Exterior Lighting Revised 8 17 09


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  • Stan, I thought you always preached you were not MFG specific in your seminars. More and more seminars I go to, you are pushing BETA. its a shame, there are alot more MFG's our there with the same if not better technology, stop hindering your audiance, stick to your rule and push technology. Your showing favortism, doesnt look to good.
    the REAL LTG GURU....
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  • A contributor to junction temperature is the ambient in which the luminaires are operated. This map shows the average night time temperatures across the United States using data from the national weather service. You should note that the average temperatures at night are 15⁰ C or lower across all but 3 states.
  • A contributor to junction temperature is the ambient in which the luminaires are operated. This map shows the average night time temperatures across the United States using data from the national weather service. You should note that the average temperatures at night are 15⁰ C or lower across all but 3 states.
  • House-side shield approximates Type III distribution for MH, but not successfully for CFL. Even without house-side shield, SSL beats MH and CFL in efficacy. SSL should be capable of much much better…other outdoor SSL luminaires at 50-70 lm/W.
  • Exterior Lighting Revised 8 17 09

    2. 2. WHO ARE YOU? <ul><li>Please introduce yourselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company (optional) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What you would specifically like to learn? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Between you and me, you may have more questions than answers after this seminar) </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. NO ENDORSEMENTS <ul><li>Although several manufacturers and models are listed, none are endorsed </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to talk about specifics than generalities </li></ul>
    5. 5. FORMAT <ul><li>Please ask questions when we are on that subject </li></ul><ul><li>Please do not look ahead, because may ruin the drama </li></ul><ul><li>10 minute break every hour </li></ul>
    6. 6. STAN WALERCZYK’S BIO <ul><li>20 years experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution, maintenance, installer, retrofit contractor, fixture designer, consultant, lighting designer, policy maker, researcher </li></ul></ul><ul><li>500+ projects </li></ul><ul><li>30+ published articles </li></ul><ul><li>500+ seminars </li></ul><ul><li>IESNA Member 1995 - 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On several committees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Certified Lighting Energy Professional by AEE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CLEP Review Board member </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lighting Certified by NCQLP </li></ul><ul><li>Project manager for California Lighting Technology Center </li></ul><ul><li>Assisted on DOE spectrally enhanced lighting research </li></ul><ul><li>DOE CALiPER Guidance Committee member </li></ul><ul><li>Several IIDA Awards </li></ul>
    8. 8. ANCHORAGE, ALASKA SWITCHES FROM HPS <ul><li>City of Anchorage hired Nancy Clanton, a nationally renown lighting designer </li></ul><ul><li>Induction and LED street lights were evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Although some people did not like the intensity from the LEDs at certain angles, the Philips induction systems did not provide sufficient light at cold temperatures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sylvania Icetron induction may work better in cold temperatures than the Philips QL induction, but Anchorage did not test Sylvania Icetron </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. ANCHORAGE, ALASKA SWITCHES FROM HPS <ul><li>Anchorage selected Beta Lighting’s LED fixtures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 1W LEDs driven at 700ma replacing 100W HPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 1W LEDs driven at 700ma replacing 150W HPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although 700ma is overdriving LEDs, with the very low average ambient temperature, life, based on when lose 30% of initial lumens, should still be about 100,000 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>700 ma is probably not a good idea in warm areas, except maybe in high/low occupancy sensor applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4000 fixtures purchased and installed in first of four phases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 50% energy savings, plus longer life, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very quick installation time, excluding driving to each pole and raising lift </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. ANCHORAGE, ALASKA SWITCHES FROM HPS <ul><li>Beta’s HID cobra head replacement fixture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ledway </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. SOME BETA LIGHTING CALIFORNIA PROJECTS <ul><li>Cal Trans is installing 100 units (90 LED to replace 250 HPS and some current poorly designed LED) on the Richmond San Rafael bridge soon </li></ul><ul><li>NUMI in Fremont has 96 units.., about 1/3 of their outdoor space </li></ul><ul><li>There is a great installation on a 7 lane street in Long Beach, right beside a new huge parking garage just lighted with our product </li></ul><ul><li>City of San Francisco is starting to relight the Tenderloin district, first install by April </li></ul><ul><li>Beta’s website is www.betaled.com </li></ul>
    12. 12. BEFORE WE GO ANY FURTHER <ul><li>You are going to see and hear a lot about Beta Lighting this seminar, because they started early and have really taken the lead </li></ul><ul><li>But there are some other good manufacturers and models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following are at least some manufacturers that are on PG&E’s pre-approved LED street light list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beta Lighting www.betaled.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooper Streetworks www.cooperlighting.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LED Roadway Lighting www.ledroadwaylighting.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leotek www.leotek.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check on PG&E’s website about additional manufacturers and models www.pg&e.com (Other utilities may also have similar lists) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There may be other good manufacturers with good track records, which I am not currently aware of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you know of any, please let me know </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. BEFORE WE GO ANY FURTHER <ul><li>Photos of Leotek fixture </li></ul>
