Exterior Lighting for Local Government


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If you are also considering replacing or retrofitting parking lot poles, garages, bollards, floods and other areas with a better option, this workshop is for you. Speaker Stan Walercyk will examine what works best for
certain applications and the costs associated with them. If you have considered light emitting diodes and thought that performance and pricing were not good enough, a lot has changed since 2009. Real-life estimates, high-tech control systems and other issues will also be discussed.

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  • A contributor to junction temperature is the ambient in which the luminaires are operated. This map shows the average night time temperatures across the United States using data from the national weather service. You should note that the average temperatures at night are 15⁰ C or lower across all but 3 states.
  • A contributor to junction temperature is the ambient in which the luminaires are operated. This map shows the average night time temperatures across the United States using data from the national weather service. You should note that the average temperatures at night are 15⁰ C or lower across all but 3 states.
  • House-side shield approximates Type III distribution for MH, but not successfully for CFL. Even without house-side shield, SSL beats MH and CFL in efficacy. SSL should be capable of much much better…other outdoor SSL luminaires at 50-70 lm/W.
  • Exterior Lighting for Local Government

    2. 2. WHO ARE YOU?• Please introduce yourselves – Name – Company (optional) – Function• If too many people, please somebody from Chula Vista, Marty Turock at San Diego Regional Street Lighting Working Group and Kenny Perez at Nate Mullen Visual Concepts introduce themselves, because they have been making some neat stuff happen down here – If anybody else has new and relevant news, please share 2
    3. 3. STAN WALERCZYK’S BIO• 21 years experience – Distribution, maintenance, installer, retrofit contractor, fixture designer, consultant, lighting designer, policy maker, researcher• 500+ projects• 30+ published articles• 600+ seminars• IESNA Member 1995 - 2008 – Currently on Spectrally Effects Committee• Certified Lighting Energy Professional by AEE – CLEP Review Board member• Lighting Certified by NCQLP• Consultant for California Title 20 and Federal EPACT• Consultant for Army Corp of Engineers Construction Energy Research Lab• Assisted on DOE spectrally enhanced lighting research• DOE CALiPER Guidance Committee member 3
    4. 4. NO ENDORSEMENTS• Although several manufacturers and models are listed, none are endorsed• Easier to talk about specifics than generalities 4
    5. 5. FORMAT• Please ask questions when we are on that subject• Periodic breaks 5
    6. 6. BACKGROUND INFO• HPS (High pressure sodium) – Yellow light – 24,000+ rated hours• MH (Metal Halide) – White light – 20,000 rated hours for over 300W – 10,000 - 15,000 rated hours for most lower wattage – Probe start, which are also called standard, not very good• Mercury Vapor (also called merc vap) – White light – 24,000+ rated hours – Low lumens per watt, so should be replaced 6
    8. 8. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy Solid State Lighting – Google search ‘doe ssl’ • CALiPER test reports • Benchmark reports • Gateway studies • Fact sheets • Webinars and more – Good streetlighting webinar on July 20, which you can get PDF – Lighting Facts • www.lightingfacts.com – Municipal Streetlighting Consortium • www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/gatewaydemos_consortium.html 8
    9. 9. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy – Commercial Building Energy Alliances • Technology and System Specification Development – LED Site (Parking Lot) Lighting – High Efficiency Parking Structure Lighting – And some interior and nonlighting ones • www2.eere.energy.gov/buildings/alliances/tech nologies.html 9
    10. 10. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Energy Star – www.energystar.gov• L Prize – www.lightingprize.org• Lighting For Tomorrow SSL Awards – www.lightingfortomorrow.com• Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition – www.ngldc.org 10
    11. 11. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Lighting Research Center – www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/solidstate/index.asp• LEDs Magazine – www.ledsmagazine.com• Architectural SSL Magazine – www.architecturalssl.com 11
    12. 12. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Iowa Energy Center – Exterior Lighting Demonstration Project • LED, induction, MH & CFL comparisons • Tri-level LED pole fixtures – Low level late night – Medium level when students and staff – High level for snow removal • Students manually measured footcandles • Occupancy sensors and other controls • Data management system • www.energy.iastate.edu/ERS/presentations.htm • Even worth it to travel to Des Moines – Could also see bridge and office building 12
    13. 13. HELPFUL EMAIL• Postings: From the Desk of Jim Brodrick – About once a week – postings@lightingfacts.com 13
    14. 14. LED• It is amazing how much LEDs have improved just over the last year – Some manufacturers have products that provide over 100 lumens per watt out of the fixture at steady state temperature • Which is much better than any other technology – Even at 70 or lower lumens per watt out of the fixture and being able to aim the light where it should go is better than other technologies for many applications – Pricing has really come down 14
