on Global Warming .............................................. 167 Unit 30.3 – Make a Map of a Specific Region in China..................................................... 172 Unit 30.4 – Plan a Trip to China (Mainland China, Hong Kong or Taiwan)....................... 178 Unit 30.5 – Create an Illustrated Book.............................................................................. 183 Unit 30.6 – Make a Video of Family Relationships Involving a Problem-Solving Situation187 Unit 30.7 – A Debate on Pros and Cons of Shopping on the Internet............................... 192 Unit 30.8 – Chinese Poem Recitation............................................................................... 198References .......................................................................................................................... 203ii
  5. 5. AcknowledgementsSaskatchewan Education wishes to acknowledge the professional contribution of the followingindividuals to the development of the curricula and support materials for Mandarin 10, 20, 30.The following teachers of Mandarin: Mr. Douglas Pritchard, Buffalo Plains School Division Ms. Eleanor Shia, Heritage Chinese Language School of Saskatoon Ms. Enwu Liu, Chinese Language School of Saskatoon Ms. Hong Zhang, Chinese Language School of ReginaMr. Raphael Hwang, Technology and Property Management Division, Saskatchewan Social ServicesDr. Joan Boyer, Second Language Consultant, Saskatchewan EducationMs. Lily Xu, Second Language Assistant/Mandarin Curriculum Writer, Saskatchewan Education iii
  6. 6. IntroductionThis document is a curriculum guide designed for credit courses in Mandarin Chinese 10, 20 and 30.Offering Mandarin for credit helps build greater understanding of Saskatchewan’s diverse cultureswithin schools and communities. The courses are intended for Grade 10, 11 and 12 students of bothin-school and out-of-school Mandarin programs. This Mandarin program uses a resource-basedlearning approach and is accompanied by a bibliography of recommended textbooks and othermaterials.• Rationale for Learning an International Language• Rationale for Learning Mandarin Chinese• About Mandarin Chinese• Aim• Goals• Components of Core Curriculum 1
  7. 7. 2
  8. 8. Rationale for Learning an The Rationale for LearningInternational Language Mandarin ChineseThe rationale expressed by the Common The aim of the study of Mandarin ChineseCurriculum Framework for International language and culture is to enable the studentsLanguages (2000) clearly emphasizes the to communicate in Mandarin Chinese. Chineseenrichment potential of international language is one of the most widely spoken languages ofpromotion. The value, for Canadian society as the modern world. Chinese is the mosta whole, of learning international languages can commonly spoken language among peoplebe summarized as follows: from Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and• increased awareness of and sensitivity to other large communities of Chinese speakers cultural and linguistic diversity throughout Southeast Asia and the rest of the• improved potential in the Canadian and the world. Since about a quarter of the world’s global marketplace and workplace population are native speakers of Chinese, this• enhanced role in the international language is significant in the global perspective. community. Mandarin Chinese program is intended to teachFor students who learn a second language students how to speak and understandeither as a heritage language or an international Mandarin Chinese as well as to appreciatelanguage, to develop reading, writing and certain aspects of Chinese culture. Thisspeaking skills in the language will: program will take a task-based communicative- • enhance the students’ concept of experiential approach to develop students’ themselves and their cultures and promote communicative competence with the focus on respect for members of other cultures oral communication. In a program that uses a • encourage the students to develop new task-based approach to language learning, language skills that will help them to classes are structured around meaningful tasks function more effectively in Canada’s rather than around elements of the language multicultural environment as well as in the itself. The choice of grammar structures or international community forms to work on explicitly is based on the • enable students to renew contact with a immediate needs of the students. Grammar heritage language and culture that may instruction only plays a supportive role to have been lost through assimilation provide useful strategies to assist • help students maintain a first language that communication and comprehension. is not the majority language in the community As a major partner in international affairs, Canada stands to benefit from being a • allow students to use skills and concepts multicultural society. The study of Mandarin not they already possess in their first language only helps promote awareness of Chinese when learning a second language culture, it helps students understand Canada’s • broaden students range of educational, cultural mosaic. As Saskatchewan continues to career and leisure opportunities develop social and economic ties with the Asia- • provide students with more opportunities to Pacific region which is gaining economic communicate directly with people from importance in the international arena, the study other language groups and gain a deeper of Mandarin Chinese will give students a insight into their culture. broader range of career opportunities and life experiences. 3
  9. 9. About Mandarin Chinese GoalsThe Chinese language is a collection of The goals show the scope of purposes andnumerous dialects including Mandarin indicate what students will achieve over the(Northern Chinese) and Cantonese (Southern course in this program. The goals of theChinese ). Mandarin is used as the official Mandarin Chinese language program can belanguage for Mainland China and Taiwan. achieved through the following four dimensions:Although the influence of local dialects has led • to develop the students’ ability to useto some marked differences in regional accents, Mandarin in a variety of situations and for aMandarin has been recognized and accepted variety of purposes (applications)as the Chinese national standard language, and • to develop the students’ ability tocan be written either in the form of simplified communicate in Mandarin Chinesecharacters or traditional characters. The effectively and competently (languagepronunciation used in this curriculum guide is competence)Hanyu Pinyin, the phonetic system of Mandarin. • to develop the students’ knowledge of and ability to use strategies to maximize theAs the written Chinese language is