Designed as Designer            Richard P. Gabriel               IBM Research
Conceptual integrity is the key to good design
Fred Brooks says:               Conceptual integrity is the key to good design
The central problem…is to get conceptual integrity inthe design itself…           –Fred Brooks, ooPSLA 2007 Keynote
In the past, good designs were typically made bysingle minds or two minds
Fred Brooks says:            In the past, good designs were typically made by            single minds or two minds
If we look back then at the 19th century and the thingsthat happened—the cartwright and the textilemachinery, Stephenson (...
Works of art are not made by teams, but by individuals alone
Fred Brooks says: Works of art are not made by teams, but by individuals alone
Now if we look back at the history of human production andculture, most works of art have not been made [by teams].And tha...
Brunelleschi’s dome is a perfect example
Fred Brooks says:                Brunelleschi’s dome is a perfect example
…modern scholars now recognize that the works of Homer…are…the works ofone mind.…[T]he important poem Beowulf is…a literar...
But Fred Brooks is not always right
Now, the second major reason why we do things in teams ishurry to get to market. We all know the rule that the firstperson ...
Total                                6%       Pre-1940                              6%      1940–1974                     ...
Total               9%          Pre-1940              8%         1940–1974             14%         Post-1974              ...
Total            19 yrs                   Pre-1940           30 yrs                  1940–1974           17 yrs           ...
First-to-Market Study Errors investigators usually ignored pioneers who failed completely or left the market many studies ...
Total              64%      Pre-1940             72%     1940–1974             50%     Post-1974             56%    Tradit...
Current       Category                 Pioneer           Interim Leader          Leader (2000)                            ...
The seed was planted—the seed of doubt. Maybe Fred Brooks could bewrong.
The seed was planted—the seed of doubt. Maybe Fred Brooks could bewrong.               Not wrong, really, but incomplete.
The seed was planted—the seed of doubt. Maybe Fred Brooks could bewrong.                Not wrong, really, but incomplete....
The seed was planted—the seed of doubt. Maybe Fred Brooks could bewrong.                Not wrong, really, but incomplete....
The seed was planted—the seed of doubt. Maybe Fred Brooks could bewrong.                Not wrong, really, but incomplete....
Ian Randall Wilson
Ian Randall Wilson Poet Short story writer Novelist Executive in the film industry(MGM, Sony Pictures) Founder of 88: A Jou...
Ian Randall Wilson Poet Short story writer Novelist Executive in the film industry(MGM, Sony Pictures) Founder of 88: A Jou...
T. S. Eliot
Ezra Pound
First we had a couple of feelers down at Tom’s place,There was old Tom, boiled to the eyes, blind,(Don’t you remember that...
April is the cruellest month, breedingLilacs out of the dead land, mixingMemory and desire, stirringDull roots with spring...
Here only flame upon flameand black among the red sparks,streaks of black and lightgrown colorlesswhy did you turn back,that...
(Now the cypress are swaying) (Now the lake in the distance)(Now the view-from-above, the aerial attack of do youremember?...
Designed as Designer
Lucille Clifton
Lucille Clifton Charity Randall prize Jerome J. Shestack Prize an Emmy 1984 Coretta Scott King Award. First author with tw...
Lucille Clifton Charity Randall prize Jerome J. Shestack Prize an Emmy 1984 Coretta Scott King Award. First author with tw...
I have grown to understand narrative as a form of contemplation, acomplex and seemingly incongruous way of thinking. I com...
In the drafts that follow, I listen to what has made it to the page.Invariably, things have arrived that I did not invite,...
There can be no discovery in a world where everything is known. Acrucial part of the writing endeavor is to practice remai...
You may wonder where plot is in all this. The answer… isnowhere…. I believe plotting and the spontaneity of real creationa...
anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things
anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things  Hiding Place
anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things  Hiding PlaceThird Dimension
anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things  Hiding PlaceThird Dimension    s. e. k. s.
anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things  Hiding Place            LiquefactionThird Dimension    s....
anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things  Hiding Place            LiquefactionThird Dimension      ...
anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things  Hiding Place            LiquefactionThird Dimension      ...
conceptual integrity = the identity of the song  Hiding Place           LiquefactionThird Dimension         Jerry Chapman ...
If you can recognize conceptual integrity in comparisons,you can learn to recognize it alone
Center: A center is any place in a poem that attracts attention; centers canarise from the action/interaction of these cra...
Local Symmetries: a center with another nearby which is somehow an echoDeep Interlock and Ambiguity: centers that are hard...