    15. 15. LED• We now have good tools to compare LED kits and fixtures with each other and with other technologies – L70 • LEDs typically do not burn out, just get dimmer and dimmer over time, so rated life is based on when have 70% of initial lumens – LM79 • Initial lumens per watt out of the fixture at steady state temperature, where lumens are directed, etc. • Make sure performed by a lab approved by the DOE – LM80 • At least 6000 hour so lumen maintenance data for the LED package • Energy Star requires 6000 hour lumen maintenance of 94.1% for 35,000 hour life or 91.8% for 25,000 hour life • Verify in situ temperature of the LED package in the fixture • Lumen maintenance is just one aspect of luminaire life and reliability – Highly recommended not buy any LED product unless they have very good LM79 and LM80 numbers 15
    16. 16. LED• Energy Star Rating – This can make it easier, because good LM79 and LM80 ratings are necessary to qualify – There may be no Energy Star category for exterior fixtures yet• Manufacturers that have deep enough pockets to handle any potential large warranty issues and have a long enough proven track record• DOE has been working with many of the big box chain stores to help reduce amount of low price junky LED products that are sold – Including trying to get stores to only carry products that have been tested for lumen maintenance 16
    17. 17. LED• Looking ahead… – By 2015, just five years away • LEDs could provide 130+ lumens per watt out of the fixtures • Pricing should be significantly less, like maybe $100 - $200 for a cobrahead or shoebox pole fixture replacing 100- 150W HPS – That will probably make other technologies obsolete for many applications 17
    18. 18. LED• If LED fixtures and kits will be so much better and less expensive in a few years should you buy them now or wait? – Let’s use the computer analogy – So, if your existing system is in good shape and fairly efficient, maybe wait – But if your existing system is not in the best shape or is not efficient, probably buy – For new construction, since have to buy something anyway, LED fixtures are usually already cost effective 18
    19. 19. LED• Maybe we will see fixtures with internal clocks or photocontrol loops, so the drivers underdrives the LEDs to begin with, and slowly increase milliamps over rated life to maintain light levels• This could also be done with a central control system• At least one induction fixture manufacturer slowly increases generator wattage over time to provide better lumen maintenance 19
    20. 20. MAJOR MANUFACTURERS• Again no endorsements• Beta Lighting – Division of Ruud Lighting in Wisconsin – Got into exterior LED lighting in a big way sooner than any other company – More sales, experience, DOE studies and track record than any other manufacturer – Edge, LEDway and other product lines – Mainly made in the USA. – www.betaled.com 20
    21. 21. MAJOR MANUFACTURERS• Leotek – Especially new Green Cobra – www.leotek.com• GE, divisions of Philips, Holophane, etc. 21
    22. 22. MANUFACTURERS, ETC.• There are numerous other manufacturers from the USA, China, etc.• Ecofit recently introduced kits for cobraheads, etc. with very good thermal design – www.ecofitlighting.com• Some manufacturers that do not have long track record may have potential problems that they are not aware of – Such as thinking that they have sufficient surge protection and then customers finding out the hard way that they do not• In a year or two it should be a much more even playing field 22
    24. 24. 1. DIRECTING LIGHT WHERE IT SHOULD• Well designed LED fixtures can properly illuminate between fixtures and around designated perimeters without providing an excessive blob of light directly underneath fixtures, like all other light sources, including HPS, MH, LPS, MV, fluorescent and induction• That excessive blob of light wastes energy, so LED fixtures can save energy• Plus it is easy for well designed LED fixtures to be full cut-off, which is dark sky friendly 24
    25. 25. 2. LONG LIFE• Although some LED fixture manufacturers are quoting 150,000+ hours, it may be more realistic to consider 50,000+ or 60,000 - 70,000 hours – Which is considerably longer than HPS, LPS, MH, MV and is about the same as useable life for induction• This long life can save cities, town, counties and other customers a lot on maintenance labor and parts 25
    26. 26. 3. BI-LEVEL LIGHTING• Some good LED fixtures can have bi-level or dimming drivers and occupancy sensors for high/low lighting• This can save a lot of KWH in parking lots, garages, walkways, etc. – This does not work well when there are trees and bushes near fixtures that the branches moving in the wind trigger the sensors• IESNA states lower light levels are appropriate when less traffic, so light levels could reduced late at night, which can also save considerable KWH and is friendlier to observatories 26
    28. 28. CITIES THAT HAVE INSTALLED OR HAVE DECIDED TO GO WITH LED STREETLIGHTS• Anchorage, Alaska was the first major U.S. city to go with LED streetlights• Pittsburgh, San Jose and numerous other cities have decided to go LED• The big dog is Los Angeles, which is planning to replace 140,000 HPS streetlights over 5 years – First phase selected Beta and Leotek after testing several manufacturer’s fixtures – Every year LA plans invite several manufacturers for mock-ups, to avoid getting stuck with outdated technology 28
    30. 30. LEOTEK’S GREEN COBRA 30
    31. 31. WHAT AT LEAST ONE UTILITY IS DOING• Pacific Gas & Electric is the largest utility in the country – For cities and towns in its turf that switch to LED • Dedicated lower electric rate • Rebates • Technical design assistance • Turnkey volume discount pricing and installation • 1st year total warranty and remaining 4 year parts warranty – Following are at least some manufacturers that are on PG&E’s pre- approved LED street light list • Beta Lighting www.betaled.com • Cooper Streetworks www.cooperlighting.com • LED Roadway Lighting www.ledroadwaylighting.com • Leotek www.leotek.com • Check on PG&E’s website about additional manufacturers and models www.pge.com 31
    32. 32. FOR WHITE LIGHT AREALIGHTING, THERE IS MORE THAN COBRAHEADS• Following slide will show examples of several exterior LED fixtures – Although garage and canopy fixtures can be considered interior or damp location, they are included in this seminar 32