introduced effectiveness of their learning andto students, they will be exposed to both communication (strategies)simplified and traditional characters. The • to develop in students the knowledge, skillsMandarin curriculum will use both simplified and and attitudes to be effective global citizenstraditional characters, which will enable the (global citizenship).students to become familiar with the wholeChinese character system in a variety of real-life situations. The opportunities to learn the Core Curriculumtraditional characters enable the learners to Core curriculum can be viewed as a frameworklearn about the evolution of Chinese culture for achievement of Saskatchewan’s Goals ofthrough the study of its linguistic development. Education through classroom instruction. CoreThe students will be required to acquire skills in curriculum is intended to provide allChinese character recognition. However, the Saskatchewan students with an education thatteacher can choose to use either simplified or will serve them well. The Curriculum reinforcestraditional Chinese characters or a combination the teaching of basic skills and introduces aof both in teaching, based on the needs of the broad range of new skills to students.students. The two major components of Core CurriculumAim are the Required Areas of Study and the Common Essential Learnings.The aim describes in very general terms thechanges to be brought about in the students as To meet the needs of students learning aa result of this course. The aim of the Mandarin heritage language, provision is made within theChinese program is to develop the students’ Core Curriculum to offer Locally Determinedcommunicative competence in the Mandarin Options. In recognition of the diverse needs ofChinese language, to enable the students to students, provision is made through thebetter understand the Chinese culture and to Adaptive Dimension for teachers to adaptexpand their awareness of language and instruction, the learning environment as well aslanguage learning. The study of Mandarin instructional resources.Chinese gives students the opportunity todevelop the knowledge and skills necessary to All second language courses, includingcommunicate with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Mandarin Chinese, fall into the category ofcommunities throughout the world. Locally Determined Options. The Common Essential Learnings will be incorporated into Mandarin courses, and the Adaptive Dimension will provide teachers with the flexibility to adapt the program to meet the needs of a diverse student population.4
  10. 10. Common Essential Learnings successfully the Common Essential Learnings into Mandarin Chinese.The Common Essential learning are six Throughout this curriculum guide, the followingintegrated components containing knowledge, symbols are used to refer to the Commonskills, attitudes, and abilities that are considered Essential Learnings (C.E.L.s):important for learning in all school subjects.The purpose of the Common Essential Communication COMLearnings is to help students better acquire the Critical and Creative Thinking CCTsubject matter under study and to prepare them Independent Learning ILfor their future learning both within and outside Numeracy NUMthe educational system. Personal and Social Values and Skills PSVSLearning Mandarin Chinese offers many Technological Literacy TLopportunities for incorporating the CommonEssential Learnings into instruction. Learningand using Mandarin Chinese helps develop the Suggestions for Incorporating the Commonunderstandings, values, skills and processes Essential Learningsrelated to a number of the Common EssentialLearnings. It is intended that the Common Personal and Social Values and SkillsEssential Learnings be developed andevaluated within subject areas. Therefore, PSVS is one of the most important C.E.L.s infoundational objectives for the Common second language learning. The objectives ofEssential Learnings are included in the unit this component are (Saskatchewan Education,overview within this guide. 1998): • to develop compassionate, empatheticIncorporation of the Common Essential students who can make positiveLearnings into instruction has implications for contributions to society as individuals andthe assessment of student learning. It is as members of groupsrecommended that a unit, which has focused on • to support students in coming to a betterdeveloping particular Common Essential understanding of the personal, moral,Learnings also reflect this focus when social and cultural aspects of schoolassessing student learning. If students are subjectsencouraged to develop their personal and • to support students in treating themselves,social values and skills throughout a course, others and the environment with respectthen teachers need to use assessment • to promote understanding of prejudice,strategies appropriate for this purpose. The discrimination, racism, sexism and all formsassessment strategies will offer opportunities of inequality and exploitation, and a desirefor students to demonstrate their competence in to contribute to their elimination.this area. The Common Essential Learningsare to be integrated, accommodated and This element is directly related to “Globalincorporated within the evaluation of each Citizenship”, one of the four components in thecontent area. Common Curriculum Framework for International Languages (CCFIL, 2000). ThisIt is important to incorporate the foundational C.E.L. promotes students cultural awarenessobjectives for the Common Essential Learnings through learning a second language. Studentsin an authentic manner. The decision to focus will become more aware of how their ownon a particular Common Essential Learning knowledge, values and skills are shaped bywithin a lesson is guided by the needs and culture.abilities of individual students and by theparticular demands of the subject area. It is In learning Mandarin Chinese, PSVS helpsanticipated that teachers will benefit from the students explore both historical andsuggestions in this guide and from their contemporary elements of the culture to fosterpersonal reflections in order to incorporate greater tolerance and understanding of various cultures. PSVS also provides frequent 5
