What is culture? "Most social scientists today view culture as consisting primarily of the symbolic, ideational, and intangible aspects of human societies. The essence of a culture is not its artifacts, tools, or other tangible cultural elements but how the members of the group interpret, use, and perceive them. It is the values, symbols, interpretations, and perspectives that distinguish one people from another in modernized societies; it is not material objects and other tangible aspects of human societies. People within a culture usually interpret the meaning of symbols, artifacts, and behaviors in the same or in similar ways."Source:Banks, J.A., Banks, & McGee, C. A. (1989). Multicultural education. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
What is culture?HTTP://WWW.CARLA.UMN.EDU/CULTURE/D EFINITIONS.HTML
What about YOU? Do you speak another language (fluently)? Do you have a passport? Have you ever visited another country for vacation? Have you ever lived outside the USA? Do you see yourself ever living in another country? Do you think living in another country would be easy? Do you read the news about other countries? In your line of work, do you collaborate with individuals from other countries? Do you eat foods from other countries? If you could go ANYWHERE in the world, where would you want to go?
Cross-Cultural Sensitivity Inventory A 32-item instrument that provides dimensional scores for individuals on five subscales. Levels of sensitivity on issues & experiences related to cross-cultural or inter-cultural interaction (the higher the score, the more sensitive the individual is) Used to raise people’s awareness of the issues to consider prior to intercultural interaction.
The Five Subscales Cultural Integration Assesses the degree to which an individual integrates elements from cultures other than their own in their daily activities. Behavioral Scale Assesses the degree to which an individual has adopted behavior that is new or has a degree of comfort when interacting with others. Intellectual Interaction Assesses the degree to which an individual seeks out knowledge of other cultural orientations. Attitude Toward Others Assess the degree of openness towards others. Empathy Scale Assesses the degree to which an individual identifies with the feelings of others.
A CROSS-CULTURAL TEST OF YOUR SOCIAL “GRACES” 1. ______ considered bad manners to open a gift in front of the giver A. Iran B. China 2. ______ gifts that appeal to intellect or esthetics are especially appreciated C. France 3. ______ avoid giving chrysanthemums (used only for cemeteries) D. Luxembourg E. Germany 4. ______ when giving flowers as a gift, take an odd number, but never 13 F. Japan 5. ______ never eat food with your left hand, as this is considered offensive G. Egypt H. Kenya 6. ______ it is impolite to eat everything on your plate 7. ______ white, blue, and black gifts should be avoided as they are associated with funerals 8. ______ never give alcohol as a gift 9. ______ don’t bring flowers except to express condolences 10. ______ avoid discussions of or asking questions about family, and job
What is cultural intelligence? The capability to function effectively across a variety of cultural contexts. Ethnic Generational Organizational Cultures Emphasis is on understanding different cultures Problem solving Effective adaptations for various cultural settings.
Why do we need cultural intelligence? The global workplace requires individuals to be sensitive to different cultures, to interact appropriately with people from different cultures, & to analyze new cultures as they are encountered Cultural intelligence is needed to manage the stress of culture shock, and the consequent frustration and confusion that typically result from clashes of cultural differences
Who needs cultural intelligence? Business leaders Government leaders Non-profit leaders Corporations Government agencies Universities ???
Individuals & Organizations How do individuals develop their capacity to adapt effectively across different cultures? Why do some individuals possess superior capacity to deal with the challenges of working in different cultures? How do individuals reach full productive potential working in culturally diverse work environments in the home countries and overseas? How do organizations build capability for effective work assignments in locations around the world? How do organizations optimize individual and collective performance when they harness the cultural diversity of their people across the world?
Capabilities of cultural intelligenceCQ Drive (motivation) CQ Knowledge (cognition) Your interest and Your knowledge about how confidence in functioning cultures are similar and different. effectively in culturally diverse settings. The emphasis is not on being an expert about every culture Without the ample drive to you encounter. take on the challenges that inevitably accompany Instead, to what extent do you understand some core culture multicultural situations, differences and their impact there’s little evidence you’ll on you and others? be successful.
Capabilities of cultural intelligenceCQ Strategy (meta-cognition) CQ Action (behavior) How you make sense of Your capability to adapt culturally diverse your behavior experiences. appropriately for different cultures. It occurs when you make judgments about your own thought processes and It involves having a those od others. flexible repertoire of responses to suit various situations while still Can you plan effectively in remaining true to light of cultural difference? yourself.
People use overly simplistic approachesLow CQ “People are people. A smile and a kind word work anywhere.”* You react to externalstimuli (what you see &hear, in a new culturalcontext) and you judge it Business continue to lose millions ofbased on what that meansin your own cultural dollars when expanding intocontext. culturally diverse markets.* You begin to recognizeother culture norms.You’re motivated to learn Business leaders with low CQ usemore. disjointed, slap-dash approaches to the* You begin to myriad of cultural forces barraging them.accommodate othercultural norms into yourthinking. You can explainhow culture impacts the Many charitable organizations get kickedway people might responddifferently to the same out of developing nations because of theircircumstances. inability to work with local officials.
When something seemingly bizarre, random, or unfamiliar happens, those with high CQHigh CQ* You adapt and adjust Have a repertoire of strategies & behaviors toyour thinking and orient themselvesbehavior to othercultural norms. Have a mental frame to discern whether it’s explained by culture or it’s something unique to a particular person or organization* You automaticallyadjust your thinking Have the ability to encounter new culturaland behavior when you situationsget appropriate cues,sometimes Are able to think deeply about what’ssubconsciously. happening (or not happening) Make appropriate adjustments to how one should understand, relate, and behave in these otherwise-disorienting situations.
What High CQ looks like:Teachers Human Resource Managers When working with Have a better sense of students from various how to handle a cultural backgrounds, Muslim employee’s they learn how to adapt request to miss a sales their: conference during Teaching Ramadan. Assessments Feedback strategies
What High CQ looks like:Hospitals Students When led by culturally Have more long-term intelligent leaders, are benefits more effective at: Volunteer Treating immigrant Study Abroad patients Have fewer lawsuits due to misdiagnosis of those patients
Benefits of Increasing CQ SUPERIOR CROSS-CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT IMPROVED JOB PERFORMANCE ENHANCED PERSONAL WELL-BEING GREATER PROFITABILITY
Together We Can Be Catalysts! IMAGINE A LIBERAL POLITICIAN AND A TEA PARTY ACTIVIST ENGAGING IN RESPECTFUL DIALOGUE. IMAGINE A JEWISH FAMILY SHARING A HOLIDAY WITH A PALESTINIAN FAMILY. IMAGINE A CEO WORKING WITH A HIP-HOP ARTIST TO REDUCE WORLD HUNGER. IMAGINE AN ACLU ADVOCATE JOINING AN EVANGELICAL PASTOR TO PROMOTE WORLD JUSTICE.
Discussion What is cultural intelligence? How can you improve your global awareness? What are some questions you may want to ask someone from another culture before going to their country? In order to improve your cultural intelligence, how could you “scare yourself?” What does “think widely, focus deeply” mean?