    33. 33. AREA LIGHTING Canopy Outdoor area Parking structure Wall packThe Edge by Beta Lighting Bollard
    34. 34. THERE ARE ALSO SEVERAL LED FIXTURES AND KITS FOR ACORN, COACH LANTERN, ETC. FIXTURES• Precision Paragon – www.p-2.com• Holophane – www.holophane.com• Sylvania – www.sylvania.com• And others – One concern with kits is how can LM79 and LM80 be done when there are so many fixtures that these kits can go into 34
    35. 35. LEDs ON MISSISSIPPI BRIDGE• LEDs can also be used for aesthetics – RGB (red, green & blue) LEDs are the primary light colors – Certain of the these colored LEDs can be dimmed and other can get more drive current to provide various colors – Applications include building walls and bridges – My good friend, Michael Lambert, was the lead designer on the Norbert Beckey Bridge in Iowa • The bridge and it’s approaches are 3,018 feet overall length with about 1,500 feet of the steel structure lighted. The total installed cost for the project was $350,000 with Musco donating $250,000. The controller and program is Nicolaudies "Sunlite" shown at the link below... its a great little program and the controller fits in the palm of your hand. You can download the software for free.... but the controller runs about $600, and of course you need that to control any fixtures. Which is why they let you have the software for nothing. – http://www.nicolaudie.com/ 35
    36. 36. 36
    37. 37. 37
    38. 38. WALL WASHING EMC BUILDING IN IOWA• Another Mike Lambert project• Custom Musco LED fixtures• Reduced wattage by 88.5% replacing MH 38
    40. 40. WHITE LEDs AT WHITE HOUSE 40
    42. 42. LED DRIVE CURRENT• Drive current or milliamp (ma) is sort of like ballast factor (BF) for T8s – Higher ma or BF is more light and wattage – But lumens per watt with various T8 BF ballasts is linear – But T8 lamp life is not shortened with high BF, as long as BF is not over 1.20 42
    43. 43. LED DRIVE CURRENT OUTPUT MULTIPLIERS EXAMPLE color temperature lumen multiplier 6000K 1.00 4300K 0.80 3500K 0.75 ambient temperature lumen multiplier -20C, -4F 1.11 10C, 50F 1.04 25C, 77F 1.00 40C, 104F 0.96 drive lumen power L70 hours @ current multiplier multiplier 15C, 59F (milliamps) 175 0.6 0.5 >150,000 350 1.0 1.0 >150,000 525 1.3 1.5 70,000 drive current (milliamps) L70 hours @ 15C, 59F 350 >150,000 525 117,000 700 64,000 43
    44. 44. LED DRIVE CURRENT• Although increasing drive current shortens LED life, can still be a good strategy – Can get by with fewer LEDs per fixture, so initial cost can be less – With occupancy sensors can go high/low light levels with one driver per fixture • For example 700ma for high and 375ma for low • For many parking garages and parking lots, the lights can be in low mode a majority of the time, so overall life will still be good 44
    45. 45. KELVIN• As shown in previous table higher Kelvin LEDs provide more lumens• Some LED fixture manufacturers lean toward 6000K, because highest lumens• Other LED fixture manufacturers lean toward 4000 - 4500K, because less bluish and more like moonlight and MH• 6000K LEDs may work very well in cities and 4000 - 4500K LEDs may be better in towns• Newly developed 4000 - 4500K LEDs with lower CRI are getting closer and closer to matching lumens of 6000K LEDs 45
    46. 46. LED LIFE• LED life is based on when still provides 70% of initial lumens – Rated life for other lighting sources is when 50% of the lamps have burned out and 50% are still working – LEDs can be called the mercury vapor of this generation, because merc vap does not usually burn out, just gets dimmer and dimmer over time • I have been under 1000W merc vap hibays that only provides about 5 footcandles on the floor, but maintenance point up, see the lamps are still on, and do not want to replace them – Customers who buy LED fixtures will have to learn when they should be replaced, even when they are still working • I have already seen many 1st generation LED exit signs that are still working, but do not provide sufficient light for NFPA or city codes, and facility people do not want to replace them because they are still working 46
    47. 47. LED LIFE• Since high lumen white LEDs are a relatively new technology and keep improving – Please be very aware that rated lives are projections, and even the best projections are still projections – For example 100,000 hour rated LED • Never turned off, would take 11.4 years to lose projected 30% of initial lumens – A lot of different stuff can happen to an LED chip in 11 years • On 4000 hours per year would take 25 years to lose projected 30% of initial lumens – A lot more can happen in 25 years• Even if the LEDs last 100,000 hours, will cherry picker trucks or lifts be required to clean fixtures much more frequently? 47
    48. 48. LED LIFE• Just because one LED fixture manufacturer states 100,000 or 150,000 hours and another one lists 50,000 or 50,000+ hours does not automatically make one better – One fixture manufacturer just may be much more conservative• Especially when comparing to induction, may be best to use 50,000, 60,000 or 70,000 hours for both technologies• IES in TM21 is considering LED fixture rated life should not be more than 6 times what the LED chips are rated for – Currently LED chips are tested for 6000 hours – Which would max at 36,000 hours 48
    49. 49. USA Average NighttimeTemperatures courtesy of Beta Lighting 49
    50. 50. Derived Lumen Depreciation Data(From LED Manufactures LM-80 Data) courtesy of Beta Lighting 50
    51. 51. Light Loss Factors – LEDway StreetLighting Luminaire night time drive 50K hr 100K hr ambient ¡C c urrent LLF LLF 350 0.98 0.92 5 525 0.89 0.76 700 0.77 0.57 350 0.95 0.88 10 525 0.86 0.71 700 0.74 0.52 350 0.93 0.83 15 525 0.82 0.65 700 0.70 0.48 350 0.90 0.78 20 525 0.78 0.60 700 0.66 0.43 350 0.86 0.73 25 525 0.74 0.54 700 0.63 0.39 courtesy of Beta Lighting 51
