Interior Lighting for Local Governments - LED vs. Incumbents

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Numerous LED products are currently ready for prime and are better than incumbent technologies for interior applications. But there are also many LED products that are not yet nearly as cost effective as high performance fluorescent, halogen infrared, MH, etc.

This seminar will discuss reach-in frig/freezers, decorative lights, accent lighting, recessed cans, linear replacement lamps, troffers and other applications. A 0.4 - 0.6 watts per square foot with good lighting quality is attainable with highperformance task ambient lighting, without the need for expensive, more complex
systems. Long-term life cycle costs will be included. (High bay lighting is not included, because there is another workshop dedicated to the subject.)

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Interior Lighting for Local Governments - LED vs. Incumbents

  1. 1. INTERIORS LED vs. INCUMBENTS(with big dose of task ambient) STAN WALERCZYK, CLEP, LC LIGHTING WIZARDS8/8/10 version 1
  2. 2. WHO ARE YOU?• Please introduce yourselves – Name – Company (optional) – Function• What you would specifically like to learn? 2
  3. 3. STAN WALERCZYK’S BIO• 21 years experience – Distribution, maintenance, installer, retrofit contractor, fixture designer, consultant, lighting designer, policy maker, researcher• 500+ projects• 30+ published articles• 600+ seminars• IESNA Member 1995 - 2008 – Currently on Spectral Effects Committee• Certified Lighting Energy Professional by AEE – CLEP Review Board member• Lighting Certified by NCQLP• Consultant for California Title 20 and Federal EPACT• Consultant for Army Corp of Engineers CERL• Assisted on DOE spectrally enhanced lighting research• DOE CALiPER Guidance Committee member 3
  4. 4. DISCLAIMER• I use to feel that I was totally on top of the subjects that I would speak on• But now with all of the developments with LEDs, OLEDs, light emitting plasma and even incumbent technologies for interiors and exteriors, it is almost impossible for one person to be on top of everything• If any of you know significant details on any of today’s material, please share it – Without being an infomercial 4
  5. 5. NO ENDORSEMENTS• Although several manufacturers and models are listed, none are endorsed• Easier to talk about specifics than generalities 5
  6. 6. FORMAT• Please ask questions when we are on that subject• Periodic breaks 6
  7. 7. WHAT IS NOT INCLUDED• Although hibays are interior, they are not included in this seminar, because there is a dedicated hibay seminar for them – ‘Fluorescent, Induction, LED & MH - 10 Rounds in the Hibay Arena’• Although garages may be considered interior, they are in my exterior lighting seminar – ‘EXTERIOR LIGHTING - LED, Induction, HPS, MH, Plasma, Fluorescent’ 7
  8. 8. SAVING ENERGY• Yes, LEDs can save significant wattage and KWH• But incumbent technologies may be able to save more energy cost effectively for some applications• As LED products improve and cost less, there will be shifts – So even if incumbents are better now, that may not be the case in 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 years 8
  9. 9. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting – Google search ‘doe ssl’ • CALiPER test reports • Benchmark reports • Gateway studies • Fact sheets • Webinars • More 9
  10. 10. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting – Lighting Facts • www.lightingfacts.com – LEDs For Interior Applications • PDF of March 18 webcast • www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/events_detail.html?event_id= 4163 10
  11. 11. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy – Commercial Building Energy Alliances • Technology and System Specification Development –LED Refrigerated Case Lighting –And there are others • www2.eere.energy.gov/buildings/alliances/tech nologies.html 11
  12. 12. HELPFUL EMAIL• Postings: From the Desk of Jim Brodrick – About once a week – March 16 version focused on how bad LED T8s are – www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/postings.html – postings@lightingfacts.com 12
  13. 13. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Energy Star – www.energystar.gov• L Prize – www.lightingprize.org• Lighting For Tomorrow SSL Awards – www.lightingfortomorrow.com• Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition – www.ngldc.org 13
  14. 14. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Lighting Research Center – www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/solidstate/index.asp• LEDs Magazine – www.ledsmagazine.com• Architectural SSL Magazine – www.architecturalssl.com 14
  15. 15. HAS THE LIGHTING INDUSTRY EVOLVED?• Up to 2 years ago, I would have said yes• But the last two years a lot of the LED marketing literature and sales people, remind me of reflector and CFL marketing literature and sales people in the late 80s to mid 90s – Way too many LED sales people know very little about lighting and may have been selling cars recently • Many do not even know what LM79 and LM80 are 15
  16. 16. TRUTH IN ADVERTISING?• Not only has the DOE CALiPER Program revealed – Many LED products not meeting manufacturer specifications – But also that many fluorescent, incandescent and halogen products have the same problem 16
  17. 17. TROPHY CHIPS• In production runs, there are often some LED chips that have very high lumens per watt, which can be called trophy chips• Be cautious of sample fixtures, especially for large projects – If free or directly furnished sample fixture(s) from a manufacturer look very good, buy one or more samples through a third party and compare performance with original ones 17
  18. 18. WOW FACTOR• Because LEDs are new and different, they have the WOW factor much more than most other lighting technologies – But that not necessarily make them better with regard to performance and cost effectiveness• Early adopter manufacturers, specifiers, contractors and end-customers are important, but care should be taken not go overboard 18