Lourdes                                        Alternating Repetition & Echoes (”miracles”)                               ...
Lourdes                        There are miracles that nobody survives        sense?          Observers of to remember whe...
Lourdes sense fixed             There are miracles that nobody survives        sense?          No one comes screaming of wh...
Robert Hass
Robert Hass Yale Series of Younger Poets Award William Carlos Williams Award National Book Critics Circle Award MacArthur ...
Robert Hass Yale Series of Younger Poets Award William Carlos Williams Award National Book Critics Circle Award MacArthur ...
Robert Hass Yale Series of Younger Poets Award William Carlos Williams Award National Book Critics Circle Award MacArthur ...
The history of architecture, especially in the period from 1600 to thepresent, and culminating in the thought of the 20th ...
Yet if [my] observations…are held to be true about theproduction of living structure, and if, as I have suggested, livings...
It is interesting that Brunelleschi receives much credit for coming upwith the tension ring concept, although he only over...
randomness             stories
randomness  stories
1914   0              1915   4              1916   3              1917   2              1918   11              1919   29  ...
Subjects told: because of a budget  problem, only one of the two anagram solvers was being paid,and that one by random sel...
Tom was randomlychosen to be    paid
Tom was        Bill was randomly       randomlychosen to be   chosen to be    paid           paid
Tom is         Bill is  better!        better!  Tom was        Bill was randomly       randomlychosen to be   chosen to be...
Test subjects told only 1 puzzle solver             was being paid, and that by random                           selection...
(define factorial (lambda (n)  (if (= n 0) 1 (* n (factorial (- n 1))))))
(define factorial (lambda (n)  (if (= n 0) 1 (* n (factorial (- n 1))))))(define actorial (alpha (n c)  (if (= n 0) (c 1) ...
Then came a crucial discovery—one that, to us, illustrates the valueof experimentation in language design. On inspecting t...
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Designed as Designer            Richard P. Gabriel
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Designed as Designer

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Conceptual integrity arises not (simply) from one mind or from a small number of agreeing resonant minds, but from sometimes hidden co-authors and the things designed themselves.

This presentation was created by Richard P Gabriel (www.dreamsongs.com) and presented at IME-USP - São Paulo on 30/Mar/2011 sponsored by CCSL (ccsl.ime.usp.br)

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Designed as Designer

  1. 1. Designed as Designer Richard P. Gabriel IBM Research
  2. 2. Conceptual integrity is the key to good design
  3. 3. Fred Brooks says: Conceptual integrity is the key to good design
  4. 4. The central problem…is to get conceptual integrity inthe design itself… –Fred Brooks, ooPSLA 2007 Keynote
  5. 5. In the past, good designs were typically made bysingle minds or two minds
  6. 6. Fred Brooks says: In the past, good designs were typically made by single minds or two minds
  7. 7. If we look back then at the 19th century and the thingsthat happened—the cartwright and the textilemachinery, Stephenson (the train), Brunel’s bridgesand railway, Edison, Ford, the Wright brothers, etc—these were very largely the designs of single designersor, in the case of the Wright brothers, pairs. –Fred Brooks, ooPSLA 2007 Keynote
  8. 8. Works of art are not made by teams, but by individuals alone
  9. 9. Fred Brooks says: Works of art are not made by teams, but by individuals alone
  10. 10. Now if we look back at the history of human production andculture, most works of art have not been made [by teams].And that’s true whether we look at literature, whether we lookat music—although we have Gilbert and Sullivan, noticethat one did the words and one did the music—Brunelleschi’s dome, Michelangelo’s tremendous works, thepaintings—there are some paintings by two painters; one didthe creatures and one did the landscape kinda thing, thiscareful division of labor—and the exceptions to the notionthat most of the great works we know of were done by onemind are in fact done by two minds and not by teams. –Fred Brooks, ooPSLA 2007 Keynote
  11. 11. Brunelleschi’s dome is a perfect example
  12. 12. Fred Brooks says: Brunelleschi’s dome is a perfect example