  11. 11. opportunities for students to respond to and When applied to Mandarin learning, CCTbuild upon the ideas of people of other cultural guides students’ analysis of information from abackgrounds. Students will learn to become variety of resources to deepen theirglobal citizens through the incorporation of understanding of the topics being explored, andPSVS into Mandarin programs. encourages students to look for alternatives and give reasons for their decisions. CCT alsoIndependent Learning provides opportunities for students to reflect upon the results of their learning experiences.The objectives of this C.E.L. are summarized inthe following statements (Saskatchewan CommunicationEducation, 1998): • to support the development of a positive Communication as a Common Essential disposition to life-long learning Learning is about using language as a tool to • to develop students’ abilities to meet their learn. The goals of communication are: own learning needs (Saskatchewan Education, 1998): • to develop students’ abilities to access • to use a wide range of language knowledge. experiences for developing students’ knowledge of a subject areaThe intent of this component is to support the • to enable students to use languagedevelopment of an independent learner and (listening, speaking, reading writing) forcoincides closely with the "strategies" differing audiences and purposes which arecomponent of the CCFIL. When this element is relevant to the studentsincorporated into Mandarin Chinese language • to enable students to understand and uselearning, it helps students learn how to learn a the vocabulary, structures, and forms oflanguage and encourages students to develop expression which characterize each area oftheir own interests and their desire to learn study.Mandarin. The fundamental aim of learning Mandarin is toMany of the processes, skills and abilities communicate. Communication as a C.E.L. canrequired for all the other C.E.L.s contribute to be applied to the development of languagethe goal of developing life-long independent competence through opportunities to uselearners. In order to achieve this goal, it is language in many different situations in order toimportant for the teacher to plan experiences deal with a variety of tasks.that lead to independent exploration andresearch by choosing topics and tasks which Numeracyare of interest to students and which are linked The goals of incorporating Numeracy intoto aspects of their lives. curricula are summarized in the following statements:Creative and Critical Thinking • to develop learners’ skills and ability to dealCreative and critical thinking is a very important with everyday situations demanding the uselife skill. It is a combination of abilities, of mathematical concepts and to helpknowledge, values, attitudes, skills and students better understand the quantitativeprocesses. The intent of this component is aspects of each subjectdemonstrated in the following statements • to strengthen students’ understanding within(Saskatchewan Education, 1998): subject area through applying knowledge of• to contribute to the development of “strong numbers and their interrelationships. sense” critical and creative thinkers• to develop an understanding of how Numeracy can be incorporated into second knowledge is created , evaluated, refined language learning to the extent that tasks are and changes within subject areas chosen which involve the ability to compute,• to promote both intuitive, imaginative measure, and interpret mathematical concepts. thought and the ability to evaluate ideas, processes, experiences and objects in meaningful contexts.6
  12. 12. It can provide opportunities for students to • students learning styles and interestsinterpret and produce maps, graphs, and charts • cognitive, physical and social developmentin order to further develop the numerical • aptitudeselements of a concept. • cultural and linguistic background • previous knowledge.Technological LiteracyThis component aims at helping students The adaptive efforts can be made though aunderstand how technology and society modification of content, instruction, learninginteract. The objectives of this component are material and resources, learning environment,summarized as following: and student assessment. The goals of the • to development a contemporary view of Adaptive Dimension are: technology • maximize students’ participation in learning • to develop students’ appreciation of the and develop their potential as independent value and limitations of technology within learners society • use a broad range of instructional strategies • to provide opportunities for students’ active to provide students with the opportunities to involvement in decision-making related to learn in different ways technological developments. • create a classroom environment in which students’ unique cultures, backgrounds,TL can be incorporated into second language interests, language abilities and learninglearning through the choice of areas of styles are accepted and respected byexperience and topics which deal with the teachers and peersinteraction between technology and society. • provide a variety of learning materials,The teacher can plan opportunities for students including resource-based learningto use and experience modern technology. • modify evaluative techniques in order toComputer-assisted language learning has maximize the amount of relevanttremendous applications to second language information received from each studentteaching and learning. • promote a positive self-image, feeling of belonging and self-confidence.Adaptive Dimension The teacher plays a very important role in making successful adaptations to coreThe Adaptive Dimension is an essential part of curriculum. Teachers can exercise theirall educational programs. Like the Common professional judgement to make educationalEssential Learnings, it is a component of Core decisions to make learning meaningful and toCurriculum and permeates all curriculum and accommodate student diversity.instruction. Supporting Initiatives within CoreThe Adaptive Dimension is defined as theconcept of making adjustments in approved Curriculumeducational programs to accommodate diversity In addition to the components preciouslyin student learning needs. It includes those described, Core Curriculum includes variouspractices the teacher undertakes to make initiatives which guide the choice of resourcescurriculum, instruction and the learning as well as various aspects of instruction in theenvironment meaningful and appropriate for classroom.each student. (Saskatchewan Education,1992). Gender EquityThe Adaptive Dimension means differentiated It is recognized that expectations based onteaching. It addresses the importance of primarily on gender limit students’ ability toteaching to match the learners’ diverse and develop to their fullest potential. Studies showunique needs and interests, and to promote that girls and boys are not benefiting equally insuccess for each student. The Adaptive schools. Gender Equity aims to makeDimension is used to accommodate differences classrooms more equitable for both male andin: female students. The gender equitable 7