  19. 19. LUMENS PER WATT• LED – 6000K typically has about • 20% more lumens per watt than 4000K • 25% more lumens per watt than 3500K – For exterior applications that lower CRI is okay 4000K chips can have about the same lumens per watt has higher CRI 6000K chips – Most ‘white’ LEDs are really blue LEDs with similar phosphors that fluorescents use • The less that the spectrum has to be shifted to a lower CCT from 6000K, the more efficient the blue/phosphor conversion • But 6000K will typically not work in interior applications – Developments are being made with lower Kelvin LEDs getting closer to the efficacy of 6000K 19
  20. 20. LED APPROXIMATE LUMENS PER WATT CHIP FIXTURE TIME AT STEADY STATE WITHOUT DRIVER OR FRAME TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE INCLUDING FIXTURE LOSSES EFFICIENCY PAST 70 40 2009 100 70 2010 120-130 90-100 2011 150- 160 120-130Although some chips have better LPW withoutheat losses, other chips perform better in reallife applications 20
  21. 21. LUMENS PER WATT• Incumbent technologies have standardized lamps and, when necessary, standardized ballasts – So can do comparisons of lumens per watt with lamps and ballasts• But there are really no standardized LED ‘lamps’ – So can really only do lumens per watt out of fixtures at steady state temperatures • Although incumbent bare lamps have high lumens per watt, a bunch of the light may never get out of the fixtures and even the light that gets out of the fixture may not go where it is useful • While LEDs can direct most or all of the light out of the fixture and where it should be directed 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. DIMMING• LED – LED chips dim quite well – But not all LED fixtures or replacement lamps are designed to dim • DOE has found that – Some LED products, which are listed to dim, do not dim well with some or most dimmers – Some LED products, which are not listed to dim, do dim well with some or most dimmers – Some LED products list approved incandescent dimmers – Since LEDs can get more efficient when they dim, because they run cooler when dimmed, LEDs will probably be the future of dimming • But may really need dedicated dimmers that provide full power to the driver instead of incandescent type dimmers 24
  25. 25. DIMMING• Fluorescent – Fluorescents with dimming ballasts can dim, but • Lumens per watt gets worse, because the more dimming, the more power has to go to heating the cathodes of the lamps • Dimming ballasts are expensive – CFLs have some special characteristics • Dedicated dimmable screw-ins usually cannot dim below 20% • CFLs turn grayish or bluish when dimmed, which is opposite of our cave man (or cave woman) heritage 25
  26. 26. DIMMING• MH (Metal Halide) – Can dim quite well with electronic ballast • But only down to about 50% – Since no lamp cathode heating, can be more efficient than fluorescent dimming• Induction – Philips should introduce a dimming generator in 2010 – Sylvania is planning to come out with a bilevel generator in 2010• LEP (Light Emitting Plasma) – Can dim quite well with electronic digital amplifier – Example is Luxim • www.luxim.com 26
  27. 27. COLOR RENDERING• CRI (Color Rendering Index) – Based on how ‘natural’ pastel or unsaturated colors look with various light sources – Works fairly well for all incumbent light sources 27
  28. 28. COLOR RENDERING• Although LEDs do not always do well with pastel colors, they often do very well with bright or saturated colors – Often people think that LEDs with lower CRI make bright colors look more natural than other light sources that have higher CRI – So do not automatically think that lower CRI LEDs are inferior – But there are numerous LED products with 90+ CRI, which is excellent• There is work going to replace CRI with another color matrix that will include both pastel/unsaturated and bright/saturated colors 28
  29. 29. LONG TERM COLOR CONSISTENCY• LED – There are two common ways to get white light • Most common is white LED, which is really blue LED and yellow phosphor – Similar to the phosphors used in fluorescent lamps • RGB (red, green and blue LEDs) – Reverse rainbow – Both can have color shift over time • Wavelength of blue LEDs can change over time and the phosphor can change as it ages and gets baked in its own way • Red, green and blue LEDs have different lumen maintenance curves, so if there no feedback loop with dimming drivers, color can easily shift – With being so new, we have not really seen the potential full impact of LEDs changing colors over time – This could be an issue down the road in spaces with new and older LED fixtures or replacement lamps – Cree has a very interesting system in their LR6s and LR24s, which is a combination of white and red LEDs with a feedback loop, so if too high Kelvin light is sensed, the red LEDs get brighter 29
  30. 30. LONG TERM COLOR CONSISTENCY• Fluorescent – Color is typically very stable from start to end • But CFLs can turn grayish when deeply dimmed• MH – Old style probe start lamps can be pinkish or bluish to begin with and can get worse over time – Pulse start quartz is better than probe start quartz – Ceramic is usually quite good 30
  31. 31. ARE LEDS REALLY MOREENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• Yes, fluorescent, HID and induction have mercury – But the manufacturers have been doing a very good job reducing it – Many states require recycling – Many fixtures can be kept for a long time, because lamps and ballasts can be easily replaced• LEDs do not contain any mercury – But there are toxic chemicals used in production – There is usually a lot of valuable aluminum or other metals used for heat sinks – Many fixtures are currently not designed to be easily and cost effectively retrofitted 31
  32. 32. ARE LEDS REALLY MOREENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• Some issues not often considered regarding LED fixtures – Water in manufacturing wafers/chips – Energy to mine, transport and melt the heavy metal into bars, which will be used for heat sinks – Energy to melt the metal bars into heat sinks – Energy to transport the heavy fixtures – Energy to re-melt the heavy metal heat sinks into bars or something directly useable after fixtures have been decommissioned 32