    14. 14. MAINE CAMPUS TO SAVE $30,000/YEAR WITH OSRAM LED RETROFIT LAMPS <ul><li>From LEDs Magazine Newsletter 11/2/2008 </li></ul><ul><li>The installation of 200 post-top fixture LED retrofit kits will save energy and enhance light quality at the Pineland Farms campus. </li></ul><ul><li>Late last month, Maine Governor John Baldacci flipped the switch on over 200 street lighting fixtures retrofitted with Osram Sylvania LEDs to illuminate the campus of Pineland Farms in New Gloucester, Maine. This first significant installation of Osram’s new fixtures is estimated to save the college $30,000/year in energy costs. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Government cannot accomplish energy independence and security alone. Instead, it takes just this kind of partnership,” said Baldacci. “We know change is not easy, but the improvements we make today are too important to put off any longer.” </li></ul>
    15. 15. MAINE CAMPUS TO SAVE $30,000/YEAR WITH OSRAM LED RETROFIT LAMPS <ul><li>Pineland Farms is a 5,000-acre working farm, diverse business campus and educational and recreational venue. The site’s LED retrofit project has the support of Efficiency Maine, a statewide effort to promote more efficient use of electricity, help Maine residents and businesses reduce energy costs, and improve Maine's environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Administered by the Maine Public Utilities Commission, the Efficiency Maine Business Program provided support for the LED pilot project at Pineland and offered advice to help Pineland Farms save energy and improve Maine’s environment. </li></ul><ul><li>“ When Pineland and Sylvania asked Efficiency Maine about financial assistance in creating a prototype project for park-light LEDs, they and our staff worked hard to make sure the project would meet our cost-effectiveness standards,” said Sharon Reishus, Chairman of the Maine Public Utilities Commission. “The result of this partnership is an exciting example of cutting-edge technology that can help create a brighter and more energy efficient future for all of us.”   </li></ul>
    16. 16. MAINE CAMPUS TO SAVE $30,000/YEAR WITH OSRAM LED RETROFIT LAMPS <ul><li>The LED retrofit system takes advantage of the directional light distribution of 66 high-brightness Golden Dragon Plus LEDs from Osram Opto Semiconductors and delivers light only where needed, minimizing light trespass and disruption to Pineland Farm’s neighbors. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The installation of the post-top fixture LED retrofit allowed Pineland Farms to utilize their existing light fixtures to save energy and improve light quality on their campus without sacrificing safety and aesthetics,” said Geoff Hunt, senior VP of communications and human resources, Osram Sylvania. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional benefits of the post-top fixture LED retrofit kit include an operating temperature range from -30ºC to 40ºC, correlated color temperature of 5700K, color rendering index of 70, and average rated life of 50,000 hours with 70% lumen maintenance.  </li></ul>
    17. 17. LED Post Top Retrofit Product Update Generation I vs Generation II vs Generation III February 4, 2009
    18. 18. Product Line Summary <ul><li>Generation I – LED Acorn Retrofit replaced by Generation II </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAED 79001 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will be phased out completely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Generation II – LED Post Top Retrofit available in Type III and Type V distributions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAEDs 78532 (Type III) and 78533 (Type V) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for most fixture types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highest performance design in the product lineup </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Available February 1 (Type III) and March 1 (Type V) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Generation III – LED Post Top Retrofit available in Type III and Type V distributions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAEDs TBD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for one piece globe fixtures and other applications requiring an ultra small high output LED light source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduled to launch July 2009 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Light Distribution Patterns Luminaire Light Distribution Classification Overview
    20. 20. The Product Line – Generation I <ul><li>Gen I </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The first full production version of the LED Post Top Retrofit referred to as the LED Acorn Retrofit, NAED 79001 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in Lansing, Michigan, at the Pineland facility, and approximately 15 other installations across the country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large size limited the number of applications, plus it was complex and costly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced by the Gen II product (Gen I will be phased out completely). </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. The Product Line – Generation II <ul><li>Gen II </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New higher output, lower wattage, smaller, warmer color temperature unit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Available in Type III and Type V distribution patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses less than 35 watts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fits a wide variety of fixture types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can either mount with a top center post, or using 4 brackets for globe top mounting (comes with both types of hardware already installed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensions 11” x 9.5” x 6.5” </li></ul></ul></ul>Center / Finial Top Mounting Bracket Adjustable Globe Top Mounting Brackets