  13. 13. …modern scholars now recognize that the works of Homer…are…the works ofone mind.…[T]he important poem Beowulf is…a literary work…of one mind.As I say the exceptions are two, and two is a magic number. There are many,many jobs in the world that are designed for two people: the carpenter and thecarpenter’s helper, the electrician and the electrician’s helper. And I think our Lordknew what He was doing when He made marriage work for two.But now let’s look at some of these magnificent works.Brunelleschi’s dome—and many of you have read the book—was a tremendouscreation, technically beyond what people believed possible. He had to produce aworking scale model before the people buying the project would even believe that itcould be built. And notice the scale of this building in comparison with thesurrounding buildings. –Fred Brooks, ooPSLA 2007 Keynote
  14. 14. But Fred Brooks is not always right
  15. 15. Now, the second major reason why we do things in teams ishurry to get to market. We all know the rule that the firstperson to market with a totally new innovation tends tostabilize out with 40 or 45 percent of the share, and the restis divided up among the come latelys. –Fred Brooks, ooPSLA 2007 Keynote
  16. 16. Total 6% Pre-1940 6% 1940–1974 10% Post-1974 4% Traditional 3% Digital / high-tech 8% –Gerard J. Tellis & Peter N. Golder, Will and VisionMarket share of pioneers (as of 2000)
  17. 17. Total 9% Pre-1940 8% 1940–1974 14% Post-1974 6% Traditional 7% Digital / high-tech 13%Pioneers who are current leaders (as of 2000)
  18. 18. Total 19 yrs Pre-1940 30 yrs 1940–1974 17 yrs Post-1974 5 yrs Traditional 29 yrs Digital / high-tech 7 yrsYears between entry of pioneer and current leader (as of 2000)
  19. 19. First-to-Market Study Errors investigators usually ignored pioneers who failed completely or left the market many studies suffer from self-report bias there are definitional problems with some surveys trying to determine first-to-market advantage
  20. 20. Total 64% Pre-1940 72% 1940–1974 50% Post-1974 56% Traditional 71% Digital / high-tech 50%Failure Rate of Pioneers (as of 2000)
  21. 21. Current Category Pioneer Interim Leader Leader (2000) water, alkali and Soap cassia oil (Babylon, Ivory, Dial Dove 2800 BC,) Detergent Liquid Lux Joy, Ivory Dawn Rheingold, Meister Light Beer Trommer’s Red Letter Brau Bud LIght Miller Light Video Games Magnavox Odyssey Atari, Nintendo, Sega Sony Tandy, Apple, IBM, PCs MITS Compaq Dell Wang, Easy Writer, Word Processors IBM Memory Writer Wordstar, Word Word PerfectOnline Service Providers CompuServe Prodigy AOL Browsers WorldWideWeb Mosaic, Netscape Internet Explorer Lombard, Ameritrade, Online Stock Trading K. Aufhauser E*Trade Charles Schwartz PC Operating Systems CP/M APPLE ][, DOS Windows
  22. 22. The seed was planted—the seed of doubt. Maybe Fred Brooks could bewrong.
  23. 23. The seed was planted—the seed of doubt. Maybe Fred Brooks could bewrong. Not wrong, really, but incomplete.
  24. 24. The seed was planted—the seed of doubt. Maybe Fred Brooks could bewrong. Not wrong, really, but incomplete. Incomplete in his scholarship or depth of analysis.
  25. 25. The seed was planted—the seed of doubt. Maybe Fred Brooks could bewrong. Not wrong, really, but incomplete. Incomplete in his scholarship or depth of analysis.Or maybe he—as many of us do—looks a little too optimistically forthe real world to confirm his ideas.
  26. 26. The seed was planted—the seed of doubt. Maybe Fred Brooks could bewrong. Not wrong, really, but incomplete. Incomplete in his scholarship or depth of analysis.Or maybe he—as many of us do—looks a little too optimistically forthe real world to confirm his ideas. Or he is not wrong but in situ examples are too messy to be perfect. As G. B. Shaw could have said, they are too true to be good.
  27. 27. Ian Randall Wilson
  28. 28. Ian Randall Wilson Poet Short story writer Novelist Executive in the film industry(MGM, Sony Pictures) Founder of 88: A Journal of Contemporary American Poetry Founder and editor-in-chief of Hollyridge Press
  29. 29. Ian Randall Wilson Poet Short story writer Novelist Executive in the film industry(MGM, Sony Pictures) Founder of 88: A Journal of Contemporary American Poetry Founder and editor-in-chief of Hollyridge Press
  30. 30. T. S. Eliot
  31. 31. Ezra Pound
  32. 32. First we had a couple of feelers down at Tom’s place,There was old Tom, boiled to the eyes, blind,(Don’t you remember that time after a dance,Top hats and all, we and Silk Hat Harry,And old Tom took us behind, brought out a bottle of fizz,With old Jane, Tom’s wife; and we got Joe to sing“I’m proud of all the Irish blood that’s in me,There’s not a man can say a word agin me”). –T. S. Eliot, The Waste Land (deleted material)
  33. 33. April is the cruellest month, breedingLilacs out of the dead land, mixingMemory and desire, stirringDull roots with spring rain.Winter kept us warm, coveringEarth in forgetful snow, feedingA little life with dried tubers. –T. S. Eliot, The Waste Land
  34. 34. Here only flame upon flameand black among the red sparks,streaks of black and lightgrown colorlesswhy did you turn back,that hell should be reinhabitedof myself thusswept into nothingness?why did you turn back?why did you glance back?why did you hesitate for that moment?why did you bend your facecaught with the flame of the upper earth,above my face? H. D.
