Ccse Net Zero Energy


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Wally Geer - Net Zero Energy Presentation for CCSE - to be presented July 30, 2009

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  • And productivity isn’t just about making things better and faster – look at what we’re seeing in schools, where the test scores are higher, in the hospitals where discharge can come sooner, in retail where sales are higher . . . .
    The impacts of green building on productivity are tremendous.
  • Ccse Net Zero Energy

    1. 1. Welcome to NET ZERO ENERGY BUILDINGS .
    2. 2. Some Special Thanks to:  California Center for Sustainable Energy  U.S. Green Building Council  National Association of Home Builder’s Research Center  California Solar / Wayne Pendrey  Jack L. Gosnell, PhD  Derry Scully, Dublin  University College of Dublin  MosArt Architects, Dublin
    3. 3. ZERO ENERGY BUILDINGS What is a “Zero Energy Building” ? There is NO one definition of a ZEB There is NO U.S. national or international standard that defines a ZEB Some European Countries have established their own ZEB National Standards and the EU is currently working on a universal EU Standard
    4. 4. The Definition of a ZEB varies greatly based upon the priorities and metrics of:  Total Carbon Emissions  Amount of “Grid Dependence”  Dependence on Fossil Fuels  Off Site Energy Consumption during the building’s construction
    5. 5. Some ZEB Concepts & Buzz Words:  Net Zero SITE Energy Use  Net Zero SOURCE Energy Use  Net Zero Energy Emissions  Net Zero Cost  Net OFF SITE Zero Energy Use  Off the Grid  Cradle to Cradle Net Zero Energy Building
    6. 6. A Brief History of Net Zero Energy  Early attempts at ZEBs started in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the U.S. and Europe  Academic and Industry Research started in the 1990s due to U.S. & European Energy Standards :  In the U.S.: – Energy Star – LEED – Green Point Rated Homes  In Europe: – Minergie Standard (Switzerland) – Passivehaus (Germany) – National Home Energy Rating System (U.K.)
    7. 7. What Makes an ZEB Building ?  Site Selection & Orientation  Passive Solar Design  Building Envelope Design & Construction  Integration of Low Energy Consumption Systems  Active Energy Systems
    8. 8. When Analyzing ZEB Opportunities: Think “Passive” First & “Active” Second !!
    9. 9. Site Selection:  Solar Orientation  Historic Wind Patterns Orientation  Geothermal Opportunities  Topography  Potential Mitigation of “Heat Island” Effect  Landscaping Opportunities
    10. 10. Solar Orientation
    11. 11. Historic Wind Patterns Orientation
    12. 12. Geothermal Opportunities
    13. 13. Topography
    14. 14. Potential to Mitigate “Heat Island” Effect .
    15. 15. Landscaping Opportunities
    16. 16. Why Should We Build ZEBs ?
    17. 17. Peak Oil .
    18. 18. .Energy is Used in three main areas of life Manufacturing Transportation Heating & Cooling & Lighting of Buildings
    19. 19. . But only ONE of those, which happens to be the largest (42-56% of world energy by various estimates) Can be reduced to ZERO
    20. 20. . And that is, of course…  Heating, Cooling & Lighting of Buildings
    21. 21. Welcome to the Revolution! In 1947, Scientists at Bell Laboratories invented the transistor, a device that was, in comparison to vacuum tubes:  More efficient  Much smaller, compact  Longer lasting  Better in every way except, initially, capacity, and even that characteristic improved  Less expensive  Instant acting  Shake & Shock resistant
    22. 22. So what Revolution… … are We Plotting? One perhaps as fundamental as the electronics/communications revolution…. Prediction: by 2020, the ways in which most of the buildings on earth are constructed will be as different from current conventional methods as transistors and chips are different from vacuum tubes….
    23. 23. Time for Energy Independence for All of America’s Buildings? It’s already High Noon
    24. 24. Our Revolution in Construction By 2020, Construction of Buildings in America and Around the World will be fundamentally different in:  Insulation  Heat/Cold Retention  Circulation/Ventilation  Water Usage/Purity of Effluents  Cleanliness/Freshness of Air  Health Aspects  Sound-Proofness ABILITY TO OPERATE ENERGY-INDEPENDENTLY
    25. 25. What are Signals for the Revolution?  LEED – which, in America, is addressing the large part of the total set of environmental and energy issues in building and construction  The 2030 Challenge  Passive Standard – which, in Europe, is rapidly becoming pan-European CODE
    26. 26. Europe’s Passive Haus’ (P.H.) Standard A Passive House is any building in which a comfortable interior climate can be maintained without active heating and cooling systems The building heats and cools itself, hence passive...