    22. 22. LED Post Top Retrofit Gen I vs Gen II <ul><li>Generation I – 14.9” in diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Generation II – 11” x 9.5” x 6.5” </li></ul>
    23. 23. Photometric Upgrade – Gen I to Gen II <ul><li>Upgrade of TYPE III short to TYPE III Medium allows larger pole spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Adding light around the pole to eliminate dark spot around it </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping the minimum amount of light on house side to reduce light trespassing </li></ul>
    24. 24. Gen 3: 1 st Product Design Target <ul><li>Type V compact package LED retrofit street lighting </li></ul><ul><li>6.75” in Diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Short /Medium beam distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simply replacing beam shape optics, beam distribution changes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower CCT: 5000K </li></ul><ul><li>Lifetime L 70 : 50K hours conservatively </li></ul><ul><li>Wattage consumption: 50W max </li></ul><ul><li>Easy installation and low maintenance </li></ul>
    25. 25. Resulting Product Lineup <ul><li>Gen II – Generation purpose, high output solution </li></ul><ul><li>Gen III – 1 piece globe and specialty application solution </li></ul><ul><li>Expect regular upgrades to the product line as new, higher performance OSRAM LEDs are tested and approved for these applications </li></ul>
    26. 26. PITTSBURGH AND SAN JOSE LOOKING AT LEDs FOR STREET LIGHTING <ul><li>From LEDs Magazine Newsletter 2/9/2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Two major cities in the USA are considering plans to start converting street lights to LEDs. </li></ul><ul><li>Pittsburgh is considering the replacement of its 40,000 street lights with LED fixtures, according to a news report in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. </li></ul><ul><li>The city estimates it could save up to upwards of $1.4 million a year in energy and maintenance costs, and “look nicer.” </li></ul><ul><li>Next month the city expects to invite firms to submit ideas for a pilot transformation of some portion of the city's street light system to one of several available technologies, including LED, although other efficient technologies have not been ruled out. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Works Director Guy Costa said the city spends around $4 million a year powering and maintaining its lights, and figured the city could shave $1.4 million from that total. </li></ul><ul><li>Council officials debated how to select a vendor for the work, which could involve a $25 million contract, through a competitive bidding process. </li></ul>
    27. 27. PITTSBURGH AND SAN JOSE LOOKING AT LEDs FOR STREET LIGHTING <ul><li>Meanwhile in California, San Jose is looking to replace its 62,000 streetlights with new LED versions that will “cast a white, warm glow, could cut energy costs in half, and will use state-of-the-art technology to vary their intensity and timing,” according to the Mercury News. </li></ul><ul><li>For decades, says the article, San Jose motorists, pedestrians and police have complained about the city's thousands of yellow streetlights, which are too easily confused with traffic signals, and distort the colors of cars and painted curbs. </li></ul><ul><li>San Jose plans to convert 100 lights this spring, and is seeking $20 million from a government stimulus package to install 20,000 new lights as part of a project that officials think will attract national attention. The goal is to have all the city's streetlights changed by 2022. </li></ul>
    28. 28. MORE ON SAN JOSE <ul><li>With the local observatory, San Jose has LPS, which has ugly yellow color and zero CRI </li></ul><ul><li>One of the early strategies was fixtures that would have both white and yellow LEDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When high amount of traffic and before observatory would start to work both white and yellow LEDs would be on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With both white and yellow LEDs, much more white and much better overall CRI than LPS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After rush hour traffic, less light is required, so white LEDs could be turned off with power line or other type of control signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow LEDs could have same spectral distribution as LPS, so observatory would not even have to get a different filter </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. MORE ON SAN JOSE <ul><li>Currently the City plans on testing with only white LEDs for this study </li></ul><ul><li>Lick Observatory stated that they could work with white lights if the City dimmed them 50% during their peak research hours (late evening) </li></ul><ul><li>For 1st Phase, chose Beta Lighting </li></ul>
    30. 30. CLIMATE INITIATIVE’S LED STREETLIGHT RETROFIT WILL SAVE MONEY, IMPROVE LIGHT IN LA <ul><li>From LEDs Magazine Newsletter 2/19/2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Over a five-year period, the City of Los Angeles' Bureau of Street Lighting will replace 140,000 existing streetlight fixtures in the city with LED units. </li></ul><ul><li>On February 16, former President Bill Clinton announced that the Outdoor Lighting Program of the Clinton Climate Initiative (CCI) is working with Los Angeles on the largest LED street lighting retrofit project ever undertaken by a city to date, said a report by the CCI. </li></ul>
    31. 31. CLIMATE INITIATIVE’S LED STREETLIGHT RETROFIT WILL SAVE MONEY, IMPROVE LIGHT IN LA <ul><li>Over a five-year period, the City of Los Angeles' Bureau of Street Lighting will replace 140,000 existing streetlight fixtures in the city with LED units that not only will improve LA's lighting quality and reduce its electricity use, but also will help the city to save money in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>While typical streetlight lamps will last from four to six years, LED fixtures have a longer life span, estimated from 10 to 12 years. The new, white-light LED streetlight units are more durable and damage-resistant than other technologies. This not only will reduce the frequency and cost to repair streetlight fixtures, but also will provide LA with considerable savings in labor and material. </li></ul>