    52. 52. LED LIFE• Leotek recently had Intertek do worst case thermal tests – Green Cobra fixtures with • 80 Lumileds LEDs, which is the maximum number of LEDs that will fit – 150C maximum LED junction temperature rating • 700 ma, which is the highest drive current – Test 1 • Junction temperature was below 75C – Leaving 75C to spare – Test 2 (burying fixture in one inch of sand) • Junction temperature was below 80C – Leaving 70C to spare• You can get this February 17, 2010 report from Leotek – www.leotek.com• So Leotek feels very confident that their Green Cobras will work quite well even in areas, like Miami, New Orleans, Houston, Phoenix & Las Vegas 52
    53. 53. DRIVER LIFE• Heat is the enemy of all electronics, including ballasts and drivers• Just like electronic ballasts, the achilles heel of LED drivers are the electrolytic capacitors• So what if LEDs can last 100,000+ hours if the driver only lasts 50,000 - 60,000 hours• Some fixture manufacturers are using drivers with mil spec capacitors and state that the drivers can last as long as the LEDs – That may be true, but again, that is a projection• Maybe it would be good to remote the drivers in the base of pole fixtures so easy access 53
    54. 54. Philips Advance Drive Lifetimes in Beta LED Fixtures courtesy of Beta Lighting 54
    55. 55. Philips Advance Driver Lifetime Projection Caveats Driver life projections are accurate only for Beta LED fixtures (EDGE & LEDway at 350mA LED drive current), each manufacturer must account for the thermal impact of their fixture design on components. This data does not constitute a warranty. The data represents accelerated life testing and electronic industry accepted component life modeling to a 0.5% failure rate. Philips Advance model numbers covered by this life model include: LEDINTA0350C425FO, LEDINTA0700C210FO, LEDINTA700C140F3O. courtesy of Beta Lighting 55
    56. 56. LIFE REALITY CHECK• Even based on 50,000 hour projected life, that is 12.5 years based on dusk to dawn operation• Just think what can fail in 12.5 years with hot sun, cold, rain, etc. – Solder joints – Wires – Capacitors and/or other components in drivers – LEDs (which may be most resilient)• Expand this to 100,000 hour projected life, which would be 25 years• This issue also applies to other long life technologies, such as induction, which will be discussed later 56
    57. 57. WARRANTY• Standard warranty is 5 years parts• Warranty can usually be negotiated longer, like up to 10 years – With a moderate initial price increase• Be cautious of long warranties from fixture manufacturers that maybe have only been in business for a year or so 57
    58. 58. GLARE CONCERN• At certain angles some LED fixtures can be considered glary – Like looking into several high wattage MR16 narrow spots – Usually not a deal killer, but be aware• Widelite Vizoled fixtures have indirect lighting, which reduces glare 58
    59. 59. MODULAR DESIGN• Some LED fixtures are modular so parts are easily replaceable for maintenance and upgrades – LED panels – Driver(s)• LEDs are improving lumen watts about 20% per year• For example – If fixtures with 4 LED panels are purchased now, maybe in 3 - 5 years, each fixture could be retrofitted with 3 LED panels, providing the same amount of light, but saving almost 25% wattage• On the other side, if an LED fixture lasts for 50,000, which for dusk to dawn, that will be about 12 years, and new high performance fixtures then may be much smaller and different design 59
    60. 60. RECYCLING• There is a lot of valuable metal, used as heat sinks, etc. in LED fixtures• This should be recycled• Several manufacturers have programs to pay for their old LED fixture returned and offer a discount on new LED fixtures for down the road 60
    61. 61. FTE• Fitted-Target Efficacy metric – May become a very common and important term for many exterior LED lighting fixtures • But NEMA may prefer something else based on watts per square foot after seeing problems in TER (Target Efficacy Rating) – Similar to luminaire efficacy, but differentiates useful lumens from those that may cause glare, wasted light, and /or light trespass – Also addresses uniform target coverage and light pollutions and/or light trespass 61
    62. 62. BUG• Stands for Backlight, Uplight and Glare• In the process of replacing terms like full cut-off – But many people still feel more comfortable with old terminology 62
    63. 63. LED APPROXIMATE LUMENS PER WATT CHIP FIXTURE TIME AT STEADY STATE WITHOUT DRIVER OR FRAME TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE INCLUDING FIXTURE LOSSES EFFICIENCY PAST 70 40 2009 100 70 2010 120-130 90-100 2011 150- 160 120-130Although some chips have better LPW withoutheat losses, other chips perform better in reallife applications 63
    64. 64. CALiPER Testing: Measurable Progress 80 Vertical lines show range from 70 best to worst luminaire efficacy 60 50 40 10/01-1/09 1/08-5/08 6/08-9/08 30 6/07-12/07 12/06-5/07 20 10 Average Efficacy of SSL (lm/W) 0 2006 2009 CALiPER Results Over Tim e 64 Source: Department of Energy
    65. 65. LED DEVICE PERFORMANCE PROJECTIONS Metric 2007 2010 2012 2015 Efficacy-Lab 120 160 176 200 (lm/W) Efficacy-Commercial Cool 84 147 164 188 White (lm/W) Efficacy-Commercial Warm 59 122 139 163 White (lm/W)OEM Lamp Price- 25 10 5 2 Product ($/klm) US DOE SSL R&D MYPP, March 2008, table 4-2. 65
    66. 66. LED LUMINAIRE PERFORMANCE PROJECTIONS Metric 2007 2010 2012 2015 Device Efficacy- Commercial Cool White (lm/W, 25 degrees C) 84 147 164 188 Efficacy-Commercial 59 122 139 163 Warm White (lm/W) Thermal Efficiency 85% 89% 91% 95% Efficiency of Driver 85% 89% 91% 95% Efficiency of Fixture 77% 84% 88% 95% Resultant luminaire efficiency 56% 66% 73% 86% Luminaire Efficacy- Commercial Cool White 47 97 121 161 (lm/W) Luminaire Efficacy- Commercial Warm White 33 80 101 140 (lm/W) 66 US DOE SSL Multi-Year Program Plan, March 2008, table 4-11.