  35. 35. (Now the cypress are swaying) (Now the lake in the distance)(Now the view-from-above, the aerial attack of do youremember?)—now the glance reaching her shoreline wanting only to be recalled,now the glance reaching her shoreline wanting only to be taken in,(somewhere the castle above the river)(somewhere you holding this piece of paper) Jorie Graham.
  36. 36. Designed as Designer
  37. 37. Lucille Clifton
  38. 38. Lucille Clifton Charity Randall prize Jerome J. Shestack Prize an Emmy 1984 Coretta Scott King Award. First author with two books of poetry as finalists for the Pulitzer Prize in the same year (1988) Shelley Memorial Award Lannan Literary Award for Poetry National Book Award for Poetry Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize; the $100,000 prize honors a living U.S. poet whose “lifetime accomplishments warrant extraordinary recognition.”
  39. 39. Lucille Clifton Charity Randall prize Jerome J. Shestack Prize an Emmy 1984 Coretta Scott King Award. First author with two books of poetry as finalists for the Pulitzer Prize in the same year (1988) Shelley Memorial Award Lannan Literary Award for Poetry National Book Award for Poetry Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize; the $100,000 prize honors a living U.S. poet whose “lifetime accomplishments warrant extraordinary recognition.”
  40. 40. I have grown to understand narrative as a form of contemplation, acomplex and seemingly incongruous way of thinking. I come to knowmy stories by writing my way into them. I focus on the characterswithout trying to attach significance to their actions. I do not look forsymbols. For as long as I can, I remain purposefully blind to themachinery of the story and only partially cognizant of the world mystory creates. I work from a kind of half-knowledge. –Robert Boswell, The Half-Known World
  41. 41. In the drafts that follow, I listen to what has made it to the page.Invariably, things have arrived that I did not invite, and they areoften the most interesting things in the story. By refusing to fullyknow the world, I hope to discover unusual formations in thelandscape, and strange desires in the characters. By declining toanalyze the story, I hope to keep it open to surprise. Each new draftrevises the world but does not explain or define it. I work throughmany drafts, progressively abandoning the familiar. What I can seeis always dwarfed by what I cannot know. What the characters cometo understand never surpasses that which they cannot grasp. Theworld remains half-known. –Robert Boswell, The Half-Known World
  42. 42. There can be no discovery in a world where everything is known. Acrucial part of the writing endeavor is to practice remaining in thedark. –Robert Boswell, The Half-Known World
  43. 43. You may wonder where plot is in all this. The answer… isnowhere…. I believe plotting and the spontaneity of real creationaren’t compatible…. I want you to understand that my basic beliefabout the making of stories is that they pretty much make themselves.The job of the writer is to give them a place to grow. –Stephen King, On Writing
  44. 44. anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things
  45. 45. anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things Hiding Place
  46. 46. anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things Hiding PlaceThird Dimension
  47. 47. anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things Hiding PlaceThird Dimension s. e. k. s.
  48. 48. anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things Hiding Place LiquefactionThird Dimension s. e. k. s.
  49. 49. anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things Hiding Place LiquefactionThird Dimension Jerry Chapman s. e. k. s.