  13. 13. approach reflected in this curriculum assists • incorporate a variety of resources with theteachers in creating learning environments that assistance of students and teacher-librarianare free of stereotyping, and enables female in units of studyand male students to maximize the • involve students in the unit planning anddevelopment of their abilities and talents. decision-making processes, and encourage them to seek out sources of informationGender equity can be reinforced by teachers in related to their classroom experiencesvarious ways: • assist in the establishment and • use inclusive language to avoid maintenance of resource collections that preference for a particular gender support core curricula initiatives • choose content drawn from life • integrate needed research skills with unit experiences of both female and male activities and task so that students learn students how to find, use and evaluate information. • cite examples featuring both boys and girls Indian and Métis Content and • include viewpoints and perspectives of Perspectives both boys and girls • adopt equitable instructional and The integration of Indian and Métis content and assessment practices perspectives into the curriculum benefits • use resources for teaching and learning students in a pluralistic society. Cultural that are free from gender bias. representation in all aspects of the school environment promotes the development of positive attitudes in students towards IndianResource-Based Learning and Métis peoples. This awareness of one’sResource-based teaching and learning is a own culture and the cultures of others developsmeans by which teachers can greatly assist the self-concept, enhances learning, and promotesdevelopment of attitudes and abilities for an appreciation of Canada’s pluralistic society.independent and life-long learning. It allowsteachers to use a variety of resources, instead The teacher can utilize a variety of teachingof using only a single textbook in teaching. strategies that accommodate and build upon students’ knowledge of Indian and MétisThe ability to find, evaluate and use information culture. The adaptation of content and teachingis an important life skill that students need in materials to incorporate Indian and Métistheir life. Resource-based instruction is a culture will help students become aware ofstudent-centered approach to curriculum that stereotypes and combat the prejudice ofinvolves students with all sorts of resources. mainstream culture towards Indian and MétisThis approach offers students increased people. By introducing Indian and Métisopportunities to share responsibility for setting cultural content into unit plans, teachers cangoals and planning their learning experiences. draw students’ attention to the interplay among issues of race, class, and gender in the lives ofThe following points will help teachers Indian people in mainstream society.implement resource-based learning:• discuss unit topics, objectives and task with students and incorporate topics of study from other subject areas8
  14. 14. The Mandarin ProgramThe Mandarin course will take a communicative/experiential approach to Mandarin Chineselanguage learning. The focus is on oral/aural communication. This course will developstudents’ communicative competence and enable students to communicate effectively in avariety of environments and real-life situations. The course outline includes the followingcomponents:• Foundational Objectives• Specific Learning Outcomes• Effective Language LearningFoundational ObjectivesThe foundational objectives are broad statements that set out the knowledge, skills and attitudes thatstudents are expected to acquire as a result of studying Mandarin Chinese. These objectives enableteachers to use their experience and professional judgement for their planning and evaluation ofteaching and learning. The foundational objectives are organized under the headings of fourcomponents: “Applications”, “Language Competence”, “ Strategies” and “Global Citizenship” (CommonCurriculum Framework for International Languages, 2000).ApplicationsApplications deal with what the students will be able to do with the language, the functions they will beable to perform and how they will use Mandarin in a variety of situations, and for a variety of purposes.Language CompetenceThe language competence objectives deal with how well the students will use the target language.They cover the various components of communicative language competence: grammatical, discourseand sociolinguistic competence.StrategiesStrategies will help students learn and communicate more effectively. Strategies usually include boththose for language learning: cognitive, metacognitive and social/affective strategies; and those forlanguage use: interactive, interpretive, and productive strategies.Global CitizenshipThis heading deals with knowledge, attitudes and skills around culture and diversity. Students need toacquire them to be effective global citizens. 9
  15. 15. Foundational ObjectivesIt is expected that students willApplications use Mandarin Chinese in a variety of situations for the following purposes: • to impart and receive information; • to express emotions and personal perspectives; • to form, maintain and change interpersonal relationships; • to get things done; • to extend their knowledge of the world, and • for imaginative purposes and personal enjoyment;Language • attend to the form of Mandarin Chinese in the context of meaningfulCompetence applications; • use their knowledge of the sociocultural context to aid comprehension and to communicate in appropriate ways; • apply their knowledge of how texts in Mandarin are organized, structured and sequenced to enhance communication; • produce and interpret a variety of texts in Mandarin in the context of meaningful applications;Strategies • use strategies to deal effectively and independently with new language learning challenges; • use strategies to fulfil the demands of communication in context and successfully complete the task in question.Global • acquire a basic understanding of the essential historical andCitizenship contemporary elements of the Chinese culture and apply it successfully in a variety of contexts; • understand, value and deal effectively with diversity of all kinds; • explore the application of cultural and linguistic knowledge, skills and attitudes for personal and career opportunities.10