    27. 27. How does a Passive House Building Work ?
    28. 28. First Certified P.H. in Ireland This House generates 87% of its own energy
    29. 29. Example of Air Ventilation & Heating
    30. 30. Fully integrated design strategies dramatically reduce energy consumption
    31. 31. 100% ZEB Home in Ireland
    32. 32. .
    33. 33. “Quality of Life” Buildings Term ‘Passive House’ sounds, perhaps, on this side of the Atlantic... …a little too passive!! What a P.H. really does is provide highest ‘Quality of Life Buildings’ or ‘QLB’ for short
    34. 34. Advantages of ‘Quality of Life Building’ (QLB) Standard  Running costs: very low (or even none!)  Comfort: High  Working/living environment: Healthy  Buildings: Bright, Airy  Energy needs: Future-proofed  Building life: Prolonged  Sound proofing: Excellent  LEED Certification: Excellent (Platinum Plus is possible)
    35. 35. Europe, which had its First Passive-Standard Home Only 10 Years Ago…  Now has over 10,000 of them!  Most are homes.  There are also many larger buildings: apartment buildings, offices, churches, schools…  Unfortunately we assembled here mostly photos of larger buildings…  Passive Standard do NOT limit appearance of a home or building…
    36. 36. ZEB Office Building in Austria Generates 90% of its’ Own Energy Requirements
    37. 37. Church in Austria That Thinks it’s a Power Plant !
    38. 38. Manufacturing facility in Austria that requires NO Electrical Lighting
    39. 39. Community Center in Austria that is a 100% ZEB Building
    40. 40. Montessori School, Germany 100% Fresh Air Change, 4 times per hour 100% Natural Lighting Students Test Scores improved 12% to 15% upon relocating to this School upon its’ completion
    41. 41. Retrofitting to PH and ZEB Standards
    42. 42. Our Bottom line ($$$)… … is the bottom line…. How Much does all this high- spec build cost? & What happens to Running Costs?
    43. 43. Cost Comparison Construction Costs of a 50% ZEB Office Building, Kiel, Germany (Building Shell _ Tenant Improvements - Converted to U.S. Dollars) Conventional Sustainable Difference Frame 48.28 53.82 11.46% Envelope 83.65 101.27 21.06% Roof 15.20 15.11 -0.58% Walls/Doors 12.78 12.90 0.95% Finishes 33.48 32.24 -3.70% Services 92.18 86.64 -6.01% Siteworks 7.04 7.02 -0.37% TOTALS 292.62 309.00 5.60%
    44. 44. Energy Savings Office Building Type Energy Conventional 25 KWH/ft2 /year Sustainable 10 KWH/ft2 /year Savings 15 KWH/ft2 /year For a 250,000 Office Building, that’s a Savings of over $350,000 per year
    46. 46. We’re in California, USA… …so that’s enough About Europe …
    47. 47. What’s up in the good old U.S.A. ?  U.S.G.B.C. LEEDs Programs and Certifications  The 2030 Challenge  Developers in search of a better Bottom Line
    48. 48. The 2030 Challenge  The 2030 Challenge asking the global architecture and building community to adopt the following targets:  All new buildings, developments and major renovations shall be designed to meet a fossil fuel, GHG-emitting, energy consumption performance standard of 50% of the regional (or country) average for that building type.  At a minimum, an equal amount of existing building area shall be renovated annually to meet a fossil fuel, GHG-emitting, energy consumption performance standard of 50% of the regional (or country) average for that building type.  The fossil fuel reduction standard for all new buildings and major renovations shall be increased to: – 60% in 2010 70% in 2015 80% in 2020 90% in 2025 Carbon-neutral in 2030 (using no fossil fuel GHG emitting energy to operate).  These targets may be accomplished by implementing innovative sustainable design strategies, generating on-site renewable power and/or purchasing (20% maximum) renewable energy and/or certified renewable energy credits.
