Chapter 11 workhseet notes


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Chapter 11 workhseet notes

  1. 1. Early Societies in West Africa
  2. 2. 11.2 Geography & Trade
  3. 3. Sahara Desert 3,500,000 square miles Sand dunes cover 1/4 of of the Sahara Very dry Has some scattered oases has bare, rocky plains as well as mountains.
  4. 4. Sahel short grasses, small trees, small brush grows in the sahel. south of the Sahara Known as the semidesert Not as dry as the Sahara
  5. 5. Savanna Tall grasses, trees and grains grow in the savanna Sahel merges into the Savanna. Has a long rainy season Niger River help make land fertile and also provide fish for eating.
  6. 6. Forest Trees, shrubs, oil palms, yams, kola trees, mahogany, teak trees grow in the West African forests. Wetter than the savanna Northern part: is the woodland forest. Southern part: is the rainforest (rains year round)
  7. 7. 2. Trade: Why was trade so important to West African communities? • 2. Different resources are found in the different areas. People had to trade in order to get the resources that they did not have in their region.
  8. 8. 11.3 Communities & Villages
  9. 9. 1. What is an extended family? How many members would be part of an extended family? • An extended family includes close relatives such as grandparents as well as aunts, uncles and their children. • An extended family may have about 15- 20 members.
  10. 10. 2. List three things that an extended family may do together. • Extended families formed villages to control flooding • mine for iron or gold • or for protection.
  11. 11. 3. Who made decisions in a family-based community? • One of the male elders probably made decisions for the community.
  12. 12. 11.4 Development of Towns & Cities
  13. 13. 1. What were the two reasons why African villages eventually grew into Towns and Cities? • Growth of ironworking. • Expansion of trade
  14. 14. 2. How did the introduction/discovery of iron influence the transformation from villages into towns and cities? • Farmers could clear land and grow more crops. • This gave an abundance of food available to people and gave people a chance to make other things. • They could trade their supplies for goods they could not produce themselves and this created trading sites. These sites grew richer and became towns & cities due to a higher population of people settling there.
  15. 15. 2. How did the location along trade routes affect development of cities? • Villages located along rivers or other trade routes became trading sites. By taxing traders, villages became wealthy. Wealth led to an increase in population, and villages often grew into towns and cities.
  16. 16. 3. Why were archaeologists fascinated with the city of Jenne-jeno? • Jenne-jeno was located at the intersection of the Niger and Bani Rivers. This ideal location for farming, fishing, and trade allowed it to become a large city. • Historians did not think that cities existed in West Africa until they discovered Jenne-jeno.
  17. 17. 4. Why were blacksmiths at a higher status level than others in the city of Jenne-jeno? • People were amazed that blacksmiths could make iron useful and iron was more valuable to them than gold. • People thought that blacksmiths had supernatural powers. • Blacksmiths were similar to political leaders, judges, doctors, and other important positions.
  18. 18. 11.5 The Rise of Kingdoms & Empires
  19. 19. 1. According to History Alive, trading cities developed into kingdoms/empires because of taxes collected from trading goods. Why would money be a factor in creating a larger kingdom/empire? • With the increase of money, these areas could afford to have larger armies, which would in turn allow them to conquer other trading cities/towns.
  20. 20. 2. Explain how a tribute worked and why was it an important gesture to a new king? • After a place was conquered, a tribute was paid to the new “owner” of the land. • This tribute was a way to show the new “owner” that you will obey his rules. • Tributes helped pay for more protection that was needed from outside attackers.
  21. 21. 3. Disadvantages of being a part of a kingdom? • People living in conquered areas had to pay tribute • men had to serve in the army.
  22. 22. 3. Advantages of being a part of a kingdom? • Armies made sure trade routes were safe. • They kept out foreign armies and raiders. • Wars between small cities ended. • Kings passed out the luxury goods fairly throughout the kingdom.