    67. 67. Round 7 Bollards Side-by-Side Comparison 800 600 SSL MH 400 CFL 200 Luminaire Output 0Same Model 0 4 8 12 16 20Similar DistributionType III or House-Side Shield Luminaire Efficacy Source: Department of Energy 67
    68. 68. 68
    69. 69. 69
    70. 70. Incumbent Technology - HPS100 Watt HPS70 Watt HPS Trial Technology - LED60 LED Type 3(350 mA)30 LED Type 2(525 mA) Graphics above show a representation of the uniformity of the illumination provided by each of the technologies courtesy of Beta Lighting 70
    72. 72. RALEY’S SUPERMARKET PARKING LOT STUDY• West Sacramento• Compared 320W pulse start MH cobraheads with high performance bilevel LED fixtures – Not really apples to apples comparison because cobraheads are so bad• DOE study released on March 2009 – www.ssl.energy.gov/gatewaydemos_results.html• 1st Source Lighting is planning to install some induction fixtures and have PG&E/DOE make light measurements 72
    73. 73. I-35W BRIDGE MINNEAPOLIS• New construction pole fixtures – Compared with simulated HPS • Biggest advantage of LED is projected reduced maintenance, which requires lane closures to replace 30,000 hour rated HPS lamps• DOE study released on August 2009 – www.ssl.energy.gov/gatewaydemos_results.html 73
    74. 74. MORE GATEWAY STUDIES• Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon – Oregon Energy Trust project• Gresham, Oregon – PGE – Should be available soon• Palo Alto, California – Compared HPS, LED & Induction• T.J. Maxx, Manchester, New Hampshire• Oakland, California 74
    75. 75. TROPHY CHIPS• In production runs, there are often some LED chips that have very high lumens per watt, which can be called trophy chips• Be cautious of sample fixtures, especially for large projects – If free or directly furnished sample fixture(s) from a manufacturer look very good, buy one or more samples through a third party and compare performance with original ones 75
    76. 76. BIRD CONCERNS• Good LED fixtures are designed so LED junction temperatures do not get too hot• Depending on fixture design, you may want to be aware of poop from medium to large birds, including sea gulls, 6 month or longer periods, that many parts of California can go without rain – Maybe get the spikes or other devices on top of fixtures so birds do not land and do their business 76
    77. 77. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS FOR LEDS• Where full cut-off for dark sky and maybe other concerns is important• Where getting sufficient light in far corners of necessary area without excessive light underneath fixture 77
    78. 78. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS FOR LEDS• 24 hour applications, like garages, because most potential savings• Garages and parking lots where can use occupancy sensors for high/low or on/off lighting – Neither of these shorten LED life, like they can for other lighting technologies – No long warm up and restrike times like HID 78
    79. 79. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS FOR LEDS• Replacing relatively low wattage HPS and standard or probe start MH lamps with magnetic ballasts – Lower wattage HID lamps and ballasts are considerably less efficacious than higher wattage ones • HPS (initial lumens per watt including magnetic ballast) – 69 for 100W – 107 for 400W (55% better) • MH (initial lumens per watt including mag ballast) – 65 for 175W – 79 for 400W (22% better) – Lower wattage MH lamps typically have much shorter lamp life than higher wattage ones – For example, 10,000 hours for 175W and 20,000 hours for 400W 79
    80. 80. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS• FOR LEDS Replacing relatively low wattage HPS and standard or probe start MH lamps with magnetic ballasts – Higher wattage and lumen HID lamps and the fixtures for them often cost about the same as lower wattage versions • But since more LEDs are required to replace high wattage HID fixtures, LED fixtures with more LEDs cost significantly more than LED fixtures with fewer LEDs• HPS because ugly yellow color and low S/P ratio• HID fixtures with low fixture efficiency, bad optics, not dark sky compliant, etc. – A few fixture type examples • Typical cobra head • Acorn without reflector which would prevent too much uplight• Ballasts in existing fixtures nearing end of rated life• Have to buy new fixtures anyway, so can do financials by subtracting cost of baseline fixtures 80
    81. 81. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS FOR• New construction LEDS – Often fewer LED pole fixtures will be required, because of better distribution patterns • So even if the unit pricing on LED fixtures is more, if need fewer of them, poles, foundations and trenching, the total job cost can be significantly less, not even including electrical savings • I clearly saw this for a new parking lot for one of my clients in the San Francisco Bay Area comparing pulse start quartz MH lamps with magnetic ballasts in high performance vertical base up fixtures compare to high performance LED fixtures – Required 20% less LED fixtures, poles, labor, etc. 81
    82. 82. LED with PV• This is getting more popular, but many of the systems only provide about as much light as a 60 - 100W incandescent light bulb and are quite expensive• One higher lumen example is Carmanah’s 1500 series www.carmanah.com – Up to 6800 lumens with Beta Lighting Edge or LEDway – Programmable system for light output through the night for various geographical areas – Optional occupancy sensors – $6000 - $8000 without pole or labor 82
    83. 83. 2009 NEXT GENERATION LUMINAIRES BEST IN CLASS• GE Lighting’s Evolve R150 – 4900 lumens – 91.0 watts – 53.8 lumens per watt 83
    84. 84. 2009 NEXT GENERATION LUMINAIRES BEST IN CLASS• Philips Wide-Lite’s VizorLED – 4112 lumens – 68.4 watts – 60.1 lumens per watt 84
    87. 87. HPS• Inexpensive, relatively long life & for lower wattages the arc tube can be considered a point source• If existing magnetic ballasts and fixtures are in good shape and if yellow light with only about 20 CRI is okay – Could consider switching to 40,000 hour rated non-cycling or double arc tube HPS lamps now and converting to LED or something else later 87