    32. 32. CLIMATE INITIATIVE’S LED STREETLIGHT RETROFIT WILL SAVE MONEY, IMPROVE LIGHT IN LA <ul><li>The improved equipment life also means that fixtures will more reliably light streets and sidewalks for city residents. In addition, LA is committed to using LED fixtures that will ease what is known as sky glow - the artificial illumination of the night sky. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;If you have ever been to Death Valley National Park and looked up on a clear night, you would see that the stars seem to be dimmer than they were when I was a child. But they are not getting dimmer, really - the rest of the sky is getting brighter because of all the lights from Los Angeles and Las Vegas and other surrounding cities and communities,&quot; President Clinton said. &quot;Now, thanks to the work of Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, the Los Angeles Bureau of Street Lighting, and my Foundation's Climate Initiative, the stars over Death Valley may again shine more brightly.&quot; </li></ul>
    33. 33. CLIMATE INITIATIVE’S LED STREETLIGHT RETROFIT WILL SAVE MONEY, IMPROVE LIGHT IN LA <ul><li>Once this overhaul is fully complete, LA will save electricity expended on street lighting in the city by a minimum of 40 percent and reduce carbon emissions by approximately 40,500 tons a year, which is the equivalent of taking 6,700 passenger vehicles off the road every year. </li></ul><ul><li>Over a seven-year period, the city will save a total of $48 million and reduce carbon emissions by 197,000 tons. After the loan is repaid in seven years, LA will continue to save $10 million annually as a direct result of this lighting retrofit project. In addition, this loan will have no adverse impact on the city, as the loan payments will be covered in full by savings from current energy and maintenance costs. </li></ul>
    34. 34. CLIMATE INITIATIVE’S LED STREETLIGHT RETROFIT WILL SAVE MONEY, IMPROVE LIGHT IN LA <ul><li>This LED retrofit project also will include the installation of remote monitoring units at all 140,000 streetlights replaced in the city. These devices will automatically report streetlight failures directly to the Bureau of Street Lighting for immediate repair, thus enabling its staff to optimize its maintenance services. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;If every city followed the example of Los Angeles and reduced the electricity used by their streetlights by 50 percent, it would be equivalent to eliminating over 2.5 of those coal plants per year,&quot; President Clinton said. &quot;We would do that while saving taxpayers money. And by doing that, we would also reclaim our night sky.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>CCI's Outdoor Lighting Program works with partner cities to improve the energy efficiency of street and traffic light systems through a combination of technical, purchasing, and project assistance. </li></ul>
    35. 35. MORE ON LOS ANGELES <ul><li>For 1st Phase, out of sample installations and pricing from 11 manufacturers, selected Beta Lighting and Leotek </li></ul>
    36. 36. SAN DIEGO <ul><li>SDG&E has done research on street lighting on 6th Street across from Balboa Park </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Street Lighting Technologies Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compared LEDs & induction with existing HPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But LEDs are about 1 year old compared to what is available now </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results should be available before end of the year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SDG&E will make announcement </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. CONCERNS ABOUT POST TOP KITS <ul><li>It is very important to have any LED product that want to buy to be tested by a certified lab with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LM79, which is lumens per watt out of the fixture at steady state temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LM80, which is rated life of LED, when they lose 30% of initial lumens in a fixture at steady state temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These ratings will change for kits put in different fixtures </li></ul>
    39. 39. FOR WHITE LIGHT AREA LIGHTING, THERE IS MORE THAN POLE FIXTURES <ul><li>Following slide will show examples of several exterior LED fixtures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although garage and canopy fixtures can be considered interior or damp location, they are included in this seminar </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. LEDs ON MISSISSIPPI BRIDGE <ul><li>LEDs can also be used for aesthetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RGB (red, green & blue) LEDs are the primary light colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain of the these colored LEDs can be dimmed and other can get more drive current to provide various colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications include building walls and bridges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My good friend, Michael Lambert, was the lead designer on the Norbert Beckey Bridge in Iowa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The bridge and it’s approaches are 3,018 feet overall length with about 1,500 feet of the steel structure lighted. The total installed cost for the project was $350,000 with Musco donating $250,000. The controller and program is Nicolaudie's &quot;Sunlite&quot; shown at the link below... it's a great little program and the controller fits in the palm of your hand. You can download the software for free.... but the controller runs about $600, and of course you need that to control any fixtures. Which is why they let you have the software for nothing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.nicolaudie.com/ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 41.
    42. 42.