  33. 33. ARE LEDS REALLY MOREENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• The DOE hired Carnegie Mellon to do a cradle-to- cradle study to see if LEDs are really more environmentally friendly than incumbent – That study should be completed and published soon• Until then… – Please consider hanging up the phone and kicking out all LED sales people that lay out the marketing hype that LEDs are so much more environmentally friendly• After the report… – Even if the report states that LEDs are not really more environmentally friendly, there will still be a bunch of LED sales people promoting superiority 33
  34. 34. DON’T BUY AN LED PRODUCT UNLESS• LM79 tested by a DOE or NVLAP approved or CALiPER recognized lab – This is initial lumens per watt out of fixture at steady-state operating temperature – Compare each product’s results with other LED product’s results – Also compare with other technology products’ performance• LM80 information – At least 6000 hour so lumen maintenance data for the LED package – ENERGY STAR requires 6000 hour lumen maintenance of 94.1% for 35,000 hour life or 91.8% for 25,000 hour life – Verify in situ temperature of the LED package in the fixture – Lumen maintenance is just one aspect of luminaire life and reliability 34
  35. 35. MORE HELPFUL INFO REGARDING BUYING LED PRODUCTS• Lean toward manufacturers that have Lighting Facts Label, www.lightingfacts.com – With good results• Lean toward ENERGY STAR rated products• Lean toward manufacturers that have a proven track record and deep pockets – These manufacturers that got into LEDs early have already learned a lot from the school of hard knocks – These manufacturers can handle big warranty problems 35
  36. 36. LIFE• LEDs – Interior LED products are expected to last 30,000 - 50,000 hours, while still maintaining 70% of initial lumens • Although that is based on good science, it is still projections – Currently LEDs are tested for 6,000 hours, and life is based on extrapolating that info – Within TM21 the IES is considering that life should not be extrapolated more than 6 times testing duration – One advantage of LEDs is that they can be turned on and off very frequently without shortening lamp life • In fact it may help increase life, because run cooler – LED chips are usually not the weakest link • Drivers and other components are 36
  37. 37. LIFE• LED – Since LEDs typically do not die, like most incumbent lamps, but just get dimmer and dimmer over time • In this way LEDs are like mercury vapor, which an old 1000 watter may only provide 5 footcandles, but maintenance people do not want to replace them, because the lamps are still working – There are already a bunch of first generation LED exit signs that still work, but do not provide sufficient light based on NFPA and/or city codes • People are hesitant to replace or retrofit these, because they are still working – But there could be some big time lawsuits against the building owner, property management firm, etc. if people have a hard time getting out of a building during a fire or power outage – With LEDs facility managers and maintenance people will have to be educated and motivated to retrofit or replace LED fixtures when they do not provide sufficient light • Maybe LED fixtures could have internal timers, which makes the lamps flash on and off after so many hours 37
  38. 38. LIFE• Incumbents – Other technologies have been around long enough – So we have a much better idea how long they last 38
  39. 39. WHAT ABOUT LONG TERM MAINTENANCE?• Look longer than just rated life of LED fixtures – An LED fixture can look good up to its 50,000 hour life compared to high performance incumbent technologies • At 24/7 operation, that is less than 6 years • At typical open office operation that is about 14 years • At typical individual officer operation that is over 16 years • Often spaces get a remodel about 10, 15 or 20 years – Although LED pricing should come down dramatically over time, there are still driver and maybe costs for heat sinks, etc • So let’s say that the parts cost down the road may be half of what it is now – So if an LED fixture costs $350 now, the retrofit or replacement parts down the road may be half of that, which would be $175 39
  40. 40. WHAT ABOUT LONG TERM MAINTENANCE?• Using 1.5 times, which is also 150%, of rated life can be very useful evaluating the cost effectiveness of LED fixtures compared to existing and high performance incumbent technology fixtures 40
  41. 41. WHAT ABOUT LONG TERM MAINTENANCE?• Fluorescent and HID fixtures can easily and cost effectively get new lamps and ballasts to last decades – For example, parts and labor for a 2F32T8 fixture • Group relamping every 25,000 hours may cost $10 • Group reballasting every 50,000 hours may cost $40 • $60 total at 50,000 hours with brand new lamps and ballast • $120 total at 100,000 hours with brand new lamps and ballasts 41
  42. 42. WHAT ABOUT LONG TERM MAINTENANCE?• Really important to try to get LED fixtures that are modular with easily replaceable LEDs and drivers – And try to get LED troffers that you do not have to move adjacent ceilings and have to work on fixture above T- bar ceiling, which can take longer and be more a dirt/dust problem• With throw-away LED fixtures, make sure to recycle the pounds of valuable metal used for heat sinking 42
  43. 43. WHAT ABOUT LONG TERM LIGHT LEVELS?• LEDs maintain 70% of initial lumens at end of rated life (L70) – Without some kind of control system, it will typically be • Overlit to begin with so sufficient light at end of life – Overlighting also uses additional wattage • If proper light levels initially, there will usually be insufficient light at end of life • Retrofit or replace significantly earlier than rated life – Which increases parts and labor costs – Some kind of photocontrol,digital timer or central control system controlling light levels may work very well • But added cost and reliability would have to be evaluated• There is a good chance that some LEDs will die before end of life, which can further reduce light levels 43
  44. 44. WHAT ABOUT LONG TERM LIGHT LEVELS?• Most incumbent technologies lose much less light at end of rated life, so this issue is not nearly as critical as with LEDs – 20% for high performance MH – 8% - 10% for high performance T8 – 0% - 5% for incandescent, halogen & halogen infrared• But induction typically loses 30% - 35% of light at end of 100,000 hour rated life, so it has about the same concerns as LEDs 44