    89. 89. INDUCTION• Basically fluorescent lamps without cathodes, so not much to degrade, except phosphors• Generators are the equivalent to ballasts and drivers• White light, high CRI, long life, low glare, good for cold, instant on & no restrike time – And no lumen drop with low Kelvin like LED 89
    90. 90. INDUCTION• Philips introduced their QL system in 1991 and Sylvania introduced their Icetron system in 1997 – Lamp and generator can cost $150 - $200• Induction has become quite popular over the last two years with so many companies pushing fixtures and kits with less expensive Chinese and Korean induction systems – Have seen kits with Chinese induction systems as low as $100• Up to mid 2009 could compete very well with LEDs in many applications – Now, especially for Type II long narrow streetlighting distributions, high performance LED fixtures are significantly better – Induction can still be a very good solution in applications where lighting distribution is not that important, like in acorn and coach lantern fixtures, bollards, etc. 90
    91. 91. INDUCTION• Although induction lamps and generators are often rated for 100,000 the useable system life is more like 60,000 or 70,000 hours, while there is sufficient light and not that many lamps or generators have burned out – So recommend life cycle comparisons of both induction and LED systems at 60,000 or 70,000 hours – Even at 60,000 hours, that is 15 years at 4000 hours per year, and many things can go wrong in 15 years being exposed to time and the elements• Induction is a very mature technology, that will probably not improve very much, if at all – Maybe 70 - 75 lumens per watt out of fixture – While LED fixtures may double that by 2015 91
    92. 92. INDUCTION• Induction lamps are large, nothing like a point source, so it is very difficult to aim the light – So there is usually an excessive blob of light underneath fixtures, which is a waste of wattage – While LEDs can be aimed to shine light where it needed• Although kits and fixtures with Philips or Sylvania induction systems used to have significant price advantages over LED, that gap has shrunk or disappeared – One advantage of induction is that high lumen lamps and generators cost about as much as low lumen lamps and generators – While for more lumens, more LEDs are required, which increases the cost – For quantities of about 1000, can get LED cobrahead fixtures to replace 100 - 150W HPS for about $300 and to replace 250W for about $400 - $500 • In about 5 years those prices should come down to about $100 - $200, which should make other technologies obsolete 92
    93. 93. INDUCTION• Both Philips and Sylvania have stated that they are into induction for the long haul – Philips should introduce dimming generators soon – Sylvania should introdue 40-50W and 200W lamps and bilevel generators soon• But with LED rapid improvement and price reduction – Chinese and Korean induction lamp & ballast manufacturers could stop making induction products or go out of business – Induction fixture manufacturers could stop making induction products or go out of business – Sales companies in this country could stop trying to sell induction products 93
    94. 94. INDUCTION• So customers of Chinese or Korean induction systems in numerous fixtures may not be able to get – Technical assistance – Warranty support – Replacement parts• Be cautious of induction fixture manufacturers that have only been in business for a year or two, that offer 10 year warranties• Bottom line – If decide on induction, highly recommend only use Philips or Sylvania lamps and generators and get fixtures from manufacturers that they support and have a long proven track record – And make sure you get real IES photometric files from respected independent test labs • Not just reports generated internally with software, which can make anything look good 94
    95. 95. LED vs. INDUCTION STREETLIGHTS• The short version of my white paper is or available on my website for free – Its eight pages has the same information that is in this seminar – I am working on expanding it, so it will have detailed information that is not in this seminar 95
    96. 96. HPS, INDUCTION & LED COBRAHEAD GENERAL COMPARISON TABLE EOL lumen EOL system initial EOL fixture initial fixture initial EOL fixture lighting lamp rated life initial EOL fixture qualifier mainten- lumens wattage lumens per lumens efficiency lumens per fixture lumens source wattage hours lumens lumens ance (approx.) (277V) watt per watt (approx.) watt lumens per watt clear 24,000 - HPS 100 9,500 75% 7125 130 73 55 75% 55 7125 41 5344 lamp 40,000 60,000 - Sylvania 70 6,500 64% 4160 77 84 54 70% 59 4550 38 2912 100,000 60,000 - Philips 85 6,000 70% 4200 85 71 49 70% 49 4200 35 2940 100,000 60,000 -Induction Sylvania 100 8,000 64% 5120 103 78 50 70% 54 5600 35 3584 100,000 60,000 - Sylvania 150 12,000 64% 7680 156 77 49 70% 54 8400 34 5376 100,000 60,000 - Philips 165 12,000 70% 8400 165 73 51 70% 51 8400 36 5880 100,000 4000K 50 1W 50,000+ NA 70% NA 67 NA NA NA 58 3866 40 2706 350ma LEDs - 100,000 4000K 40 1W 50,000+ NA 70% NA 70 NA NA NA 61 4239 42 2967 525ma LEDs - 100,000 LED 6000K 40 1W 50,000+ NA 70% NA 50 NA NA NA 72 3606 50 2524 350ma LEDs - 100,000 6000K 30 1W 50,000+ NA 70% NA 54 NA NA NA 67 3624 47 2537 525ma LEDs - 100,000 notesEOL is end of life. NA is not applicable. Real rated life is discussed in related white paper. HPS and LED info is generic. Induction fixture info is also generic.100W generator is used with Sylvania 70W induction lamp. For induction EOL numbers are based on 100,000 hours, and EOL numbers would be better at 60,000.Listed induction fixture efficiency is better than most IES files, because includes when lamps are properly prepared and some recent fixture improvements.LED fixtures are tested as complete units, not based on components.4000K includes 4000 - 4500 Kelvin. Some people think that 6000K is too blue. LEDs driven at 350ma would have longer life than at 525ma.Table does NOT include where the available lumens out of the fixture are directed. LED fixtures direct light where necessary, so fewer lumens are required.Since Induction lamps have same or worse optical control as HPS, their EOL fixture lumens should match HPS EOL fixture lumens.Listed LED specs would provide sufficient light for minimum footcandles between fixtures and around designated perimeters, but maybe not for average footcandles. Stan Walerczyk of Lighting Wizards www.lightingwizards.com 2/20/10 version 96