  16. 16. Specific Learning OutcomesUnder the foundational objectives, the Specific Learning Outcomes describe in more detailed andspecific terms what students will do to achieve the foundational objectives in each grade. For a threeyear Mandarin program, the Specific Outcomes for Mandarin 10, 20 and 30 are summarized as follows,based on the Common Curriculum Framework for International Languages (2000). Specific Learning Outcomes for Applications Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12Students will use Mandarin in a variety of situations for the following purposes:To impart and receive information • ask for and provide basic • describe people, places, • describe people, places, information, e.g., name things, actions things and series orshare factual information time, dates, locations • ask for and provide sequences of events or • identify concrete people, information on a range of actions places, things familiar topics, e.g., about • provide information on • respond to simple, their family or home several aspects of a predictable questions topic, e.g., give a simple reportTo express emotions and personal perspectives • express simple • express a personal • record and share thoughtsshare ideas, thoughts,opinions, preferences preferences response to a variety of and ideas with others • express a personal situations • inquire about and express response, e.g. respond to • inquire about and express agreement and a song or story likes and dislikes disagreement • identify favorite people, • inquire about and express places or things, e.g. approval and disapproval words or phrases, characters, illustrations in texts, activities • respond to and express • respond to and express a • record and share personalshare emotions, emotions and feelings, e.g. variety of emotions and experiences involving pleasure or happiness, feelings, e.g., love, emotion or feeling feelings and sadness sadness, surprise, fear • inquire about and express • identify emotions and • inquire about and identify emotions and feelings in a feelings, e.g., portrayed in emotions and feelings, variety of familiar contexts texts e.g., in stories, songs, and personal experiences 11
  17. 17. Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12To get things done • Indicate basic needs and • make and respond to a • give and follow a simple wants, e.g., using gestures variety of simple sequence of instructionsguide actions of others • give and respond to simple requests • make and respond to oral instructions or • seek, grant or withhold suggestions in a variety of commands permission situations • ask for permission • relay simple messages • suggest a course of action, • encourage or discourage respond to a suggestion others from a course of action • ask or offer to do something, • express a wish or a • inquire about and expressstate personal e.g., classroom tasks desire to do something ability and inability to do • • actions respond to offers, invitations, make an offer or an something instructions invitation and respond to • state personal actions in • indicate choice from among offers and invitations the past, present or future several options made by others • manage turn-taking • suggest, initiate or direct • negotiate in a simple way • encourage other group action in group activities with peers in small-groupmanage group members to act • encourage other group tasks • actions appropriately members to participate offer to explain or clarify • ask for help or clarification of • assume a variety of • check for agreement and what is being said or done in roles and responsibilities understanding the group as a group member • express disagreement in an appropriate way12
  18. 18. Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12To form , maintain and change interpersonal relationships • exchange greetings and • apologize, refuse politely • make and break social farewells • talk about themselves, engagementsmanage personal • address a new respond to the talk of others • initiate and participate in relationships acquaintance, introduce by showing attention, casual exchanges with themselves interest classmates • exchange some basic personal information (name, age, etc.,) • initiate relationships, e.g., invite others to participateTo extend their knowledge of the world • investigate the immediate • make and talk about • discover relationships anddiscover and environment, e.g., use all personal observations patterns • • explore of the senses, do hands- explore alternative ask questions to gain on activities classification systems knowledge and clarify and criteria for understanding categories • gather simple information • record and share personal • compose questions to • organize and sequence knowledge of a topic guide researchinformationgather and items in different ways, • compare and contrast • identify sources of organize e.g., put the elements of a items in simple ways, e.g., information simple story in order characters or events from • gather information from a different stories variety of resources • record observations • experience problem- • recognize, define and • understand and use the solving situations in describe a problem steps in the problem-problems fictitious and real-life • search for and propose solving process solve situations solutions • describe and analyze a • choose between problem, then propose alternative solutions solutions • listen attentively and • recognize differences of • gather opinions on a topicopinions and respond sensitively to the opinion within their direct explore • values opinions, ideas and express their views on a experience products of others variety of topics within • explore how values • make connections their direct experience influence behavior between behavior and values, e.g., in role play 13
  19. 19. Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12For imaginative purposes and personal enjoyment • use Mandarin for fun • use Mandarin for fun and • use Mandarin for fun and to interpret simple to interpret humor, e.g.,humor/fun amusing texts, e.g., play a variety of sports and stories, songs, pictures games, both indoors and out, participate in a variety of construction activities • use Mandarin creatively, • use Mandarin creatively, • use Mandarin creativelycreative/aestheti e.g., participate in e.g., create a picture story and for aesthetic c purposes activities on familiar topics with captions, use models purposes, e.g., experiment to create cumulative or with the sounds and predictable stories rhythms of Mandarin • use Mandarin for personal • use Mandarin for personal • use Mandarin for personal enjoyment, e.g., listen to enjoyment, e.g., make a enjoyment, e.g., learn aenjoyment personal favorite songs, or read collection of pictures or craft or dance, and listen favorite stories. artifacts related to the to favourite songs in culture, play games alone Mandarin or with friends or family members14
