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Chapter 7~the prophet muhammad


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Chapter 7~the prophet muhammad

  1. 1. Chapter 7 ~ The Prophet Muhammad
  2. 2. 1.1~Introduction
  3. 3. 1. Who built the ka’ba in Makkah? Why did this person build the Ka’ba? •Abraham built the Ka’ba. •He built it to show his love for one God.
  4. 4. 2. Why was Makkah an important city? •Makkah was an important city because the Ka’ba was located there.
  5. 5. 7.2~Arabia during muhammad’s time
  6. 6. 1. Where was Muhammad born? •Muhammad was born in Makkah. (Mecca)
  7. 7. 2. Why was Makkah thought as a trading center as well as a religious center? •Makkah was a trade center because it had many trade routes that went through the city. •Makkah was a religious center because the Ka’ba was located there.
  8. 8. 3. Even though arabs lived in arabia did not have a unified government, what was the one thing that they all had in common? How did this one thing help Makkah as a trading center? •Arabs living in Arabia shared cultural ties, especially their language which was Arabic. •Speaking all of the same language was beneficial in helping Makkah as a trading center because they could all understand one another.
  9. 9. 7.3~Muhammad’s early life
  10. 10. 1. Birth, Orphan, trader, marriage •Birth: Muhammad was born in Makkah. •Orphan: Parents died when he was young. He lived with his grandfather. •Trader: He learning how to be a trader by his grandfather. •Marriage: He married Khadijah at the age of 25.
  11. 11. 7.4~The Call to Prophethood
  12. 12. 1. cave, gabriel, allah, qur’an •Cave: Muhammad went to a cave to pray. •Gabriel: Angel Gabriel visited Muhammad in a cave and told him that he was chosen as the messenger of God. •Allah: Arabic word for God, same God as the Christians and the Jews. •Qur’an: All of Muhammad’s teachings are written in the Qur’an (Koran)...the holy book of Islam. It wasn’t written until after Muhammad’s death by some of his followers.
  13. 13. 7.5~Muhammad’s teaching meets with rejection
  14. 14. 1. reject, followers, boycott, night journey •Reject: Many of the people in Makkah believed in many gods so they rejected Muhammad’s preachings/teachings. •Followers: Muhammad’s first follower was his wife. People who followed his teachings were called Muslims. •Boycott: The leaders of Makkah boycotted or refused to do business with anyone that was a Muslim. For three years, these followers suffered from this boycott. •Night Journey: Muhammad went on a winged horse to Jerusalem and met other prophets then went through the seven level of heaven and met God. Jerusalem is holy to Christians, Jews, and Muslims.
  15. 15. 7.6~From the Migration to Madinah to the end of his life.
  16. 16. 1. Madinah, People of the book, battles, last sermon • Madinah: Muhammad went to Madinah (Medina) because Makkah wasn’t treating Muslims well. Madinah accepted Muhammad and it means City of the Prophet. • People of the Book: Muslims believe in one God just like Christians and Jews. • Battles: Muslims battled with Makkans and Muslims finally won. Muhammad smashed all of the idols in the Ka’ba to prove to people of Makkah that there was only one God. • Last Sermon: In March 632, Muhammad made his last sermon in Makkah and died shortly after returning to Madinah.
  17. 17. 7.7~The four caliphs
  18. 18. 1. Who was abu bakr? •Abu Bakr was Muhammad’s friend and father-inlaw. •Abu Bakr became the next Muslim ruler after Muhammad died. He was known as a caliph or Muslim ruler.
  19. 19. 2. What is the caliphate? •Caliphate is made up of Muslim rulers that followed Muhammad because they followed the Qur’an and the examples set forth by Muhammad. •The Muslim government led by the caliphs was called the caliphate.
  20. 20. 7.8~The Umayyad dynasty
  21. 21. 1. Who are the sunnis? •Sunnis are people who believe that the best person for the job should be chosen by a council to become the next ruler of Islam or the next caliph.
  22. 22. 2. Who are the shi’ah? •The Shi’ah (shiites) believe that ONLY people who are related to Muhammad should be the next Muslim ruler or caliph. •Note: The Sunnis and Shi’ah still “battle” over this belief to this day.
  23. 23. 3. The Umayyads used the Arabic language to unify the Muslim empire. what else did they introduce that made trading in the Muslim empire easier for non-Arabs? •The Umayyads introduced new Arab coins (money) that made trading easier because they all had the same money system.
  24. 24. 4. What was the significance of cordoba, spain and how did this help the muslim empire? •Cordoba, Spain became known as a learning center where Muslim, Jewish, and Christian scholars shared ideas. •Muslim culture thrived in the arts, science, technology and literature.