Before you start make a copy of this document1. What states were carved out of the Oregon Territory?2. Why did Congress finally pass legislation to admit Texas to the Union?3. Why were Americans upset that Mexico would not sell California andNew Mexico to the U.S.?4. Why was Taylor sent to occupy disputed territory?5. What was the immediate cause of the Mexican American War?6. What American general led the attack at Buena Vista?7. Who won the Battle of Veracruz?8. What American general took control of southern California?9. What was the name of the independent California Republic?10. Where did young Mexican soldiers make a last stand against theAmericans?11. How much did the U.S. pay Mexico forthe Mexican Cession?12. The U.S. paid $10 million for a small strip of land in what two states tocomplete a rail line to the Gulf of California?
Oregon• The United States and Great Britain signed the treaty in 1846 thatestablished the Oregon boundary at latitude 49 N. The United States gotthe land south of the line and Britain got the land north of the line.• The area was named the Oregon Territory. Eventually the territory wasdivided into the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho.Question: What states were carved out of theOregon Territory?
Annexing Texas• In 1844, the United States signed a treaty with Republic of Texaspresident, Sam Houston.• The U.S. Senate refused to ratify the treaty• Houston threatened to ally Texas with the British• Congress passed a joint resolution to admit Texas to the Union in 1845Question: Why did Congress finally pass legislation toadmit Texas to the Union?
The United States and Mexico Clash• The Mexicans were furious about the annexation of Texas• They feared that the Americans would encourage rebellions in NewMexico and California• Americans were angry that the Mexicans refused to sell New Mexico andCalifornia to the U.S.• Many Americans believed that Mexico was preventing the United Statesfrom accomplishing its goal of controlling all territory from the Atlantic tothe Pacific.Question: Why were Americans upsetthat Mexico would not sell Californiaand New Mexico to the U.S.?Disputed territory
A Border DisputeMexico severed relations with the UnitedStates after the annexation of Texas.President Polk sent an envoy to negotiatethe purchase of California and New Mexicobut the Mexican president refused tosee him.Polk was so angry that in January, 1846 hesent General Zachary Taylor to occupythe disputed area between the NuecesRiver and the Rio Grande.Question: Why was Taylor sent to occupydisputed territory?
War Begins• On April 25, 1846 Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and clashedwith American troops stationed there killing or injuring 16 men• On May 9, Polk asked Congress for a declaration of war because “…Mexicohad invaded out territory and shed American blood on American soil.”• Congress declared war on Mexico on May 13• Thousands of young Americans volunteered to fighthttp://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/resources/video_library.htmlClick on The United States Declares War on MexicoQuestion: What was the immediate cause of theMexican American War?General Zachary Taylor
Battle of Buena Vista• General Taylor crossed the Rio Grande into northern Mexico• His 5,000 men encountered Santa Anna and his 15,000 troops outside ofMonterrey, Mexico• Using heavy artillery Taylor was able to turn back Santa Anna’s army• The Mexicans retreated with 1,800 killed or wounded.• The Americans had 673 killed or wounded.• Both sides claimed victory.Question: What American general ledthe attack at Buena Vista?
Veracruz• General Winfield Scott landed south of the city of Veracruz in March 1847• Veracruz was considered the most heavily fortified city in the WesternHemisphere during the early 19th century.• Bombardment from Scott’s forces and several American naval vessels offthe coast caused the Mexican commander to demand a ceasefire.• After three days of negotiation, Mexican General Morales, agreed tosurrender the city of Veracruz.• Scott had 13 men killed and 54 wounded and Morales between 350-400soldiers killed, as well as, 500-600 civilians.Question: Who won the Battle of Veracruz?Landing atVeracruz
Revolt in California• General Stephen Kearny was given orders to take 1,700 American soldiersknown as the “Army of the West” and invade western Mexico and California• He captured Santa Fe without firing a shot.• He left some soldiers at Santa Fe then proceed west to California.• After a long difficult journey across the desert he was able to takecontrol of southern California in 1847.http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/resources/video_library.htmlClick on : Kearny’s Army marches west to Conquer New Mexicoand CaliforniaQuestion: What American general took control ofsouthern California?
The Bear Flag Republic• At dawn on June 14, 1846, thirty-three armed Americans gathered at thehome of Mexican General Vallejo, in present-day Sonoma, California.• They knocked on the general’s door and he invited them in. He told themen he thought that Mexico was incapable of ruling California and he alsoexpressed the opinion that the U.S. should annex California.• To show that they control the area the man created a new flag to replacethe Mexican flying over Sonoma plaza. The flag had a star, and a grizzlybear. They called their new independent nation the Bear Flag Republic.• John C. Fremont drove Mexican troops outnorthern California.Question: What was the name of theindependent California Republic?
The Final Battle• General Scott reached Mexico City by early September 1847• To capture the city Scott would have to capture Chapultepec Castle, hometo the Mexican military academy• The castle is located at top of a 200 foot hill on the western side of MexicoCity.• After bombarding the castle for days, men with ladders stormed the wallsof the castle.• The boy heroes, as the cadets werecalled, put up much resistance but thecastle and the city fell to Americansforces.Question: Where did young Mexicansoldiers make a last stand against theAmericans?Chapultepec Castle
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo• The agreement that ended the Mexican American War was called theTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo• Under the terms of the treaty Mexico agreed to cede, or give up, all ofCalifornia and New Mexico to the United States.• The U. S. agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and agreed to respect therights of Spanish-speaking people in the territory.• The new ceded to the U.S. was called theMexican Cession.Question: How much did the U.S. pay Mexico forthe Mexican Cession?
Gadsden Purchase• In 1853, the United States paid Mexico $10 million for a strip of land inpresent-day Arizona and New Mexico• The Southern Pacific Railroad needed land to complete a railroad line tothe Gulf of California because the land in the Mexican Cession was toomountainous for a railroad route to the Gulf of California• Ambassador James Gadsden negotiated the purchase with the MexicangovernmentQuestion: The U.S. paid $10 million fora small strip of land in what two statesto complete a rail line to the Gulf ofCalifornia?