  20. 20. Specific Learning Outcomes for Language Competence Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12To attend to the form of Mandarin language in the context of meaningful applications • use pinyin to pronounce • use pinyin and tones when • use pinyin and tones when some common words and producing familiar words producing unfamiliar wordsphonology phrases correctly or phrases or phrases • use correct tone to • recognize some critical • identify and reproduce distinguish meaning sound distinctions and some critical sound • distinguish particular tones that are important distinctions that are sounds of Mandarin for meaning important for meaning • be aware of how text is • recognize and use some • consistently use basic oriented, e.g., either from basic stroke patterns stroke combination left to right horizontally, or • recognize and use some patterns in writing familiar from right to left and top to basic mechanical Chinese words and bottom vertically conventions, e.g., phrases • •orthography recognize and name some punctuation use correct punctuation in elements of the writing • distinguish among various writing system, e.g., the direction radicals of Chinese • use correct radicals to of Mandarin strokes, characters write familiar Chinese stroke order, and • explore the traditions of characters proportion Chinese writing by • copy familiar words, studying and practising phrases, and sentences Chinese calligraphy • associate words in • combine learned words • recognize that one word Mandarin with the and phrases to fulfil some may have multiple corresponding object, simple purposes meanings, depending on action or notion • experiment with and use a the context, and that • various words andlexicon use set phrases in familiar variety of words and contexts expressions in familiar expressions may express contexts the same idea • use a variety of words and expressions in familiar contexts • recognize some basic • identify and use a variety • identify and use with grammatical structures in of basic grammatical reasonable accuracy a simple sentences structures variety of basicgrammar grammatical structures • explore grammar by combining and manipulating learned grammatical structures 15
  21. 21. Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12To interpret and produce oral texts in the context of meaningful applications • understand short simple • understand short, simple • understand short textsinterpretation texts in guided situations texts in guided and on unfamiliar topics in unguided situations aural guided situations • produce simple sentences • produce short, simple texts • produce short texts inproduction in guided situations in guided situations guided and unguided oral situations • engage in simple • engage in a variety of • manage shortinteractive interactions using simple simple interactions interactions with ease, fluency sentences with pauses for planning and repairTo interpret and produce written texts in Mandarin in meaningful applications • understand short simple • understand and produce • understand short texts oninterpretation texts in guided situations short, simple texts in unfamiliar topics in guided written guided situations situations • produce simple sentences • produce short, simple texts • produce short, simple textsproduction in guided situations in guided situations in guided and unguided written situations • derive meaning from a • derive meaning from the • derive meaning fromviewing variety of visuals and other visual elements of a multiple visual elements in forms of non-verbal variety of media in guided a variety of media in communication in guided and unguided situations guided situations situation • use a variety of visuals • express meaning through • express meaning throughrepresenting and other forms of non- the use of visual elements the use of multiple visual verbal communication to in a variety of media in elements in a variety of express meaning in guided guided and unguided media in guided situations situations situations16
  22. 22. Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12To use their knowledge of the sociocultural context to aid comprehension and tocommunicate in appropriate ways • distinguish between formal • use formal and informal • identify socially and informal situations Mandarin in familiar inappropriate language inregister • recognize that some words situations specific situations are inappropriate in certain • explore formal and contexts informal uses of language in a variety of contexts • understand and use some • understand and use a • correctly use learned simple idiomatic variety of simple idiomatic idiomatic expressions inexpressions expressions as set expressions as set familiar contexts idiomatic phrases phrases • explore the use of idiomatic expressions in new contexts • experience a variety of • experience a variety of • recognize other influencesvariations in voices, e.g., male and regional variations in resulting in variations in Mandarin female, young and old Mandarin, e.g., regional language, e.g., age, • acknowledge and accept accents and differences in gender, social class and individual differences in lexicon regions speech • use basic social • recognize simple social • interpret the use of socialsocial conventions expressions appropriate to conventions in informal conventions encountered the classroom conversation in oral and written texts • Use basic politeness • recognize verbal behaviors • recognize important social conventions that are considered conventions in everyday • use appropriate oral forms impolite interactions of address for people frequently encountered • understand the meaning of • recognize appropriate non- • use appropriate non-verbal and experiment with using verbal behaviors for behaviors in a variety ofcommunication some common non-verbal people frequently familiar contexts non-verbal behaviors used in the encountered, e.g., • recognize non-verbal Chinese culture interpersonal space, behaviors that are • recognize that some non- physical contact, eye considered impolite verbal behaviors may be contact inappropriate in certain contexts 17
  23. 23. Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12To apply knowledge of how discourse is organized, structured and sequenced • link words or groups of • use common conventions • organize texts usingcohesion/coherenc words in simple ways, e.g., to structure texts, e.g., common patterns, e.g., using words like 因为, titles, paragraphs cause and effect, steps in 然后, 而且 • Link several sentences a procedure or directions • coherently, e.g., on a to follow e Sequence elements of a simple story, process or single theme • interpret simple references series of events within texts • recognize some simple • use some simple text • analyze and identify the oral and written text forms, forms in their own organizational structure oftext forms e.g., lists, letters, stories, productions, e.g., maps, a variety of text forms songs, recipes, invitations questionnaires • recognize a variety of text forms delivered through a variety of media • initiate interactions and • use simple conventions to • initiate interactions and respond using simple open and close respond using a variety of social interaction patterns, conversations and social interaction patterns,patterns of social e.g., greeting-response, manage turn-taking e.g., casual conversation question-answer • initiate interactions and with classmates, routine interaction respond using a variety of telephone calls social interaction patterns, e.g., statement- agreement/disagreement- reaction; request- acceptance/non- acceptance18