  45. 45. THROUGHOUT THIS PRESENTATION PLEASE REMEMBER• Raise the bar – Although LEDs have the ‘wow’ factor, compare the best LEDs with high performance and usually much lower cost incumbent technology products• Long term maintenance costs – What will the parts and labor costs be after an LED replacement lamp or fixture reaches 30,000 - 50,000 hour end of life compared to parts and labor costs to replace lamps and ballasts with incumbent technologies?• Long term light levels – Since LED rated life is based on 70% of initial lumens will space need to be overlit to begin with or will some kind of dimming system be required? 45
  46. 46. REACH-INFRIG/FREEZER 46
  47. 47. LED• Good LED products, especially with occupancy sensors work very good – Since no heat is the light side, can reduce cooling load in addition to wattage for lighting• Walmart and many other store chains have already or are in process of getting these• Some utilities have done a lot of work making specifications for rebates, for example – www.smud.org – www.pge.com• DOE has an LED refrigerated spec in development 47
  48. 48. LED• So far it has been mainly for frig/freezers with vertical doors, but some companies are also working on doorless horizontal applications• For some applications, important to have LEDs that have a good red content 48
  49. 49. 2009 NEXT GENERATION LUMINAIRES DESIGN COMPETITIONINDOOR - REFRIGERATED DISPLAY LIGHTING• GE Lighting Solutions’ Immersion RV30 – 1295 lumens – 29.0 watts – 44.7 lumens per watt 49
  50. 50. FLUORESCENT• Majority of 5’ lamps, which are low volume and relatively expensive• If have T12, definitely do something• Many existing T8s systems do not have the best lamps or the best ballasts• High performance T8 lamp and ballast systems can often save 20% wattage compared to generic T8 systems, which will also reduce cooling load – In many applications could go with a bilevel system controlled by an occupancy sensor• Before jumping into LEDs, good to ‘raise the bar’ and see if they are cost effective compared to high performance T8 systems 50
  51. 51. DECORATIVE 51
  52. 52. DECORATIVE• Christmas/decorative lights – LED versions are becoming a no brainer• Small lamps in chandeliers – Usually sparkle is important, and the amount of light is not critical – Although there are decorative shaped CFLs with small bases, which last much longer than incandescents, with white phosphor - No Sparkle – There are decorative LEDs available with small bases that have long life and sparkle• When getting these types of LED lights – Get ones with good warranties – Especially from big box stores. check with them if they require lumen maintenance tests before they carry certain products 52
  53. 53. OMNIDIRECTIONAL (FANCY NAME FORSOMETHING LIKE AN A19) 53
  54. 54. LED• If you see some without any cooling fins or another good way way of getting rid of heat – Do not even think of buying it• Getting better all of the time, but still not really cost effective to replace CFLs• But when there is at least one winner of the L Prize in this category, they should be ready for prime time – Philips has made an entry – Others will too – There can be up 4 winners in each category 54
  55. 55. CFLs• Although some people give CFLs a bad wrap, CFLs are quite good in many applications – Screw-ins can often cost $.25 with upstream rebates – Lumens per watt are quite good – CRI is quite good, typically in the 80s – Life is much longer than incandescents – Mercury is really not that much of an issue• Although quite good, there are some drawbacks, and maybe best to consider a temporary solution – Until LEDs or something else becomes ready for prime time 55
  56. 56. NEW KID ON THE BLOCK• Vu1 Technology – www.vu1.com• This is not an incumbent, but another new lighting technology, which is not considered solid state by the DOE• Interesting to see if it really becomes a cost effective solution 56
  57. 57. ACCENTLIGHTING 57
  58. 58. LED ACCENT LIGHTS• Good, Bad and Ugly – Some good products – Some not so good with honest specifications – Some not so good with way over zealous marketing hype – Verified in various CALiPER Rounds• Cool – Since LEDs do not emit any heat from the light side, they can be very good lighting flowers, produce, etc. without damaging them 58
  59. 59. LED MR16s• Best LED MR16s that DOE has tested so far can only replace up to 20W halogen MR16 – MR16s are on the small side for higher wattage LEDs to be able to dissipate sufficient heat – Most halogen MR16s are 50W standard or 35 - 37W infrared – Existing LED MR16s may work fine in • Overlit applications • Elevators, which are often overlit • Some aesthetic applications, where light levels not that important• Check if existing and new step down transformers will work with LED MR16s, because LED MR16s are such low wattage and will not activate step down transformers 59
  60. 60. HALOGEN MR16s• If existing are standard halogen – Can switch to lower wattage halogen infrareds • For example, 50W to 35 - 37W• If existing are halogen infrareds – Maybe keep for 1- 2 years• LED MR16s should be cost effective for many applications in 1 - 2 years 60
  61. 61. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• The larger the lamp, the easier it is to dissipate heat• If can use larger lamp, go with it• There are some LED reflector lamps without any cooling fins – Do not even think of buying• Some retail chain stores have already started switching to good LED reflector lamps 61
  62. 62. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• One good one is Cree’s LRP38 – 2009 Lighting For Tomorrow Solid State Lighting Competition Special Focus Award For Technical Innovation • 537 lumens • 11W • 50 lumens per watt • 93 CRI • 2700K 62
  63. 63. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• MSI iPAR-38 looks very interesting – www.msissl.com – Technology for adjustable • 10W with 550 lumens • 12W with 650 lumens • 16W with 800 lumens – Proprietary Intelligent Communication • Type of bar code reader can provide – Manufacturing info – Installation info – Hours of use – Wattage setting 63