    45. 45. AREA LIGHTING The Edge by Beta Lighting Parking structure Outdoor area Bollard Wall pack Canopy Source: U.S. Department of Energy
    46. 46. LED DRIVE CURRENT <ul><li>Drive current or milliamp (ma) is sort of like ballast factor (BF) for T8s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher ma or BF is more light and wattage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But lumens per watt with various T8 BF ballasts is linear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But T8 lamp life is not shortened with high BF, as long as BF is not over 1.20 </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. LED DRIVE CURRENT <ul><li>Although increasing drive current shortens LED life, can still be a good strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can get by with fewer LEDs per fixture, so initial cost can be less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With occupancy sensors can go high/low light levels with one driver per fixture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example 700ma for high and 375ma for low </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For many parking garages and parking lots, the lights can be in low mode a majority of the time, so overall life will still be good </li></ul></ul></ul>
    49. 49. LED LIFE <ul><li>LED life is based on when still provides 70% of initial lumens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rated life for other lighting sources is when 50% of the lamps have burned out and 50% are still working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEDs can be called the mercury vapor of this generation, because merc vap does not usually burn out, just gets dimmer and dimmer over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I have been under 1000W merc vap hibays that only provides about 5 footcandles on the floor, but maintenance point up, see the lamps are still on, and do not want to replace them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers who buy LED fixtures will have to learn when they should be replaced, even when they are still working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I have already seen many 1st generation LED exit signs that are still working, but do not provide sufficient light for NFPA or city codes, and facility people do not want to replace them because they are still working </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 50. LED LIFE <ul><li>Since high lumen white LEDs are a relatively new technology and keep improving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Please be very aware that rated lives are projections, and even the best projections are still projections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example 100,000 hour rated LED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never turned off, would take 11.4 years to lose projected 30% of initial lumens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of different stuff can happen to an LED chip in 11 years </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On 4000 hours per year would take 25 years to lose projected 30% of initial lumens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A lot more can happen in 25 years </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Even if the LEDs last 100,000 hours, will cherry picker trucks or lifts be required to clean fixtures much more frequently? </li></ul>
    51. 51. USA Average Nighttime Temperatures courtesy of Beta Lighting
    52. 52. Derived Lumen Depreciation Data (From LED Manufactures LM-80 Data) courtesy of Beta Lighting
    53. 53. Light Loss Factors – LEDway Street Lighting Luminaire courtesy of Beta Lighting
    54. 54. DRIVER LIFE <ul><li>Heat is the enemy of all electronics, including ballasts and drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Just like electronic ballasts, the achilles heel of LED drivers are the electrolytic capacitors </li></ul><ul><li>So what if LEDs can last 100,000+ hours if the driver only lasts 50,000 - 60,000 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Some fixture manufacturers are using drivers with mil spec capacitors and state that the drivers can last as long as the LEDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That may be true, but again, that is a projection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maybe it would be good to remote the drivers in the base of pole fixtures so easy access </li></ul>
    55. 55. Philips Advance Drive Lifetimes in Beta LED Fixtures courtesy of Beta Lighting
    56. 56. Philips Advance Driver Lifetime Projection Caveats <ul><li>Driver life projections are accurate only for Beta LED fixtures (EDGE & LEDway at 350mA LED drive current), each manufacturer must account for the thermal impact of their fixture design on components. </li></ul><ul><li>This data does not constitute a warranty. The data represents accelerated life testing and electronic industry accepted component life modeling to a 0.5% failure rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Philips Advance model numbers covered by this life model include: LEDINTA0350C425FO, LEDINTA0700C210FO, LEDINTA700C140F3O. </li></ul>courtesy of Beta Lighting
    57. 57. LIFE REALITY CHECK <ul><li>Even based on 50,000 hour projected life, that is 12.5 years based on dusk to dawn operation </li></ul><ul><li>Just think what can fail in 12.5 years with hot sun, cold, rain, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solder joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacitors and/or other components in drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEDs (which may be most resilient) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expand this to 100,000 hour projected life, which would be 25 years </li></ul><ul><li>This issue also applies to other long life technologies, such as induction, which will be discussed later </li></ul>
    58. 58. WARRANTY <ul><li>You should not have to settle for less than a 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe you could negotiate longer warranties </li></ul>
    59. 59. GLARE CONCERN <ul><li>At certain angles some LED fixtures can be considered glary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like looking into several high wattage MR16 narrow spots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually not a deal killer, but be aware </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. MODULAR DESIGN <ul><li>Some LED fixtures are modular so parts are easily replaceable for maintenance and upgrades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LED panels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driver(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LEDs are improving lumen watts about 25% per year </li></ul><ul><li>For example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If fixtures with 4 LED panels are purchased now, maybe in 3 - 5 years, each fixture could be retrofitted with 3 LED panels, providing the same amount of light, but saving almost 25% wattage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On the other side, if an LED fixture lasts for 50,000, which for dusk to dawn, that will be about 12 years, and new high performance fixtures then may be much smaller and different design </li></ul>
    61. 61. RECYCLING <ul><li>There is a lot of valuable metal, used as heat sinks, etc. in LED fixtures </li></ul><ul><li>This should be recycled </li></ul><ul><li>Several manufacturers have programs to pay for their old LED fixture returned and offer a discount on new LED fixtures for down the road </li></ul>
    62. 62. SHOULD BUY LED FIXTURES NOW OR WAIT? <ul><li>LED fixtures in a few years may cost half as much and be twice as bright than existing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently some LED cobra head fixtures cost about $400 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 5 years, they may cost $100 - $150, which would make HID and other incumbent technologies obsolete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But if you wait a few years, you would not get the benefit of LED fixtures until then </li></ul>
    63. 63. DOE <ul><li>Department of Energy has a great job with SSL (solid state lighting), which includes LEDs </li></ul><ul><li>Google search ‘DOE SSL’ for a great website </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CALiPER testing program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Currently have done 7 rounds of testing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmark reports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>My favorite is the comparison of LED T8s compared to fluorescent T8s </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It trashes LED T8s </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gateway studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which some following PG&E slides are about comparing HPS cobra head and LED fixtures in the streets of Oakland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fact Sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you have not checked this website out yet, you have to </li></ul></ul>
    64. 64. CALiPER Testing: Measurable Progress Source: Department of Energy
    65. 65. LED DEVICE PERFORMANCE PROJECTIONS US DOE SSL R&D MYPP, March 2008, table 4-2. Metric 2007 2010 2012 2015 Efficacy-Lab (lm/W) 120 160 176 200 Efficacy-Commercial Cool White (lm/W) 84 147 164 188 Efficacy-Commercial Warm White (lm/W) 59 122 139 163 OEM Lamp Price-Product ($/klm) 25 10 5 2
    66. 66. LED LUMINAIRE PERFORMANCE PROJECTIONS US DOE SSL Multi-Year Program Plan, March 2008, table 4-11. Metric 2007 2010 2012 2015 Device Efficacy-Commercial Cool White (lm/W, 25 degrees C) 84 147 164 188 Efficacy-Commercial Warm White (lm/W) 59 122 139 163 Thermal Efficiency 85% 89% 91% 95% Efficiency of Driver 85% 89% 91% 95% Efficiency of Fixture 77% 84% 88% 95% Resultant luminaire efficiency 56% 66% 73% 86% Luminaire Efficacy-Commercial Cool White (lm/W) 47 97 121 161 Luminaire Efficacy-Commercial Warm White (lm/W) 33 80 101 140
    67. 67. Round 7 Bollards Side-by-Side Comparison Same Model Similar Distribution Type III or House-Side Shield Source: Department of Energy
    68. 68.
