1. Rome fell in the year of 476 c.e. What started after the fall of Rome? After the fall of Rome, the Middle Ages began. The Middle Ages can be broken up into three sections: Early Middle Ages ~ 476-1000 c.e. High Middle Ages ~ 1000-1300 Late Middle Ages ~ 1300-1450
2. What is feudalism and why was it needed? Feudalism is an economic and political system. It was needed because after the fall of Rome, there were barbarians and other kingdoms trying to invade Europe. This made Western Europe a dangerous and difficult place to live.
3. Looking at the image on page19, what does it illustrate about the system of feudalism?Answers will varyMy answer: It show that there are more people at thebottom of the pyramid which probably indicates thatthey have less power. Power increases as you go upthe pyramid.
4. What groups of people are part of the feudal system? The groups of people within the feudal system are: lords, knights and peasants. The monarch (king/queen) is at the top of the feudal pyramid.
5. Label the Feudal Pyramid with the groups of people: King/Que en/Mona rch Lords/Nobles Knights Peasants/Serfs
6. What do you notice about theshape of the pyramid and how it relates to the power within the feudal society?The pyramid is large at the bottom and then getssmaller when it reaches the top.This is very much the way that feudalism works. Thereare more people at the bottom who do not have muchpower and as you move through the feudal hierarchy,the higher you go the more power and less peoplethere are at the top.
1. Why didn’t Europe have a central government after Rome fell?Europe didn’t have a central government or system ofdefense because it had fallen into ruins after the fall ofRome. There were too many groups of barbarians inRome after it fell and they didn’t have Rome in theirbest interests.
2. What group usually had the most power during this timeperiod when Europe didn’t have a central government? Why?The group that had the most land and the best army ordefense had the most power in Europe when Romefell and it didn’t have a central government.
3. Why were the Franks a successful barbaric group?The Franks are from the area that we refer to asFrance now.They were a successful barbaric group because theyhad a new style of warfare which consisted of knightswho were armed warriors that fought on horses.In order to have the knights remain loyal in times ofbattle, the leader (ruler) promised land or otherrewards to the knights upon victory.
4. Why was Charlemagne thought to be the most important leader of the Franks? List three of his ACCOMPLISHMENTS.Charlemagne was known as Charles the Great.He ruled from 768 until 814 and he was thought as “statelyand dignified”.His Accomplishments: Unified nearly all the Christian land of Europe into ONE EMPIRE. He encouraged education and art of learning. In order to build his empire, he received the help of the pope which was extremely important.
5. Charlemagne was crowned “Holy RomanEmperor” by the Catholic Church in 800 c.e. Why would this be significant as a leader?Since Charlemagne was crowned “Holy RomanEmperor” it shows the people that the Catholic churchhad his back and trusted him completely.With this blessing from the church, the people believethat Charlemagne had “God on his side”.
6. Why did Charlemagne’s empire fall apart after his death?Even though many of these new leaders followed thenew system of feudalism by rewarding knights rewardsfor military service, the new leaders weren’t strongenough to hold back new invasions from barbarians.
7. What did Charlemagne do for his knights that became the framework for feudalism in Europe?Charlemagne gave the knights land or other rewardsfor their loyalty and military service for his empire.
8.) What was the main reason forfeudalism? (Think about the attacks from the Muslims, Magyars, and the Vikings.)The people of Europe needed ways to defendthemselves against the attacks from the Muslims,Magyars, and the Vikings. They developed feudalismbecause this was a method of organizing authority aswell as organizing armies.
1. During the High Middle Ages, what two groups owned most of the land in Europe?The two groups that owned the most land in Europeduring the High Middle Ages were: the Monarchs(Kings/sometimes a Queen) & the Church.
2. Why do you think people who were born into a certain social class (peasants, knights,nobles, and monarchs) had the same positionas well as job throughout their entire life and the life of future children? Answers will vary. My Answer: During the Middle Ages, many people taught their children their particular job because in times of need, war, or even through arranged marriages. Their offspring (children) can help the family in different ways so they have been trained from early on in their lives and it was difficult to break that chain or to change the way it has been done.
1. What was the job of a monarch (king or queen)Monarchs are expected to keep order and to provideprotection for their vassals. Vassals are the monarch’smost important lords and the monarch gives pieces ofland to these lords in return for protection IF themonarch gets into trouble.
2. Why was William known as William the Conqueror?William became known as William the Conquerorwhen he beat his cousin, Harold, for the Englishthrone in the Battle of Hastings.
3. What concept did William the Conqueror bring to England?William brought the concept of feudalism to England.
1. Why were castles important within the lord’s community?A castle was built to serve as a lord’s home, but moreimportantly it was built as a method of militarytechnology in order to give protection for anyone wholived in them.
2. List five features of a castle:moatgateswallstall towersbailey (enclosed court)
3. What were the duties of a lord who “owned” the manor?It was the lord’s responsibility to manage and defendhis land.The lord made sure that everyone within his land weredoing their jobs.The lord also acted as judges in the manor courts,and he had the power to fine and punish those whobroke the law.Some lords held posts in the king’s government.Lords also supplied knights during war.
4. If someone stated that living in a manorhome/castle was glamorous, what evidencecould you state that it wasn’t always a great experience?As stated in the textbook, lives were not easy incastles. Areas were only lit by candles, and they couldonly keep warm by open fires. Castles could be coldand gloomy with little or no privacy. Also there werefleas and lice that were part of all medieval buildingsprobably because people or people’s clothes werehardly washed.In times of war, the people living on the manor wouldoften go to the castle during war so there would be somany people living in and around your own livingquarters.
1. Why was it costly to be aknight during the Middle Ages?Knights had to purchase their own suit of armor aswell as their horse.
2. List the jobs as well as the ageof each stage in order to become a knight:Page: begins at the age of 7Job description: A page learned how to ride a horse,received religious instruction, helped around the castlefor the ladies and the ladies taught them how to sing,dance, compose music, and play the harp.
2. List the jobs as well as the ageof each stage in order to become a knight:Squire: began at age: around 14 years oldJob description: He spent some of his time trainingwith a knight. He observed the knight and helped theknight with his armor, weapons, etc. He learned howto fight with a sword and a lance. He also went intobattle with his knight and helped him prepare for battleor to stay with him if his knight was wounded.
2. List the jobs as well as the ageof each stage in order to become a knight:Knight: Began at early 20s.Job description: Only if you were well equipped tobecome a knight, you were made one during a“knighting” ceremony. However, if a squire did verywell in battle, they could be welcomed into“knighthood” immediately.
3. What new technology endedthe profession of “knights” during the Middle Ages?The invention of gunpowder as well as cannons endedthe career of knights.
1. What was the main purpose of having peasants on your manor?The peasants were required to work the land so thisfreed up the lords and knights to prepare for war orfighting.
2. What was the difference between “Free” and “Unfree” peasants?Free Peasants: They rented their land from the lord tofarm and owed on their rent to the lord.Unfree Peasants: They are called serfs and theyfarmed the lord’s fields and could not leave the lord’sestate. In return, they received a small piece of landfor their own to farm.
3. Define these terms which were connected to peasants.Head money: Yearly Tax which was the same forevery person.Tallage: A tax that the lord can demand if the lordneeded money.Merchet: This is a tax when a woman married, this taxwas paid by the bride’s father or her husband.
3. What do these terms tell youabout a peasant’s life on the feudal manor? Answers will Vary! My opinion: These terms tell me that the peasants were heavily taxed and that they were expected to give the lord not only a payment in physical labor, but also their payment in taxes as well.