  64. 64. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• LED R or PAR38s will really be ready for prime time after there is at least one winner of the L Prize in this category 64
  65. 65. LED MODULAR EXAMPLE 65
  66. 66. HALOGEN PAR 20, 30 & 38• Just like MR16s, there are halogen infrared PAR lamps – Which can save 10 - 20 watts compared to standard halogens• If standard halogens now, maybe go with halogen infrared now and wait 1 - 2 years to go with LEDs 66
  67. 67. CMH ACCENT LIGHTS• Ceramic Metal Halide with electronic ballasting have – Excellent CRI – Quite good lumens per watt – Reasonable long life• Available as – Small omni directional lamps which can go into fixtures with reflectors – PAR lamps – PAR lamps with integral electronic ballasts • GE, Philips and Sylvania have 23 - 25 watt PAR38s with 10,000+ hour rated life 67
  68. 68. RECESSED CANS 68
  69. 69. LED• Recessed cans for residential and commercial are a great application for LEDs – Majority of ENERGY STAR LED products are recessed cans 69
  70. 70. LED• Cree LR6 family – Original award winning kit has been around for a while • Pricing is now about $70 from distribution • Finally also available in 277V – Now also LR6-DR1000 higher lumen and higher wattage version available • 2009 Lighting For Tomorrow Solid State Lighting Competition Grand Prize – Later this year or next year LR6-HE high efficiency version should be available • 109 lumens per watt out of the fixture – Probably better than anything else out of the fixture • 2009 Lighting For Tomorrow Solid State Lighting Competition Special Focus Award For High Efficacy 70
  71. 71. LEDTypical Cree LR6 71
  72. 72. LED 2009 Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition Recognized Winners - Indoor - Downlighting• Philips Lightolier’s Calculite – 1048 lumens – 19.6 watts – 53.6 lumens per watt• Edison Price Lighting’s LED Round OS DL/5-800 – 653 lumens – 14.7 watts – 44.4 lumens per watt 72
  73. 73. LED 2009 Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition Recognized Winners - Indoor - Downlighting• Sea Gull Lighting / Juice Works’ LED Surface Mount Downlight – 610 lumens – 14.0 watts – 43.6 lumens per watt – Downlight, but not recessed can• Cooper Lighting’s Halo LED 900 – 740 lumens – 14.1 watts – 52.5 lumens per watt 73
  74. 74. LED 2009 Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition Recognized Winners - Indoor - Downlighting• Intense Lighting’s SS4 – 655 lumens – 15.0 watts – 43.7 lumens per watt• Cree’s LR6-DR1000 – 1020 lumens – 11.9 watts – 85.7 lumens per watt – Same picture as before 74
  75. 75. CFL• CFLs are reasonably efficacious, but – Not nearly efficacious as high performance T8 systems – Most are only rated for 10,000 - 12,000 hours – Many recessed can fixtures for them have very bad fixture efficiency • Like 50 - 60%• But there are some CFL recessed cans with more like 75% fixture efficiency• Usually best to try to – Have just one lamp per fixture – Minimize lamp types 75
  76. 76. LINEARREPLACEMENT LAMPS 76
  77. 77. LED T8s• There are hordes of sales people trying to sell these, because of potential huge volume and profit – Often Pinocchio-nose marketing hype• But the DOE has not tested one yet is nearly as good as high performance fluorescent T8s with high performance ballasts• Lamp cost can often range from $40 to $150 with proposed up to 50,000 hour realistic life 77
  78. 78. LED T8s• How they are connected – Some use existing fluorescent ballast, which consumes extra wattage, and the ballast would have to be replaced when it burns out • Ballasts typically have a 50,000 - 60,000 hour rated life – Some have internal driver, which requires removing existing fluorescent ballast and rewiring to lamp holders • May void UL listing of fixture – Some come with their external drivers 78
  79. 79. LED T8s• DOE documents – Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent lamps and LED Linear Replacement Lamps • January 2009 Benchmark Report • Includes that since LED T8s mainly shine light down, so between fixtures and walls can be quite dark – CALIPER Round 9 • October 2009 Report – LED Performance Specification Series: T8 Replacement Lamps • Asking Manufacturers for at least 2,700 lumens – That would require them to be 2 to 3 times more efficient than existing while keeping their existing 15 - 20 watts • April 2010 • http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/ssl/t8_replace ment-lamps.pdf 79
  80. 80. LED T8s• As the DOE states, LEDs often do not do that well taking the shapes of other technology lamps – Difficulty with distribution, heat sinks, etc.• What looks really ugly – In parabolic troffers 80
  81. 81. CALiPER-tested LED T8s ½ The Light Output or ½ the Luminaire Efficacy SSL vs Fluorescent in 2 x 4 Troffers 5000 F40 in Lensed TrofferLuminaire Output (lumens) 4000 F32 in Parabolic Troffer 3000 2000 SSL 1000 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Luminaire Efficacy (lm/W) Source: U.S. Department of Energy 81
  82. 82. FLUORESCENT T8s• Since many rebate programs require what are called high performance, super or 3rd generation T8s and what are called basic grade or 1st generation T8s will not be allowed to sold in 2012, we will just focus on the good ones – Highest lumen long life • www.cee1.org – Extra long life mid lumen 82
  83. 83. FLUORESCENT T8s• Some basic grade T8s do not have very good lamp life with instant start ballasts• T8 lamps can last much shorter than rated life when driven by instant start ballasts and controlled by occupancy sensors – But good T8 lamps can last as long as they should when turned on and off frequently, when driven by program start ballasts • Parallel wired program start ballasts are highly recommended 83
  84. 84. FLUORESCENT T8s• Although there is a lot of hype for T5s and T5HOs, high performance T8 lamps and ballasts typically provide – More lumens per watt – More BF flexibility – Longer life when driven with program start ballasts – Lower lamp and ballast cost initially and down the road – Minimization of lamp and ballast types – American jobs 84