    69. 69.
    70. 70. courtesy of Beta Lighting 100 Watt HPS 70 Watt HPS 60 LED Type 3 (350 mA) 30 LED Type 2 (525 mA) Incumbent Technology - HPS Trial Technology - LED Graphics above show a representation of the uniformity of the illumination provided by each of the technologies
    71. 71. SAN FRANCISCO STUDY <ul><li>Emerging Technology Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By PG&E with assistance from DOE and City & County of San Francisco Issued December 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>www.etcc-ca.com </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.etcc-ca.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2841&Itemid=72 </li></ul></ul>
    72. 72. RALEY’S SUPERMARKET PARKING LOT STUDY <ul><li>West Sacramento </li></ul><ul><li>Compared 320W pulse start MH cobraheads with high performance bilevel LED fixtures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not really apples to apples comparison because cobraheads are so bad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DOE study released on March 23, 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.ssl.energy.gov/gatewaydemos_results.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1st Source Lighting is planning to install some induction fixtures and have PG&E/DOE make light measurements </li></ul>
    73. 73. DOE WEBCAST <ul><li>LED Site Lighting In The Commercial Sector: Opportunities, Challenges, and the CBEA Performance Specification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presented by Linda Sandahl, Michael Myer & Eric Richman at PNNL and Ralph Williams at Walmart on March 26, 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BUG (backlight/trespass, uplight & glare zone) ratios replacing cut-off classifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ralph’s part may be the best part </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDF and presentation available at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Google search ‘DOE SSL’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Click ‘Technical Information Network for SSL’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Click ‘DOE Webcasts’ </li></ul></ul></ul>
    74. 74. DON’T BUY AN LED FIXTURE UNLESS <ul><li>You can get results from independent test lab, certified by the DOE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LM79 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lumens, lumens per watt ratings out of the fixture at steady state, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LM80 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rated life at expected temperatures inside fixtures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal data from chip manufacturers is supplied to fixture manufacturers, which incorporate that info with their fixture thermals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And these results need to be good </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also good to be Energy Star rated </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturer has deep enough pockets and has a long enough proven track record </li></ul>
    75. 75. TROPHY CHIPS <ul><li>In production runs, there are often some LED chips that have very high lumens per watt, which can be called trophy chips </li></ul><ul><li>Be cautious of sample fixtures, especially for large projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If free or directly furnished sample fixture(s) from a manufacturer look very good, buy one or more samples through a third party and compare performance with original ones </li></ul></ul>
    76. 76. BIRD CONCERNS <ul><li>Good LED fixtures are designed so LED junction temperatures do not get too hot </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on fixture design, you may want to be aware of poop from medium to large birds, including sea gulls, 6 month or longer periods, that many parts of California can go without rain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe get the spikes or other devices on top of fixtures so birds do not land and do their business </li></ul></ul>
    77. 77. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS FOR LEDS <ul><li>Where full cut-off for dark sky and maybe other concerns is important </li></ul><ul><li>Where getting sufficient light in far corners necessary area without excessive light underneath fixture </li></ul>
    78. 78. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS FOR LEDS <ul><li>24 hour applications, like garages, because most potential savings </li></ul><ul><li>Garages and parking lots where can use occupancy sensors for high/low or on/off lighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither of these shorten LED life, like they can for other lighting technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No long warm up and restrike times like HID </li></ul></ul>
