BackGround Essay Questions1. What were the first two important wall-buildingdynasties?The Qin and the Han
BackGround Essay Questions2. How many years did each of these dynasties last?The Qin lasted 15 years, from 221 to 206 BCE.The Han last about 400 years.
BackGround Essay Questions3. Was there one Great Wall of China? ExplainThere was not one continuous Great Wall. Differentdynasties built different sections over a period oftime...hundreds and hundreds of years.
BackGround Essay Questions4. What is the connection between the wall and theMongols?The Mongols lived north of China and the wall wasbuilt to keep the Mongols out of China.
BackGround Essay Questions5. What was the primary building ingredient of ahang’t’u wall section?Layers of pounded, or tampered, dirt
BackGround Essay QuestionsDefine: Emperor QinChina’s first ruler, also the name of his dynasty oradministration.
BackGround Essay QuestionsDefine: terra cotta armyan army of 8,000 larger-than-life figures made fromceramic clay that were buried by Emperor Qin whenhe died.These figures were discovered in 1974 by Chinesefarmers. There were also terra-cotta chariots andhorses. Many of these figures have yet to beexcavated.
BackGround Essay QuestionsDefine: Han DynastyA family that ruled for more than 400 years duringChina’s “Golden Age”.
BackGround Essay QuestionsDefine: XiongnuThe nomadic people who lived across China’snorther border. They were probably the Mongols.
BackGround Essay QuestionsDefine: hang-t’uA process of making dirt walls. “Hang” meanspounded, “t’u” means earth.
Document A1. Examine the map and list three bodies of water,two deserts and three major trading centers.Water: Yellow River, East and South China SeasDeserts: Gobi, TaklimakenTrading Centers: Dunhuang, Turpan, Chang’an
Document A2. Many Chinese merchants traveled only as far asDunhuang on the Silk Road. Can you give tworeasons why?The wall, and its protection, ended.The Taklimakan Desert began
Document A3. The information box says that the Han added4,000 miles of wall. Refer to the mileage scale. Howcan this be true?A map of this large scale does not show all the twistsand turns made by the wall.
Document A4. Judging from the map, how might China havebenefited from building the Great Wall?The map shows that defense was needed from thenorth to protect them from the Xiongnu (Mongolia)The map also indicates that the wall was used toprotect the development of trade on the western edgeof China along the Silk Road. This protection madeChina become wealthier.
Document A5. Is there anything on the map that indicates theremay have been some costs involved in building thewall?The wall’s size shows that it would take great cost(money & death) to keep it going.The Watch towers indicate that China was constantlyunder attack.
Document B1. The Chinese notion of “barbarian” was anyonewho wasn’t Chinese. What characteristics of theXiongnu made them seem barbarian to Chao Cuo?Chao Cuo said that the Xiongnu are nomads andthey aren’t farmers like the Chinese so thereforethey are more likely to attack China. They have asuspicious diet and they have a wild look aboutthem. They also appear dangerous and are likelyto invade China.
Document B2. What does Chao recommend to keep theXiongnu from invading?Chao is recommending that military be set up toprotect China from the Xiongnu.Also to move immigrant families to walled citiesalong the frontiers of China.
Document B3. What do you think would be more effective indiscouraging a Xiongnu invasion, wall or a largeChinese population along the border? Explain youranswer.Opinion: It is quite possible that a largepopulation may take the sides of the Xiongnuand get along better than they do with theChinese. So constructing a wall with soldiersprotecting it would be more effective becausethe soldiers have a job to do and that is toprotect the wall.
Document B4. What benefits are suggested by the document?If the immigrants were going to grow food forthemselves as well as the soldiers, they neededprotection from intruders. This wall offeredthem protection and allowed the farmers togrow the crops that China needed to survive.
Document B5. What costs are suggested by the document?The concept of building a wall was good intheory, but could it really keep invaders out thatwanted entrance in China. These invaders couldgo to a section that wasn’t protected by a wall. Itseems like this wall took a lot of time and moneyas well as soldiers to keep it going.
Document C1. According to the chart, who was giving what towhom?The Hans were giving silk to the Xiongnu, whowere the same people that the wall was trying toprotect China from entering.
Document C2. Between 51 BCE and 1 BCE, what happened tothe amount of silk that was given?The amount of silk given by the Han to theXiongnu Mongols greatly increased. The amountof silk floss increased five times and the numberof silk bales more than tripled.
Document C3. Judging from both the chart and the photo, howcan you use this document to argue that buildingthe Great Wall was worth the cost?Even though the wall doesn’t look like it couldhave kept the Xiongnu out of China, it wasprobably used as just a border of where China’sproperty began. The offering of silk by the Hanto the Xiongnu was a sign that they could all getalong without warfare.