  85. 85. 4 T8 LAMP LIFE, LUMENS, CRI & MERCURY 3000-4100K 5000K MAX LAMP LIFE HOURS LAMP WATTS CATALOG CATALOG MG INSTANT START PROGRAM START CRI CRI LUMENS LUMENS OF HG 3 HR 12 HR 3 HR 12 HR 1.7 - 15,000 - 20,000 - 20,000 - 24,000 -1st GENERATION - GENERIC 32 2800 75-78 2800 75-78 <10 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,0002nd GENERATION - 2800 - 1.7 - 15,000 - 20,000 - 20,000 - 24,000 - 32 2950 81-85 80-85GENERIC 2950 <10 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,000GE HL 32 3100 82 3000 80 3.95 25,000 36,000 36,000 42,000GE SXL 32 2850 81+ 2750 80 3.95 31,000 40,000 40,000 46,000PHILIPS ADV 32 3100 85 3100 82 1.7 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,000PHILIPS PLUS 32 2950 85 2850 82 1.7 30,000 36,000 36,000 42,000PHILIPS ADV XLL 32 2950 85 2850 82 1.7 36,000 40,000 40,000 46,000SYLVANIA XP 32 3000 85 2850 85 2.9 24,000 40,000 40,000 42,000SYLVANIA XPS 32 3100 85 3100 81 2.9 24,000 40,000 40,000 42,000SYLVANIA XP/XL 32 2950 85 2900 80 3.5 36,000 50,000 52,000 55,000GE SPX 28W 28 2725 82 2625 80 3.95 24,000 30,000 36,000 42,000PHILIPS ADV 28W 28 2725 85 2675 82 1.7 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,000SYLVANIA XP 28W 28 2725 85 2650 80 2.9 24,000 40,000 40,000 42,000SYLVANIA XP XL 28W 28 2600 85 2600 80 3.5 36,000 50,000 52,000 55,000GE SPX 25W 25 2400 85 2350 80 3.95 36,000 40,000 40,000 46,000PHILIPS ADV 25W 25 2500 85 2400 85 1.7 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,000PHILIPS ADV XLL 25W 25 2400 85 2350 82 1.7 36,000 40,000 40,000 46,000SYLVANIA XP 25W 25 2475 85 2400 80 2.9 24,000 40,000 40,000 42,000SYLVANIA XP XL 25W 25 2475 85 2400 80 3.5 36,000 50,000 52,000 55,000 1.4 - 20,000 - 25000 -F28T5 25-28 2900+ 85 2750+ 85 * * 2.5 30,000 40,000 1.4 - 20,000 - 25000 -F54T5HO 49-54 5000 85 4800+ 85 * * 2.5 30,000 40,000Lamp manufacturers may alter rated lamp life and lumen specifications, so get updates from manufacturers.Prepared by Stan Walercyk of Lighing Wizards 7/15/10 version. w w w .lightingw izards.com 85
  86. 86. 4 LINEAR FLUORESCENT EFFICACY TABLE initial lamp mean or mean or initial mean or catalog or lumens standard initial 8000 hour 8000 hour lamp lamp ballast system system 8000 hour4 lamp type photopic per ballast system lumen system watts quant type watts lumens system lamp lamp factor lumens maint- lumens per per watt lumens lumens watts enance watt 3100 32 96.9 2 EE IS 0.87 53 5394 101.8 95% 5124 96.7high performance F32T8 3100 32 96.9 2 EE PS 1.15 70 7130 101.9 95% 6774 96.8 3100 32 96.9 2 G IS 0.87 58 5394 93.0 95% 5124 88.4extra long life 2950 2950 32 92.2 2 EE IS 0.87 53 5133 96.8 95% 4876 92.0lumen F32T8 2950 32 92.2 2 G IS 0.87 58 5133 88.5 95% 4876 84.1 2800 32 87.5 2 EE IS 0.87 53 4872 91.9 95% 4628 87.3basic grade F32T8 2800 32 87.5 2 G IS 0.87 58 4872 84.0 95% 4628 79.8 2850 30 95.0 2 EE IS 0.87 51 4959 97.2 95% 4711 92.430W F32T8 2850 30 95.0 2 G IS 0.87 55 4959 90.2 95% 4711 85.7 2750 28 98.2 2 EE IS 0.87 48 4785 99.7 95% 4546 94.728W F32T8 2750 28 98.2 2 G IS 0.87 51 4785 93.8 95% 4546 89.1 2440 25 97.6 2 EE IS 0.87 42 4246 101.1 95% 4033 96.025W F32T8 2440 25 97.6 2 G IS 0.87 47 4246 90.3 95% 4033 85.8extra long life 25W 2400 25 96.0 2 EE IS 0.87 42 4176 99.4 95% 3967 94.5F32T8 2400 25 96.0 2 G IS 0.87 47 4176 88.9 95% 3967 84.4high lumen F28T5 3050 28 108.9 2 EE PS 0.95 58 5795 99.9 93% 5389 92.9typical F28T5 2900 28 103.6 2 PS 1.00 64 5800 90.6 93% 5394 84.326W F28T5 2900 26 111.5 2 EE PS 0.95 55 5510 100.2 92% 5069 92.226W high lumen F28T5 3050 26 117.3 2 EE PS 1.15 67 7015 104.7 92% 6454 96.351W F54T5HO 5000 51 98.0 2 EE PS 1.00 108 10000 92.6 92% 9200 85.2typical F54T5HO 5000 54 92.6 2 PS 1.00 117 10000 85.5 93% 9300 79.5F34T12 800 3100 34 91.2 2 RS E 0.85 60 5270 87.8 93% 4901 81.7F34T12 CW 2650 34 77.9 2 RS M 0.88 72 4664 64.8 87% 4058 56.4notes: Lumens, lumen maintenance, ballast factors and wattages may vary among various manufacturers.In enclosed fixtures, since reduced wattage F32T8s consume less heat they can often operate closer to optimal 77 degrees Ftemperature, so may provide more light than this table shows compared to full wattage.Although efficacy can be improved with IS and RS ballasts with T5s and T5HOs, lamp life can be greatly reduced and lampmanufacturers may not warranty lamps.93% is used as an average EOL lumen maintenance for T5HOs. 90% - 94% range among manufacturers.All wattages based on 277V. EE IS is extra efficient instant start. G IS is generic instant start. EE PS is extra efficient program start.PS is program start. RS E is rapis start electronic. RS M is rapid start magnetic.Extra long life is 36,000 hours with IS and 40,000 hours with PS ballasts at 3 hour cycles. 86Prepared by Stan Walerczyk of Lighting Wizards www.lightingwizards.com 11/11/09 version
  87. 87. FLUORESCENT T8s• Some LED marketing literature and sales people try to make fluorescent T8s look bad, like – Stating that T8s only last 15,000 or even just 10,000 hours• It is true that rated life for fluorescents, HID, incandescents and halogen is when half of the lamps have burned out and half are still working in laboratory conditions – Small percentage of lamps may only last a few months – Small percentage of lamps may last over a decade – Large majority of T8 lamps will last at least 80% of rated life when not turned on and off too much • For example, most 42,000 hour rated T8 lamps will last at least 33,600 hours when not turned on and off too much• GE, Philips and Sylvania do a good job policing each other on lumen and life ratings 87
  88. 88. FLUORESCENT T8s• Starting is the hardest on fluorescent lamps – Lamp life can really get short with instant start ballasts and occupancy sensors that turn on and off the lights more than 4 times per day on average – Program start ballasts really help lamp life when lamps are cycled on and off a lot • When I go over the pros and cons of instant and program start ballasts with T8s, over half of my clients select parallel wired program start ballasts• So the next time you see LED literature or hear an LED sales person stating that good fluorescent T8 lamps last less than 20,000 hours, you could – Throw away the LED marketing literature – Delete the LED file in your computer – Hang up on the LED sales person – Tell the LED sales person to leave 88
  89. 89. TROFFERS 89