  24. 24. Specific Learning Outcomes for Global Citizenship Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12To acquire a basic understanding of the essential historical and contemporary elements ofthe culture and apply it successfully in a variety of contexts • participate in activities • seek out information about • formulate questions aboutaccessing/analyzing cultural and experiences that the culture from authentic elements of the culture reflect elements of the sources, e.g., people • identify and use a variety of Chinese culture • make connections sources of information to find • ask questions about between elements of the out about the culture knowledge elements of the Chinese culture and Chinese culture similar elements from their experienced in class own • make observations of • compare some elements the Chinese culture, of the Chinese culture e.g., as it is portrayed in with their own, e.g., texts, and in the geography and climate community • participate in activities • explore some elements of • explore and identify some and experiences that the culture, e.g., influence elements of the culture, andknowledge reflect elements of the of the geography and their influence on cultural Chinese culture climate on their way of life contemporary ways of life and • identify some things they cultural values, e.g., everyday have in common with ways of life of people their people their own age who own age live in the culture • identify elements of the • apply knowledge of • apply knowledge of elementsapplying cultural culture in the elements of the Chinese of the culture in interactions classroom, the school culture to interpret cultural with people and texts, e.g., knowledge and the community behaviour that is different interpret historical references • identify commonalities from their own and differences between the Chinese culture and their own • identify some elements • apply knowledge of • apply knowledge of diversediversity within the that reflect diversity diverse elements of the elements of the culture in within the Chinese Chinese culture in interactions with people and culture culture interactions with people texts, e.g., ethnic or religious • identify commonalities and texts, e.g., differences minorities and differences based on age and gender, between diverse groups urban and rural ways of within the Chinese life culture 19
  25. 25. Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 • participate in cultural • express an interest in • choose to participate in andChinese culture activities and finding out about people contribute to activities and valuing the experiences their own age who speak experiences that reflect the • identify similarities Mandarin culture between themselves • express empathy for those • seek out and use and the people of the whose cultural behavior is opportunities to enter into Chinese culture different from their own contact with members of the cultureTo understand, value and affirm diversity of all kinds • identify similarities • identify similarities and • identify some words in theirawareness of first between their first differences between their first language that have been language and the first language and the borrowed from Mandarin or language Chinese language, e.g., Chinese language, e.g., other languages/ dialects sounds, specific words, word order, different • identify some regional or writing system used writing system, different variations in their first social conventions, and language grammar structures • explore the variety of • recognize that in any • identify how and why language spoken by language there are languages borrow from onegeneral language knowledge their schoolmates and different words for the another members of their same thing and that • recognize that languages community may have regional individuals use • identify differences and differences in pronunciation, similarities between language in personal vocabulary or structure different languages ways, e.g., their within their personal grandparents use experiences, e.g., different words than words, writing systems their schoolmates • describe ways • recognize that languages language can be taught can be grouped into and learned families based on common origins • recognize similarities • identify similarities and • identify some influences onAwareness of own between their own differences between their the development of their culture and other own culture and other personal identity cultures cultures, e.g., occupations, culture • make connections seasonal activities, between individuals or celebrations, foods, roles situations in texts and of family members their own personal experiences20
  26. 26. Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 • participate in activities • recognize that speakers of • recognize that within any and experiences that the same language may culture there are importantgeneral cultural knowledge reflect elements of come from different differences in the way people different cultures cultural backgrounds speak and behave • recognize that a variety • recognize some of the • recognize some of the of cultural practices are factors that affect the factors that affect the followed by their culture of a particular culture of a particular schoolmates and region, e.g., geography, region, e.g., historical different groups in their climate events, significant community • recognize that culture is individuals expressed through a variety of forms, e.g., stories, art forms, crafts • work and play with • identify the limitations of • recognize and acknowledge others who are different adopting a single different perspectives and thevalue diversity • engage in activities that perspective, e.g., on value of these differences reflect other ways of objects, persons, • seek out opportunities to doing things or other experiences or events interact with people from perspectives and point • demonstrate curiosity various cultures that have an of view about other languages and interest in the Chinese culture cultures and language • adapt to new situations • reflect on their actions and • explore representations of • listen with attention to the consequences of their their own culture as seenintercultural skills the opinions of others actions for others from the outside, e.g., as • initiate and maintain • explore how their seen by members of the new relationships, e.g., perspective is shaped by a Chinese community make a new classmate variety of factors, e.g., • identify and make use of feel welcome personal, group, public and private institutions environmental which facilitate contact with other countries and cultures 21