    79. 79. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS FOR LEDS <ul><li>Replacing relatively low wattage HPS and standard or probe start MH lamps with magnetic ballasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower wattage HID lamps and ballasts are considerably less efficacious than higher wattage ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HPS (initial lumens per watt including magnetic ballast) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>69 for 100W </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>107 for 400W (55% better) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MH (initial lumens per watt including mag ballast) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>65 for 175W </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>79 for 400W (22% better) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower wattage MH lamps typically have much shorter lamp life than higher wattage ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, 10,000 hours for 175W and 20,000 hours for 400W </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    80. 80. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS FOR LEDS <ul><li>Replacing relatively low wattage HPS and standard or probe start MH lamps with magnetic ballasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher wattage and lumen HID lamps and the fixtures for them often cost about the same as lower wattage versions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But since more LEDs are required to replace high wattage HID fixtures, LED fixtures with more LEDs cost significantly more than LED fixtures with fewer LEDs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>HPS because ugly yellow color and low S/P ratio </li></ul><ul><li>HID fixtures with low fixture efficiency, bad optics, not dark sky compliant, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A few fixture type examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typical cobra head </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acorn without reflector which would prevent too much uplight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ballasts in existing fixtures nearing end of rated life </li></ul><ul><li>Have to buy new fixtures anyway, so can do financials by subtracting cost of baseline fixtures </li></ul>
    81. 81. LED with PV <ul><li>This is getting more popular, but many of the systems only provide about as much light as a 60 - 100W incandescent light bulb and are quite expensive </li></ul><ul><li>One higher lumen example is Carmanah’s 1500 series www.carmanah.com </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 6800 lumens with Beta Lighting Edge or LEDway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmable system for light output through the night for various geographical areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional occupancy sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$6000 - $8000 without pole </li></ul></ul>
    82. 82. FTE <ul><li>Fitted-Target Efficacy metric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should become a very common and important term for many exterior LED lighting fixtures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to luminaire efficacy, but differentiates useful lumens from those that may cause glare, wasted light, and /or light trespass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also addresses uniform target coverage and light pollutions and/or light trespass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More on this is available in DOE ENERGY STAR July 1, 2009 2nd draft, and in other upcoming documents </li></ul></ul>
    83. 83. DOE MUNICIPAL SOLID-STATE STREET LIGHTING CONSORTIUM <ul><li>To leverage the efforts of multiple cities pursuing evaluations of LED street lighting products, DOE has announced the formation of a Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. The Consortium will collect, analyze, and share technical information and experiences related to LED street lighting demonstrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Membership will be open to municipalities, utilities, and energy efficiency organizations (more details will follow soon). DOE does not anticipate that Consortium membership will be open to manufacturers, though manufacturers might occasionally be invited to present information on selected topics at Consortium meetings. DOE expects to launch the Consortium in September 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/gatewaydemos_consortium.html </li></ul>
    85. 85. INDUCTION
    86. 86. courtesy of Glenn Gara & 1st Source Lighting WHY INDUCTION LIGHTING? <ul><li>Typically, fluorescent and HID lamps have one common weakness - The lamp cathode or electrode filament </li></ul><ul><li>12 years ago, lamp manufacturers introduced a fluorescent lamp which does not require electrodes. These lamps will last up to 100,000 hours equating to 20 years for most users </li></ul>
    87. 87. courtesy of Glenn Gara & 1st Source Lighting TYPICAL FLUORESCENT CONSTRUCTION & OPERATION Phosphor Visible Light Hot Cathode Electron Mercury Atom Ultraviolet Radiation Glass Tube Base Argon
    88. 88. courtesy of Glenn Gara & 1st Source Lighting ICETRON OPERATING PRINCIPLE Ballast The system consists of an inductively coupled fluorescent lamp and a high frequency electronic ballast. The system uses magnetic-induction technology instead of an electrode at each end of the fluorescent tube to power the discharge. Removal of the electrodes eliminates one of the major life-limiting components of a fluorescent lamp.
    89. 89. courtesy of Glenn Gara & 1st Source Lighting ICETRON ® QUICKTRONIC ® SYSTEMS The ICETRON electrodeless fluorescent lamp is excited by a radio frequency (RF) magnetic field. The discharge current path forms a closed loop. The electric field that generates the discharge is initiated and maintained by an RF magnetic field concentrated within the ferromagnetic ring cores. In essence, the ICETRON lamp is an electrical transformer with a closed loop discharge serving as a one-turn secondary winding coupled to ferromagnetic cores whose primary windings are excited by an electronic RF power converter (the ballast). The RF power is evenly distributed along the discharge path. This allows a low profile geometry that avoids excessive thermal stress near the excitation area that can be typical of RF lamps with internal RF drives.