  90. 90. LED• One that gets frequent mention is Cree’s LR24 2x2 troffer – 2008 Lighting For Tomorrow Solid State Lighting Competition • Honorable Mention, Efficacy – Now 2 versions • 3200 lumens & 44W • 3800 lumens & 52W – Dimmable – I have been specifying for • High profile conference rooms – 3200W version performed very well compared to other LED and high performance T8 troffers in DOE CALiPER Round 9 Testing 90
  91. 91. T8 FLUORESCENT• There is a new generation of high performance 2x4 1F32T8 troffers that can be installed in typical 8x10 spacing – Depending on BF and if instant or program start extra efficient ballast, wattage can range from 24 - 39 with direct relationship to lumens – Manufacturers and models include • Deco DPL-C – www.getdeco.com (but may not be in website yet) • Finelite HPR – www.finelite.com – Hopefully DOE will test at least one of these with LED troffers in an upcoming CALiPER round 91
  92. 92. T8 FLUORESCENT Office with Finelite HPRs 92
  93. 93. T8 FLUORESCENT• Existing 2x4 troffers can be cost effectively retrofitted down to 1F32T8 – Standard lensed troffers can often get a 1-cove white reflector • About $55 - $60 total installed cost – Parabolic troffers can get upscale kits • Such as ALP’s RHT kit – www.alplighting.com/pdf/uardiac%20rht.pdf – About $110 - $120 total installed cost 93
  94. 94. TROFFERS• LED troffers may cost about $350 and are rated for 50,000 hours, but may last significantly longer• Fluorescent high performance troffers may cost $100 - $175 with ballasts rated for 60,000 - 75,000 hours and good lamps driven parallel program start ballasts, rated for 30,000 - 46,000 hours – Recommended to group relamp and reballast at 70 - 80% of rated lives• Initial labor cost may be about the same• This is a great time to consider – Raise the bar – Long term maintenance costs – Long term light levels 94
  95. 95. SUSPENDEDINDIRECT/DIRECT FIXTURES 95
  96. 96. LED• LEDs could run cooler with less heat sinking than in troffers and recessed cans• Uniform uplight with some not too intense downlight are challenges• It will take a while for LED suspended fixtures to be cost effective compared high performance fluorescent suspended fixtures – Now LED 4 footer may cost $300 - $400 96
  97. 97. T8 FLUORESCENT• Well designed suspended indirect/direct fixtures with 1F32T8 per cross section – Can provide quite low power densities – Total installed cost often less than individual troffers • When can have relatively long rows in new construction and gut rehabs• One lamp per cross section is usually much better than two or three for – Optimal light distribution • Usually batwing – Best fixture efficiency – Lowest wattage – Lowest fixture cost• Fixture cost may be $25 - $40 per linear foot depending on type of fixture, quantity, etc. 97
  98. 98. T8 FLUORESCENT• Make sure fixture reflectors are designed for T8s and not for T5s/T5HOs• There are many good manufacturers and models – For example, Finelite offers several good models, including Series 12, 15 and 16 – These are photos of Series 12 with white cross blade 98
  99. 99. AT LAST TASK AMBIENT LIGHTINGWHERE LEDs CAN WORK WITH INCUMBENTS 99
  100. 100. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Task ambient lighting is having relatively low footcandle ambient lighting and additional task lighting when and where need it• Light levels drop off exponentially as distance increases between source and task – For example if double distance, 1/4 the footcandles – Much less wattage getting high light levels from a task light 2’ away from task, than from ceiling fixtures 6’ away from task• This strategy may be the most cost effective way to have very low power densities while providing good quality lighting• In typical offices, usually .4 - .6 watts per square foot is easily attainable 100
  101. 101. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Ambient, in offices, works very well with either – New or retrofitted 2x4 high performance troffers that have 1 high performance & often high Kelvin 32W F32T8 and high performance parallel wired program start ballasting • Maybe tandem wire ballast per pair of troffers – New or retrofitted suspended indirect/direct fixtures with 1 high performance & often high Kelvin 32W F32T8 per cross section and high performance parallel wired program start ballasting• Ambient lighting can provide 10 - 20 footcandles on desks – Often more light is worse than less light, because more light can cause more glare and higher contrast ratios 101
  102. 102. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Existing task – For a long time most modular office systems had fluorescent undercabinet task lights • But most of these fixtures – Use way too much wattage – Are glare bombs » Hitting shiny paper and/or desks and then bounced into eyes – Provide too much light » That is why often gray scale tube guards to reduce amount of light, but still uses all of the wattage – Often difficult to replace ballasts » Many ballast compartments too small for standard sized extra efficient ballasts – Sometimes still T12s with magnetic ballasts or T8s with magnetic ballasts – There are some good CFL desk mount task lights • But way too many people still use energy hog incandescent or quartz halogen 102
  103. 103. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• High performance LED task – There are some very good LED task light systems • One example is the Finelite PLS (Personal Lighting System) – 3, 6 & 9W undercabinet fixture » Not a glare bomb » Uses metal shelf as a heat sink – 3, 6 & 9W desk mount fixture » My 6 watter provides 50 footcandles directly underneath with no other lighting contribution – Optional occupancy sensor – For a decent quantity » 1 undercabinet fixture, 1 desk mount fixture, occupancy sensor, power supply and cables may cost $200 or less – New version has the switch before the power supply, so zero wattage when fixtures are off – For individual offices that do not have shelves over desks, often just a desk mount fixture is recommended 103
  104. 104. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Finelite PLS – Both undercabinets and desk mounts won 2007 Lighting For Tomorrow Awards – Desk mount, which is also called ‘Curve’ won 2009 Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition • Best In Class - Task Lighting www.finelite.com/sustainability/professional-development 104
