7. Three Facts about Catholic Church• 1. Largest land holder in Europe. Owned valuable property & land.• 2. Everything evolved (centered) around the church.• 3. Church Officials were leaders in the government.• 4. 1/10 (tithe) of someone’s earnings went to the church.
9. Why was the Catholic Church so powerful?• Has the power to excommunicate (kick out someone from church), to abolish (get rid of) selling of official positions and prohibiting (not allowing) bishops electing kings to powerful positions within the church.
10. Why would a church official need to be educated?• To read from the Bible. To teach others about religion and to help with governmental duties.
14. What was the key event for commoners to have a voice in England?• King Edward’s I model parliament.
15. What document gave power to the nobles that a king could not take away?• Habeas corpus• Magna Carta
16. Why did commoners have a voicein many areas after the black plague?• The plague caused many workers to demand for more money and power since too many people had died. These people were also able to acquire land that was left abandoned after its owner died.
17. During the Hundred Years’ War, which group lost the most power and which group gained the most power?• Lost: Lords• Gained: Commoners & Monarchs
18. What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire?• Constantinople
19. What is Justinian’s Code?• He took many laws from the Romans and changed them to fit his Empire in the Western world.• Systematic Body of Law
20. What is the significance of the dome in many of the churches in the Byzantine Empire?• The dome represents heaven.
21. Give three examples of the Constantinople’s geography.• 1. It is surrounded on three sides of water.• 2. It was located at the crossroads of Europe and Asia.• 3. It had a harbor that could easily be blocked against enemy ships.
22. Who was responsible for rebuilding Constantinople after a riot that was meant for its emperor?• Justinian
27. Although Arabs living on theArabian peninsula were not united as a nation, they were in what two ways?• 1. Cultural• 2. Language
28. Who are the “people of the book” according to Muslims and why?• Jews and Christians because they also believed in one God.
29. Muhammad taught that the rich should share their wealth with the poor, why did this upset leaders in Mecca?• Leaders in Mecca were controlling the wealth and didn’t want to give any to the poor.
30. What does the word “Muslim” mean?• Muslim means one who surrenders to God.
31. Explain who the Sunni & the Shi’a Muslims felt should be the next “leader” of the Islamic religion.• Sunnis believe that the best “man” for the job should be the next leader. A Council should pick the leader.• Shi’a believe that only descendants (relatives) of Muhammad should be the next leader.
46. persecute• To cause a person to suffer because of his or her beliefs
47. excommunicate• To formally deprive a person of membership in a church
48. habeas corpus• The principle that accused persons cannot be held in jail without the consent of a court
49. Mecca• Birthplace of Muhammad• Location of the Ka’ba
50. chivalry• The medieval knight’s code of ideal behavior, including bravery, loyalty, and respect for women
51. polytheist• A person who believes in more than one god
52. caliph• A title taken by Muslim rulers who claimed religious authority to rule
53. monarch• A ruler, such as a king or a queen
54. barter• To buy and sell by trading goods or services rather than money
55. trade• The business of buying and selling or exchanging items
56. monotheist• A person who believes in a single god
57. prophet• A person who speaks or interprets for God to other people
58. Ka’ba• A cube shaped shrine located in Mecca.• Built by Abraham to honor one god.
59. scribe• A person trained to write or copy documents by hand
60. economic• Relating to, or based on the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
61. military• Of or relating to soldiers, arms, or war
62. political• Of or relating to government, a government, or the conduct of government
63. social• Of or relating to human society, the interaction of the individual and the group, or the welfare of human beings as members of society
64. peninsula• A portion of land nearly surrounded by water and connected with a larger body by an isthmus; also : a piece of land jutting out into the water whether with or without a well- defined isthmus
65. nomad• A person who moves from place to place, often in search of water and vegetation.