  50. 50. anyone can recognize conceptual integrity in a series of things Hiding Place LiquefactionThird Dimension Jerry Chapman s. e. k. s. Retromotive
  51. 51. conceptual integrity = the identity of the song Hiding Place LiquefactionThird Dimension Jerry Chapman Blue Öyster Cult s. e. k. s. Retromotive
  52. 52. If you can recognize conceptual integrity in comparisons,you can learn to recognize it alone
  53. 53. Center: A center is any place in a poem that attracts attention; centers canarise from the action/interaction of these craft elements: stress/unstress;sound; unit of syntax; rhyme; repeated words and sounds; line; first word ina line; last word in a line; stanza; image; metaphor and other figures; title; thepoem itself; historical or political elements; revealed metaphysics; meaningLevels of Scale: centers at all levels of scaleStrong Center: a center related to many other centersBoundaries: separates a center from other centers, focuses attention on theseparated center, is itself made of centersAlternating Repetition: strong centers repeated with alternating centers; notsimple repeating; pattern with variationPositive Space: a center that moves outward from itself, seemingly oozinglife rather than collapsing on itselfGood Shape: a center that is beautiful by itself
  54. 54. Local Symmetries: a center with another nearby which is somehow an echoDeep Interlock and Ambiguity: centers that are hard to pull apart; centersthat derive power from surrounding centers; centers that cannot be removedwithout diminishment; centers that are part of several othersContrast: differentiation, distinctness, discernible oppositesGradients: softness; qualities vary subtly, gradually, slowlyRoughness: a certain ease; the inessential is left messyEchoes: family resemblance not exact replicationThe Void: stillness or literally a quiet pointSimplicity and Inner Calm: all irrelevant parts are gone; it is as simple andspare as it can be and still retain its life; nothing more can be removed; eachpart seems simple and simply madeNot-Separateness: at one with the world, and not separate from it
  55. 55. Lourdes Alternating Repetition & Echoes (”miracles”) Strong Center There are miracles that nobody survives sense? Observers of to remember where or when And these are the only true miracles miracles are hopeful sing-song Since we never hear about them not Rough weak centers Contrast Boundary & (miracles/common) Since we never hear about them (”them”) Deep Interlock and Ambiguity It increases their chance of being common Local Symmetry Echoes (”...of(f )”) Everyday things without witness without (”without”...”without”) Alternating Us even how absently close we brush Gradient & weak/ambiguity Repetition (”wit”) enjambment Strong Center Teeth sneeze cook supper mail post Boundary (”without/us”) confusing enjambment Cards in contrast o cial miracles take Boundary (”post/cards”) Contrast (hopeful—hopeless) A far o locale veri able visitable Echoes (v and “able”) Some backwater never heard before of since Strong Center RoughnessAlternating (”head before of”)Repetition & Not pop the map but part the pilgrim’s lips it noise (line)Local Symmetries([tpp] [ptp] [tpp]) Springs up hospitals hotdog stands pour in boring Echoes (stresses) Testeroniacs pimple victims even Alternating Contrast (”springs up” For credentials cripples pour in Repetition “pours in”) (”pour in”) not a word Echoes Echoes Their limbs hung all whichway on them (sounds of “pimple” and ”cripples”) Signslats nailed on a slanting Local Symmetry & Echoes (”Signslats” “slanting”) Roughness Direction-post at a muddy crossroads Echoes (D t p t dd d) In the boondocks of a forgotten place weaker center than previous stanza Echoes (”crossroads”“boondocks”) image of hopelessness Bill Knott
  56. 56. Lourdes There are miracles that nobody survives sense? Observers of to remember where or when And these are the only true miracles sing-song Since we never hear about them not Rough weak centers Since we never hear about them (”them”) It increases their chance of being common Everyday things without witness without weak/ambiguity Us even how absently close we brush Teeth sneeze cook supper mail post confusing enjambment Cards in contrast o cial miracles take Boundary (”post/cards”) A far o locale veri able visitable Some backwater never heard before of since Not pop the map but part the pilgrim’s lips it Springs up hospitals hotdog stands pour in boring Testeroniacs pimple victims even Alternating For credentials cripples pour in Repetition (”pour in”)not a word Their limbs hung all whichway on them Signslats nailed on a slanting Direction-post at a muddy crossroads In the boondocks of a forgotten placeweaker center than previous stanza
  57. 57. Lourdes sense fixed There are miracles that nobody survives sense? No one comes screaming of where what when sing-song fixed And these are the only true miracles sing-song Since we never hear tell about them— weak end words not Rough weak centers remain (”—” added) (”them”) Since we never hear tell about them It increases their chance of being common Everyday events without witness without sense fixed weak/ambiguity Us even—how absently close we brush confusing enjambment Boundary fixed Teeth sneeze cook supper mail postcards } confusing enjambment weak end word now In contrast o cial miracles take a far Boundary (”post/cards”) embedded O locale some backwater—or podunk Echoes retained, Which although unveri able is visitable better end words, better sense weak end word Not pop the map but part the pilgrim’s weak end words gone wrapped Lips it springs up hospitals hot dog boring closer to real word Stands pour in testosteroniacs pimple Alternating Victims but most of all cripples—their better weak Repetition end word in”) (”pournot a word Limbs misled and skewed and crisscross Like—roadsigns that point everywhere On a signpost bent over a weedy crossroads In the boondocks of a forgotten placeweaker center than previous stanza many Echoes, better noise, Strong Center, Void?