  105. 105. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• There are several other LED office task lights, including Philips Color Kinetics UC Philips Alko Lincs100 & sensor Luxo Air Luxo Ninety Steelcase Kast 105
  106. 106. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• PG&E’s Emerging Technology Program’s ‘High Efficiency Office Low Ambient / Task Lighting Pilot Project’ – www.etcc-ca.com/project-search/search- results_m126/criteria:1/query:any/jr_endyear:2009/jr_organization:Pacific+Gas+and +Electric+%28PG%26E%29/order:alpha/page:2/limit:10/ – .66 watts per square foot – If 5000K and high performance fixed output ballasts would have been used, that power density could have been lower – Although dimming ballasts were used in the suspended ambient fixtures, that was for tuning, not for energy savings – This report clearly states that it would be much more cost effective to go with fixed output instant start ballasts• Since there are millions and millions of square feet of offices in North America and the world, reducing wattage and improving lighting is so important 106
  107. 107. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• There are also integral or one-piece fluorescent task ambient lighting systems – One example is Tambient • www.elliptipar.com/tambient 107
  108. 108. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• With good task ambient lighting the power density can be low all of the time that expensive and complex dimming daylight harvesting peak load shedding systems are not cost effective – Even with dimming ballasts in ambient fixtures, good task lights are usually recommended• My ‘Dimming vs. Nondimming Ballasts - 10 Rounds in the Daylight Harvesting and Peak Load Shedding’ seminar covers these issues in detail 108
  109. 109. TYPICAL OFFICE 12 long x 10 wide x 9 high $0.150 KWH rate $0.05 /KWH 1st year saved rebate 15 years of long term benefit existing proposed long term payback benefit pay- including long annual watts annual rated lamp including fixture & appr. appr. back maintenance term total annual elect- option total per watts elec- life @ 3 maintenanceapplication retrofit/replacement option description incen- installed just savings & benefit watts hours rical letter watts square redux trical hour savings & type tive cost elec- worker just elec- cost foot savings cycles worker tricity productivity tricity productivity benefits benefits Retrofit each troffer with 3 25W F32T8 30,000 - A 5000K lamps & .71 BF extra efficient 112 0.93 68 $41 $14 $120 2.6 2.2 $506 $628 36,000 program start parallel wired ballast Retrofit each troffer with upscale kit which eliminates parabolic louvers, 1 high lumen 30,000 - B 78 0.65 102 $61 $20 $230 3.4 1.9 $708 $1,443 F32T8 5000K lamp & 1.15 BF extra efficient 36,000 program start ballast Retrofit each troffer with upscale kit which eliminates parabolic louvers, 1 high lumen 30,000 - B1 F32T8 5000K lamp & .89 BF extra efficient 67 0.56 113 $68 $23 $310 36,000 4.2 2.1 $730 $1,747 program start ballast. Also include for T8s12 x 10 x 7W LED task light.9 office Retrofit each troffer with upscale kit whicharea with eliminates parabolic louvers, 1 high lumen 30,000 -2 2x4 18 B2 F32T8 5000K lamp & .71 BF extra efficient 62 0.52 118 $71 $24 $380 36,000 5.0 2.3 $706 $1,980cell program start ballast. Also include for T8sparabolic 2 7W LED task lights.troffers, Remove both troffers. Install 8 suspendedeach with indirect/direct fixture that has 2 high lumen 30,000 -3 32W 700 C 70 0.58 110 $66 $22 $410 5.9 2.7 $602 $1,790 F32T8 5000K lamps & 1.15 BF extra 36,000series efficient program start ballast.20,000 180 4000 $108 Remove both troffers. Install 8 suspendedhour rated direct/indirect fixture that has 2 high lumen 30,000 -F32T8s C1 F32T8 5000K lamps & .89 BF extra efficient 63 0.53 117 $70 $23 $490 36,000 6.6 2.7 $586 $2,166and instant start ballast. Also include 7W for T8sgeneric LED task light..88 BF Remove both troffers. Install 8 suspendedballasting direct/indirect fixture that has 2 high lumen 30,000 -(1.51 C2 F32T8 5000K lamps & .71 BF extra efficient 60 0.50 120 $72 $24 $560 36,000 7.4 2.7 $544 $2,488watts per instant start ballast. Also include 2 for T8ssquare 7W LED task lights.foot) Retrofit each troffer with 3 15W LED T8 25,000 - F2 lamps. Also include 2 7W LED task lights to 104 0.87 76 $46 $15 $640 13.7 8.6 $59 $470 50,000 provide sufficient light. Remove both troffers. Install 2 high G performance 2x2 LED troffers, set at full 82 0.68 98 $59 $20 $900 50,000 15.0 9.4 $2 $531 41W, so sufficient light at end of life. Remove both troffers. Install 2 high G1 performance 2x2 LED troffers, set at 34W. 75 0.63 105 $63 $21 $980 50,000 15.2 8.5 -$14 $742 Also include 7W LED task light. Remove both troffers. Install 2 high G2 performance 2x2 LED troffers, set at 28W. 70 0.58 110 $66 $22 $1,060 50,000 15.7 8.7 -$48 $744 Also include 2 7W LED task lights. copyright of Stan Walerczyk of Lighting Wizards, www.lightingwizards.com, 1/10/10 version 109
  110. 110. WHERE I NEVER THOUGHT I WOULD HAVE A LIGHT• Sylvania Ecolight (watered powered) – www.sylvania.com/AboutUs/Pressxpress/Tradeshowevents/Lig htfair2009/Press+Releases/SYLVANIAECOLIGHTWATERPO WEREDLEDSHOWERLIGHT.htm 110
  111. 111. FAKE TV• www.faketv.com/# 111
  112. 112. WRAP UP• Questions• Comments• Applications 112
  113. 113. ALL OF STAN’S SEMINARS• INTERIORS - LEDs vs. Incumbents with a big dose of task ambient lighting• EXTERIOR LIGHTING LED, Induction, HPS, MH, LEP, Fluorescent• FREE FOR ALL IN THE HIBAY ARENA Fluorescent, Induction, LED & MH• HOW LOW CAN YOU GO – Which is 1/2 of Advanced Lighting Retrofit Options• DIMMING vs. NON-DIMMING 10 Rounds in the Daylight Harvesting and Peak Load Reduction Arena• LIGHTING 101• LIGHTING CONTROLS – For 2011 113• Also custom ones for specific purposes
  114. 114. THAT’S ALL FOLKS• Please fill out any applicable forms• Contact information for Stan Walerczyk – 925-944-9481(San Francisco Bay Area) – stan@lightingwizards.com – www.lightingwizards.com• Thanks for attending 114

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