    49. 49. Who’s on Board ? The American Institute of Architects (AIA) US Green Building Council (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Royal Architecture Institute of Canada (RAIC) County of Sarasota, FL State of New Mexico (Governor Bill Richardson) City of Santa Fe, NM Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) Environment America International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA/Target Finder) American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) National Wildlife Federation (NWF) Society of Building Science Educators (SBSE) AIA Committee on the Environment (AIA/COTE) Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA) Union Internationale des Architectes (UIA) American Solar Energy Society (ASES) American Society of Interior Designers (ASID) Cascadia Region Green Building Council Ontario Association of Architects (OAA)
    50. 50. 2030 Gains Political Traction Santa Barbara, CA, first in nation to adopt 2030 Challenge for all buildings: In 2007, the City of Santa Barbara, CA, took a historic step by passing an ordinance to become the first U.S. city to adopt the 2030 Challenge for all buildings within the city limits. The legislation seeks to reduce the fossil fuel standard for all new buildings in order to accomplish carbon neutrality by 2030. The ordinance will enact building regulations exceeding state standards for energy use by 20% for low-rise residential buildings, 15% for high-rise residential buildings and 10% for nonresidential buildings, among other measures. Approximately 20 municipalities have followed Santa Barbara in adopting some form of the 2030 Challenge at the City or County level. Legislation is currently pending at the State Level in 12 States to adopt various forms of the 2030 Challenge at the State Level
    51. 51. When it’s High Noon in American summers… Many of our cities have this utterly-unenviable horror called “double-90’s”…  Temperature > 90o F  Humidity > 90% Europe has no such honors (and asks that we NOT export them to Europe)… Our challenge is to COOL Buildings, not to HEAT them
    52. 52. Physics 101 It takes much more energy to deal with the water in the air than the actual cooling of it
    53. 53. National Institute of Health Building 31, A Case Study A NIH-QLBI Case Study in introducing innovative retrofit proposals that will both increase comfort & reduce energy loss
    54. 54. Issues with Building 31  Overheating in Summer  Cold indoor temperatures in winter  All Year: Freeze on North side of Building, Roast on South Side of Building  Poor air quality per NIH’s own standards !
    55. 55. The Causes of B-31s Problems  Large Single Glazed Window Areas  NO shading devices, or shading  Inefficient cooling system  Large window areas, with poor thermal performance  Hugh thermal bridges through concrete structure  Inefficient heating system  Mo fresh air ventilation system  Single Thermostat for this 400,000 square foot building
    56. 56. Some Problems & Some Solutions Problem: Large Single Glazed Window Areas Solution: Reduce Window area and improve thermal performance with triple glazed windows Problem: No shading devices Solution: Put shading louvers on east, south and west facades of the building Problem: Hugh thermal bridging problem at concrete structure Solution: Insulate thermal bridges
    57. 57. Some Problems & Some Solutions Problem: Inefficient cooling & heating system & NO fresh air circulation Solution: Change to efficient fresh-air-ventilation system to cool, heat and condition the air Problem: Single thermostat for the entire building Solution: WOW, that’s a tough one, this will require additional research and study – I’ll get back to you.
    58. 58. B-31 Retrofit Panel
    59. 59. Retrofit Procedure Remove existing façade elements, grid by grid Install panels grid by grid Grid-by-grid process dramatically reduces number of people/offices that would need to be vacated at any given time in the process….
    60. 60. B-31, the Bottom Line  Total comfort and healthy conditions/air in all offices/areas of the entire complex  Significant reductions of expenditures for energy  Perhaps reduction or even elimination of the huge current, probably outmoded, central heating/cooling  Ability to accomplish complete refurbishment by stages, minimizing employee/office displacements  Reasonable costs for totally-positive retrofit  Transforming a problematic building into a “model” of refurbishment  Health, Comfort, Happiness of Employees  Estimated pay back in Energy Costs = 7 Years
    61. 61. So, Let’s Summarize the Issues  ZEB is NOT an “all or nothing” concept  You don’t have to be a tree hugger to embrace the ZEB Concept, because it just makes economic sense  Political and Legislative Forces (i.e. 2030 challenge, Incentives & Rebates, LEED related legislation, etc.) will drive research and technology  You may do it for the dollars, but you just might be doing others some good in the process
    62. 62. Thank you for joining the revolution For Additional Information, please contact Wally Geer at