  27. 27. To pursue personal and career opportunities Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 • suggest some reasons • identify some careers for • Identify some careers which for learning Mandarin which knowledge of use knowledge of MandarinChinese culture and language • identify some personal international languages is • explore personal reasons for uses they have made of useful learning Mandarin their knowledge of • identify some places that • explore opportunities for Mandarin and the they could visit where further education related to Chinese culture Mandarin is spoken, e.g., the Chinese culture and a Chinese restaurant, a language Chinese church • identify aspects of the history, literature, arts, crafts of the Chinese culture which are of personal interest • suggest some reasons • identify some careers for • identify some careers whichcultural and linguistic diversity for learning an additional which knowledge of use knowledge of language, and for different languages and international languages and participating in activities cultures is useful cultures, and intercultural and experiences that • identify some countries skills reflect elements of where there is significant • explore personal reasons for different cultures linguistic and cultural learning additional languages • identify some personal diversity and experiencing other uses they have made of • identify aspects of the cultures their knowledge of history, literature, arts • explore opportunities for different languages and and crafts of different further education related to cultures languages and cultures cultures that are of personal interest22
  28. 28. Specific Learning Outcomes for Strategies Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12To use strategies to deal effectively and independently with new language learning andgeneral learning challenges • use simple cognitive • identify and use a variety • select and use a variety of strategies, with guidance, to of cognitive strategies to cognitive strategies to enhance language learning, enhance language enhance language e.g., learn songs learning, e.g., repeat learning, e.g., associatecognitive incorporating new words or phrases in the new words or expressions vocabulary or sentence course of performing a with familiar ones, either in patterns, listen attentively, language task, make Mandarin or in their own memorize new words by personal dictionaries, language; look for patterns repeating them silently or experiment with various and relationships aloud elements of Mandarin • use simple metacognitive • identify and use a variety • select and use a variety of strategies, with guidance, to of metacognitive metacognitive strategies to enhance language learning, strategies to enhance enhance language e.g., reflect on learning language learning, e.g., learning, e.g., evaluatemetacognitive tasks with the guidance of make a plan in advance their own performance or the teacher, make choices about how to approach a comprehension at the end about how they learn language learning task, of a task reflect on the listening , reading, and writing process, check copied writing for accuracy • use simple social and • identify and use a variety • select and use a variety of affective strategies, with of social and affective social and affective guidance, to enhance strategies to enhance strategies to enhance language learning, e.g., language learning, e.g., language learning, e.g., besocial and affective seek the help of a friend to work cooperatively with willing to take risks, try interpret a text, initiate or peers in small groups, unfamiliar tasks and maintain interaction with understand that making approaches others, participate in shared mistakes is a natural part reading experiences of language learning, experiment with various forms of expression and note their acceptance or non-acceptance by more experienced speakers 23
  29. 29. Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12To use strategies to enhance language use to fulfil the demands of communication incontext • use simple interactive • identify and use a variety • select and use a variety of strategies with guidance, of interactive strategies, interactive strategies, e.g., e.g., indicate lack of e.g., start again using a use a range of fillers, understanding verbally or different tactic when hesitation devices tointeractive non-verbally, interpret communication breaks sustain conversations, use and use a variety of non- down, use a simple word circumlocution to verbal clues to similar to the concept they compensate for lack of communicate, ask for want to convey and invite vocabulary, ask for clarification or repetition correction, use the other confirmation that a form when they do not speakers words in used is correct understand subsequent conversation • use simple interpretive • identify and use a variety • select and use a variety of strategies with guidance, of interpretive strategies, interpretive strategies, e.g., use illustrations to e.g., determine the e.g., prepare questions or aid reading purpose of listening or a guide to note downinterpretive comprehension, make reading, then listen or read information found in the connections between selectively based on text, reread several times texts on the one hand, purpose, make predictions to understand complex and prior knowledge and about what they expect to ideas personal experience on hear or read based on the other prior knowledge and personal experience, listen or look for key words • use simple productive • identify and use a variety • select and use a variety of strategies with guidance, of productive strategies, productive strategies, e.g., e.g, use familiar repetitive e.g., use knowledge of use resources to increase patterns from stories, sentence patterns to form vocabulary, use a varietyproductive rhymes or media; copy new sentences, use of resources to correct what others say or write; illustrations to provide texts, take notes when use words that are visible detail when producing their reading or listening to in the immediate own texts, be aware of and assist in producing their environment use the steps of the writing own text process24

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