    97. 97. ISOLUX DIAGRAM FOR TYPE II STREET LIGHTING• The following three isolux diagrams came from PG&E for City of Santa Rosa, which currently has 100W HPS cobraheads• Distribution patterns and amount of footcandles would vary some what with various manufacturers and models – But general distribution patterns are pretty consistent for HPS, induction and well designed LED cobraheads• These are with bottom flat lensed HPS and induction cobraheads – SAG or drop lens would increase light between fixtures, but also not be good for dark skies and light pollution on house and opposite sides 97
    98. 98. 100W HPS
    99. 99. 85W INDUCTION
    100. 100. 70W LED
    101. 101. WHAT IS BETTER THAN LUMENS PER WATT?Footcandles, and really footcandleswhere the light is necessary, per watt 101
    102. 102. FOOTCANDLES PER WATT units 85W induction 100W HPS 60 LEDsfixture mounting height feet 28 28 28roadway width feet 40 40 40pole spacing feet 120 120 120illuminance - average maintained fc 0.64 0.78 0.69illuminance - maximum maintained fc 1.6 2.3 1.3illuminance - minimum maintained fc 0.1 0.3 0.4uniformity - avg/min 6.4 2.6 1.7system power watts 85 130 71100 x avg fc/watt 7.5 6.0 9.7100 x min fc/watt 1.2 2.3 5.6 based on the work by Chris Nye at Leotek, www.leotek.com 102
    104. 104. ELECTRONICALLY BALLASTED PS MH• Two types of PS MH – Ceramic or CMH • 90+ CRI • Up to 110 lumens/watt • Does not work with all electronic ballasts • Long restrike times even with electronic ballasts • Quite expensive – Quartz • 65 - 70 CRI • Lower lumens per watt • 30 second to few minute restrike time • Usually can work on all electronic ballasts • Relatively inexpensive 104
    105. 105. ELECTRONICALLY BALLASTED PS MH• Electronic ballasts (EHID) – These have been quite expensive, like $150 – I have had concerns about heat, including in dark colored fixtures blasted by summer sun, even when not on • But at least Metrolight has an external pod, with excellent thermal design – www.metrolight.com• PS MH lamp life may be up to 60,000 hours, but that should be verified from lamp manufacturers’ and/or ballast manufacturers’ extended warranty 105
    106. 106. ELECTRONICALLY BALLASTED PS MH• LEDs are probably better to replace up to175 or 250W HPS or standard magnetically driven MH• But electronically ballasted PS MH may be currently more cost effective to replace 250, 400 and higher wattage HPS or standard MH with magnetic ballasts• Philips Widelite EON fixtures – 2 or 3 PS MH lamps in a fixture with electronic ballast – One lamp on at a time, for about 60,000 hours • When burns out, Philips thinks that fixtures could be replaced with LED fixtures – Aiming at $250 for a cobrahead – www.widelite.com 106
    107. 107. HID SHOE BOX FIXTURES• This is more about parking lot than roadway pole fixtures• Yes, many of the designer horizontal lamp fixtures look very good aesthetically, but vertical base up fixtures usually provide much better distribution and uniformity 107
    108. 108. LEP(LIGHT EMITTING PLASMA) 108
    109. 109. LEP• Luxim has developed a chicklet sized lamp with plasma metal halides, driven by a high frequency amplifier – www.luxim.com – LIFI Sta 41-01 Series • 130 source lumens per watt and 83 system lumens per watt • 290 system watts • 24,000 lumens @ 80 CRI • 50,000 rated hours • 5500 Kelvin • Dimmable • Fast restrike time • A real point source, so can direct the light where it should go 109
    110. 110. LIGHT EMITTING PLASMA 110
    111. 111. LIGHT EMITTING PLASMA• This technology is quite expensive• Cannot really compete against LED in relatively low wattage applications• But may be more competitive than LEDs replacing 400W MH or HPS or 1000W MV – So many LEDs would be required, which brings the cost up 111
    112. 112. LIGHT EMITTING PLASMA• First fixture manufacturer and model is Stray Light’s Tesla – http://straylightoptical.com• Other fixture manufacturers are also working with Luxim• There are also competitors to Luxim 112
    113. 113. T5HO 113
    114. 114. T5HO• Where it does not get too cold, T5HO pole fixtures are an option• But I do not think a very good option for most applications – Windage concern • Pole, anchor bolts and foundation – Blob of light – Not that good lamp life – T5HOs not very good lumens per watt anyway • 20% less than high performance T8 systems • 30% less than CMH with electronic ballasts 114
    115. 115. T8 115
    116. 116. T8• Not recommended for pole fixtures and very cold• Can be very good for numerous garage, carport and open hallway applications – I often like triangle shaped T8 fixtures in garages to replace HPS, MH and MV – In garages T8s, bi-level ballast and occupancy sensor can work well in some applications• High Performance T8 lamps and electronic ballasts, as listed by the Consortium of Energy Efficiency, www.cee1.org, can usually cost effectively replace T12s & magnetic ballasts and basic grade T8s & generic electronic ballasts – High performance T8 systems are more efficacious (lumens per watt) than T5HO and T5 systems 116
    118. 118. USE MINIMUM, NOT AVERAGE FOOTCANDLES• Average footcandles have been the established way to design for exterior applications and compare options• For HID and induction to provide sufficient light between fixtures at to desired perimeter, they provide excessive light underneath fixtures, which is really a waste, but increase average footcandles• But since good LED fixtures can get sufficient light between fixtures and to desired perimeter without providing excessive light underneath fixtures, minimum footcandles should be used – Good LED fixtures also have much better min/max ratios 118
    119. 119. MAJOR VOLTAGE SPIKES• This can especially be a concern for street lights in areas that are prone to lightning• Electronic HID ballasts, LED drivers and induction generators in other applications should be designed to handle voltage spikes 119