  58. 58. Robert Hass
  59. 59. Robert Hass Yale Series of Younger Poets Award William Carlos Williams Award National Book Critics Circle Award MacArthur Fellowship National Book Critics Circle Award for poetry National Book Award Winner, Poetry Pulitzer Prize co-winner, Poetry Two-term US Poet Laureate
  60. 60. Robert Hass Yale Series of Younger Poets Award William Carlos Williams Award National Book Critics Circle Award MacArthur Fellowship National Book Critics Circle Award for poetry National Book Award Winner, Poetry Pulitzer Prize co-winner, Poetry Two-term US Poet Laureate
  61. 61. Robert Hass Yale Series of Younger Poets Award William Carlos Williams Award National Book Critics Circle Award MacArthur Fellowship National Book Critics Circle Award for poetry National Book Award Winner, Poetry Pulitzer Prize co-winner, Poetry Two-term US Poet Laureate
  62. 62. The history of architecture, especially in the period from 1600 to thepresent, and culminating in the thought of the 20th century, has beenbased on the idea that the architect’s vision arises, almost spontaneously,and at all events suddenly in the breast of the architect—a visionobtained from inspiration that arrives fully fledged from “thin air”—and that the quality, depth, and importance of the architect’s vision comesfrom this mysterious moment. Contemporary students tremble as theytry to attain this mystery. –Christopher Alexander, The Nature of Order
  63. 63. Yet if [my] observations…are held to be true about theproduction of living structure, and if, as I have suggested, livingstructure always arises slowly, by successive transformations ofwhat exists, gradually, gradually, and then decisively changesslowly until a new thing is born, then the view of the unfetteredarchitect-creator that has been fostered in the last 400 yearsmust be completely wrong. –Christopher Alexander, The Nature of Order
  64. 64. It is interesting that Brunelleschi receives much credit for coming upwith the tension ring concept, although he only oversaw theirconstruction. The tension rings were proposed by Neri before Filippogot involved. It affirms the benefits of good public relations andbenevolent historians. –Jim Atkins, Il Duomo: Brunelleschi and the Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore
  65. 65. randomness stories
  66. 66. randomness stories
  67. 67. 1914 0 1915 4 1916 3 1917 2 1918 11 1919 29 1920 54 1921 59 1922 351957 14 1923 411958 28 1924 461959 16 1925 251960 39 1926 471961 61 1927 601962 33 1928 541963 23 1929 461964 26 1930 491965 8 1931 461966 13 1932 411967 9 1933 341968 5 1934 22 1935 6Roger Maris Babe Ruth
  68. 68. Subjects told: because of a budget problem, only one of the two anagram solvers was being paid,and that one by random selection
  69. 69. Tom was randomlychosen to be paid
  70. 70. Tom was Bill was randomly randomlychosen to be chosen to be paid paid
  71. 71. Tom is Bill is better! better! Tom was Bill was randomly randomlychosen to be chosen to be paid paid
  72. 72. Test subjects told only 1 puzzle solver was being paid, and that by random selection Subjects broken in 2 groups This group told that This group told that Tom was randomly Bill was randomly chosen to be paid chosen to be paid Both groups watch the same scripted performance that shows no difference in skill level This group This groupchooses Tom as chooses Bill as more skilled more skilled
  73. 73. (define factorial (lambda (n) (if (= n 0) 1 (* n (factorial (- n 1))))))
  74. 74. (define factorial (lambda (n) (if (= n 0) 1 (* n (factorial (- n 1))))))(define actorial (alpha (n c) (if (= n 0) (c 1) (actorial (- n 1) (alpha (f) (c (* f n)))))))
  75. 75. Then came a crucial discovery—one that, to us, illustrates the valueof experimentation in language design. On inspecting the code forapply, once they got it working correctly, Sussman and Steele wereastonished to discover that the codes in apply for function applicationand for actor invocation were identical! Further inspection of otherparts of the interpreter, such as the code for creating functions andactors, confirmed this insight: the fact that functions were intended toreturn values and actors were not made no difference anywhere intheir implementation.…But the lambda and alpha mechanismswere themselves identical, and from this Sussman and Steeleconcluded that actors and closures were the same concept.
  76. 76. .
  77. 77. .
  78. 78. Designed as Designer Richard P. Gabriel

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