Document C4. Judging from both the chart and the photo, howcan you use the document to argue that buildingthe Great Wall was not worth the cost?The first question is why build a wall if you aregoing to give the enemy a tribute anyway? The Hangiving the Xiongnu silk was an indication that thisGREAT WALL was not working and the invaderswere able to get into China anyway. The Xiongnuwere probably putting pressure on the Hanthroughout the years so that is probably why theamount of silk tribute increased over the years.
Document D1. The most important export from Han China wassilk. According to the chart, what trade itemsmight the Han have received in return?The Han probably got Ermine fur, glasswarefrom Rome, rhinoceros horn, grapes, melons.
Document D2. How far did the Han emperor Wu Di extend thewall, and why?Wu Di extended the wall 300 miles to the west,and then added a chain of watch towers. Wu Diknew that these watchtowers would protect thetraders/caravans along the Silk Road whichwould only help China become wealthier.
Document D3. How would you describe Wu Di’s attitude aboutChina’s relationship with the rest of the world?Wu Di’s decision to protect traders along the SilkRoad indicates that he was very open to newideas and not fearful of new people coming intohis empire. He welcomed new ideas likeBuddhism.
Document D4. How can you use this document to show thebenefits of building the Great Wall of China?This wall allowed the traders/merchants toenter China through the wall’s protection thatwas offered to them while traveling along theSilk Road. China’s economy benefited from theexchange of goods as well as new ideas.
Document D5. How can you use this document to argue thatbuilding the Great Wall was not worth the cost?Looking at the items that was coming into Chinait doesn’t seem like these would help all of thepeople in China. It would probably only helpthose that were rich and not the common people.Even the ideas like Buddhism or Persianirrigation techniques would take a while to helpthe common people in China.
Document E1. Name two categories of people who worked onthe Great Wall.Soldiers and peasants
Document E2. According to the document, what evidence isthere that conditions were harsh for Qin soldierssent to the wall?300,000 soldiers were ordered to build andguard the wall until it was complete. Althoughan exact number of deaths is unknown, manysoldiers died from hunger, sickness, and extremeheat or cold.Soldiers had to leave their families andloneliness and boredom were a problem.
Document E3. According to the document, what difficultieswere faced by Han soldiers sent to the wall?The Han soldiers were also ordered to work onthe wall as well as protect it.The Han soldiers also had heavy fighting withthe Xiongnu during most of the 2nd centuryBCE. In fact, it was reported that 80% of Hancasualties were reported in one battle in 104BCE.
Document E4. How could you use this document to argue thatbuilding the Great Wall was worth the cost?Even though there were some casualties building theGreat Wall, there isn’t any evidence in this document thatexplains the exact amount of loss that was lost due tobuilding and/or protecting the Great Wall. Even though itwasn’t in this document, you do know that the Great Wallprotected trade along the Silk Road which brought greatadvantages to China.
Document E5. How could you use this document to argue thatbuilding the Great Wall was not worth the cost?The cost of human life in terms of suffering and lives lostwas too great. Families were separated andpeasants/soldiers at the Great Wall suffered sickness,death and fighting the Xiongnu was the cost. However,nothing was truly gained because as Document C states,the Xiongnu still had to be bought off with silk.
Document F1. What would cause Han cavalry soldiers to dienorth of wall?When the Xiongnu would try to enter theChinese settlements along the wall, the Hansoldiers would chase them out of China into thenorthern sections that were not protected by thewall. These pursuits or charges by the Chinesesoldiers would end in death because they wereno longer protected by the Great Wall.
Document F2. What might explain why the rice in China is notbeing harvested?Many peasants who often worked the riceplantations were either forced to join the armyor were killed. There weren’t enough peasants toplant and/or harvest the rice which led tostarvation in China.
Document F3. If the rices is not harvested, who is likely to gohungry?The soldiers faced starvation as well as probably thepeasants. Since there was little rice, hunger probably wasalso felt inland because there wasn’t a surplus of rice.
Document F4. Explain the line, “We sally forth at dawn, but donot return at dusk.”The soldiers go about their day in the morning hours, butwhen they fight against the Xiongnu, many of the soldiersdie in battle and do not return when the sun sets.
Document F5. How can you use this poem to argue that theGreat Wall was not worth the cost?The loss of life with the soldiers protecting the Great Wallthat couldn’t even keep out the Mongols was sad. Also,that the rest of China’s population suffered fromstarvation because not enough of the rice was producedbecause many of the peasants had to serve in the militaryin order to protect the Great Wall.
Document BreakdownDocument A: Background of Qin & HanDocuments B & C: SecurityDocument D: TradeDocuments E & F: Human Death (Human Cost)