    120. 120. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY• Yes, HID, induction and fluorescent lamps have mercury, but – Mercury levels have come down dramatically over the years – Rated hours are quite long for some lamps • Especially induction – Some states, including California, mandate recycling 120
    121. 121. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY• LEDs do not have mercury, but – Toxic chemicals are used in production – Considerable poundage of metal has to be mined, melted and transported for heat sinks • All of which consumes considerable energy and has environmental impacts 121
    122. 122. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY• Are LEDs really more environmentally friendly? – We really do not know until Carnegie Mellon publishes its cradle to cradle report for the DOE – Although University of Pittsburgh’s Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation’s ‘Life Cycle Assessment of Streetlight Technologies’ is quite good • www.ledsmagazine.com/news/7/3/12?cmpid=EnlLEDsMarch17201• (I am so sick and tired of LED people using ‘toxic’ in front of fluorescent, induction and HID and/or saying that LED is so much environmentally friendly, that I tend to hang up the phone on them, tell them to leave, etc.) 122
    123. 123. MADE IN USA?• With this serious recession, keeping American jobs is important, not just for LED fixtures, but also with other fixtures• Beta Lighting LED fixtures is just one example – Cree LED crystals, phosphors and chips made in USA • LED assembly done in China – Philips/Advance drivers made in Mexico – Fixtures made in Wisconsin, USA• Do your own research for fixtures that you are interested in 123
    124. 124. CAN IMPORTED LED & INDUCTION STREET LIGHT FIXTURES BE USED WITH ARRA FUNDING?• ARRA is American Recovery and Reinvestment Act – a.k.a. stimulus funds• Yes – http://eecleanenergy.org/web/faqweb/about/faqframe.aspx• There are some fixtures completely made outside USA and even fixtures made mostly in this country usually have some non-domestic components 124
    125. 125. SPECTRALLY ENHANCED LIGHTING• Older name is scotopically enhanced lighting• Light sources with more blue content are considered spectrally enhanced, and are usually considered brighter and can improve visual acuity• Not only do LEDs have more lumens per watt at high Kelvins, but the high Kelvins, especially 6000K, are also spectrally enhanced• Induction usually available up to 5000K• But benefits of spectrally enhanced lighting are probably not valid in street lights when people really only get enough light from one fixture at a time – Can apply in parking lots and garages when multiple fixtures in view 125
    126. 126. WHAT ABOUT LIMITING KELVIN TO MAX 3000K?• International Dark Sky Association (IDA) has made claims that exterior lighting should not be over 3000K, which would limit short wavelengths, for various reasons – DOE, NEMA, IALD do not agree and have responded – After IDA met with DOE in early January, IDA came out with ‘Visibility, Environmental, and Astronomical Issues Associated with Blue-Rich White Outdoor Lighting’ in May with references • Have a problem with scare tactics, like on bottom of page 12 – “While a firm connection between outdoor lighting and cancer has not yet been established, if true it is clear that the blue component of such light would be a greater risk factor” – Others may come out with a white paper or article later this year showing that Kevin does not make that much difference in night time light scattering, etc. 126
    127. 127. WHAT ABOUT LIMITING KELVIN TO MAX 3000K?• With what is known at this time, IDA’s credibility is questioned• But some induction sales people are using IDA’s premise as a marketing advantage over LED, because there is no lumen drop with lower Kelvin induction 127
    128. 128. CONTROL SYSTEMS• There is an evolution of wireless and power line carrier wave control systems, which can – For all technologies signal the facility’s office about • Light sources not working – Including HPS lamp cycling • Lights on during day due to faulty photocell – Especially for LEDs, can include • Continuous or staged dimming – When junction temperature too high – When traffic is greatly reduced during the night, so need less light » Could also work for dimming induction generators and dimming MH ballasts/amplifiers 128
    129. 129. CONTROL SYSTEMS• Currently these control systems are expensive and may worsen paybacks and other financials instead of improving them – You will have to decide – Since each of these systems is usually proprietary, which is a city, county or other institution gets, they will probably be locked into that company – Control systems should get less expensive as time goes on 129
    130. 130. CONTROL SYSTEMS• New Philips Dynadimmer looks quite interesting – Electronic, programmable & stand alone – Up to 5 dimming levels – Up to 5 time periods – Relatively inexpensive – www.philips.com/dynadimmer 130
    131. 131. WRAP UP• Questions• Comments• Applications 131
    132. 132. ALL OF STAN’S SEMINARS• INTERIORS - LEDs vs. Incumbents with a big dose of task ambient lighting• EXTERIOR LIGHTING LED, Induction, HPS, MH, LEP, Fluorescent• FREE FOR ALL IN THE HIBAY ARENA Fluorescent, Induction, LED & MH• HOW LOW CAN YOU GO – Which is 1/2 of Advanced Lighting Retrofit Options• DIMMING vs. NON-DIMMING 10 Rounds in the Daylight Harvesting and Peak Load Reduction Arena• LIGHTING 101• LIGHTING CONTROLS – Planned for 2011 132• Custom ones for specific purposes
    133. 133. LIGHTING BLOOPERS • One arm of a local government said – We’re going to do some new streetlighting – These cast poles will look super in our town • Another government office said – This is a historic building – The storefronts and the awnings need to stay where they are 133
    134. 134. THAT’S ALL FOLKS• Please fill out any applicable forms• Contact information for Stan Walerczyk – 925-944-9481(San Francisco Bay Area) – stan@lightingwizards.com – www.lightingwizards.com• Thanks for attending 134