    90. 90. INDUCTION LIGHTING <ul><li>Extremely long life compared to HID lamps </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic savings on maintenance costs </li></ul><ul><li>33-67% energy savings over HID equivalents </li></ul><ul><li>High sustainability-100,000 hour rated life </li></ul>courtesy of Glenn Gara & 1st Source Lighting
    91. 91. INDUCTION LIGHTING courtesy of Glenn Gara & 1st Source Lighting <ul><li>High color rendering requires less input wattage </li></ul><ul><li>White fluorescent light provides better visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Instant on - Immediate re-strike - no warm up required </li></ul><ul><li>Operates efficiently down to -40*F </li></ul><ul><li>Vibration resistant / Low heat transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Remote Ballast Option for Easy Maintenance </li></ul>
    92. 92. INDUCTION LIGHTING <ul><li>Will endure virtually unlimited number of starts </li></ul><ul><li>Long life equates to lowest amount of mercury released into environment </li></ul><ul><li>Proven technology - Has consistently fulfilled rating requirements </li></ul>courtesy of Glenn Gara & 1st Source Lighting
    93. 93. INDUCTION LIGHTING <ul><li>Roadways, tunnels, bridges, signage </li></ul><ul><li>Building security, parking lots, garages </li></ul><ul><li>Parks, public spaces, gas stations </li></ul>courtesy of Glenn Gara & 1st Source Lighting <ul><li>Warehouses, industrial buildings, manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Clean rooms, gymnasiums, swimming pools </li></ul><ul><li>Grocery & retail, cold storage, cafeterias </li></ul>Ideal for Difficult to Access Installations Indoor Outdoor
    94. 94. INDUCTION <ul><li>Name brands compared to Chinese manufacturers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With Philips and Sylvania you know that you will be able to get warranty support, replacement parts, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lamps and generators are not inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Lumens per watt not nearly as good as high performance T8s, electronically ballasted CMH and some other systems </li></ul>
    95. 95. INDUCTION <ul><li>Replacement lamp and generator set may cost $200+ </li></ul><ul><li>70% lumen maintenance over 100,000 hour rated life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So space should probably be overlit initially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just like LEDs, may to include maintenance costs to clean fixtures periodically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philips is planning to introduce dimming generators later this year </li></ul><ul><li>I feel that LEDs will take over the market niche that induction has had </li></ul>
    97. 97. CMH <ul><li>90+ CRI (color rendering index), which is better than most fluorescent and LEDs </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 110 lumens per watt with electronic ballast, which no other white light source can currently match </li></ul><ul><li>Even some new low wattage lamps have 20,000 hour rated life </li></ul><ul><li>15 minute restrike time, even with electronic ballast </li></ul><ul><li>I have a concern about electronic ballasts in exterior applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential heat problems in dark colored fixtures getting blasted by summer sun, even when not turned on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lamps & electronic ballasts are expensive </li></ul>
    98. 98. HID, INCLUDING CMH, POLE FIXTURES <ul><li>Try to avoid typical cobra head fixtures, because distribution and uniformity are not very good and typically not good for dark sky </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, many of the designer horizontal lamp fixtures look very good aesthetically, but vertical base up fixtures usually provide much better distribution and uniformity </li></ul>
    100. 100. LIFI <ul><li>Luxim has developed a chicklet sized lamp with plasma metal halides, driven by a high frequency amplifier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.luxim.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LIFI Sta 40 Series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>19,200 lumens @ 96 CRI or 22,000 lumens @ 85 CRI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30,000 rated hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5700 - 5900 Kelvin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>249 system watts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current 77 - 88 lumens per system watt will be improved with upcoming more efficient amplifier </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dimmable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast restrike time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A real point source, so can direct the light where it should go </li></ul></ul></ul>
    101. 101. LIFI <ul><li>First fixture manufacturer and model is Stray Light’s Tesla </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://straylightoptical.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There should be other fixture manufacturers soon </li></ul>
    102. 102. CONTROL SYSTEMS <ul><li>There is an evolution of wireless and power line carrier wave control systems, which can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For all technologies signal the facility’s office about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light sources not working </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Including HPS lamp cycling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lights on during day due to faulty photocell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially for LEDs, can include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous or staged dimming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When junction temperature too high </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When traffic is greatly reduced during the night, so need less light </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could also work for dimming induction generators and dimming MH ballasts/amplifiers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    103. 103. CONTROL SYSTEMS <ul><li>Currently these control systems are expensive and may worsen paybacks and other financials instead of improving them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You will have to decide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since each of these systems is usually proprietary, which is a city, county or other institution gets, they will probably be locked into that company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control systems should get less expensive as time goes on </li></ul></ul>
    104. 104. MAJOR VOLTAGE SPIKES <ul><li>This can especially be a concern for street lights in areas that are prone to lightning </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic HID ballasts, LED drivers and induction generators in other applications should be designed to handle voltage spikes </li></ul>
    105. 105. MADE IN USA? <ul><li>With this serious recession, keeping American jobs is important, not just for LED fixtures, but also with other fixtures </li></ul><ul><li>Beta Lighting LED fixtures is just one example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cree LED crystals made in USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LED assembly done in Taiwan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philips/Advance drivers made in Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixtures made in Wisconsin, USA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do you own research for fixtures that you are interested in </li></ul>
    107. 107. SOME COMPARISON TABLES <ul><li>But First… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some customers want to go with LEDs, because </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wow factor of LEDs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These customers are early adopters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some customers want incumbent technologies that have a proven track record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some customers want to wait a year or two for LED fixtures and testing to get better and less expensive </li></ul></ul>
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    111. 111. WRAP UP <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Comments </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul>
    112. 112. THAT’S ALL FOLKS <ul><li>Please fill out review forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If there are any </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For further information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stan Walerczyk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>925-944-9481 (San Francisco area) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.lightingwizards.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Thanks for attending </li></ul>