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Instructor Manual for IDentifEYE Workshop

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The overall aim of the IDentifEYE project is to enhance student online safety by empowering student online resilience. But, you will not instruct students. You will instruct teachers. The reason for this is scalability. In order to reach students in a scalable, structured way there are only two gateways: parents and teachers. Because teachers are organized and have a far larger reach than parents they are the ones you will deal with.

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Instructor Manual for IDentifEYE Workshop

  1. 1.  Here you’ll find the project website: http://id-eye.eu/ Project manual  Here you’ll find the project manual in English: http://results.id- eye.eu/eBook/Workshop_Instructor_Manual/EN  Here you’ll find the project manual in Greek: http://results.id- eye.eu/eBook/Workshop_Instructor_Manual/EL  Here you’ll find the project manual in Spanish: http://results.id- eye.eu/eBook/Workshop_Instructor_Manual/ES  Here you’ll find the project manual in Polish: http://results.id- eye.eu/eBook/Workshop_Instructor_Manual/PL  Here you’ll find the project manual in Lithuanian: http://results.id- eye.eu/eBook/Workshop_Instructor_Manual/LT  Here you’ll find the project manual in Dutch: http://results.id- eye.eu/eBook/Workshop_Instructor_Manual/NL  Here you’ll find the project manual components: http://results.id-eye.eu/eBook Project material  Here you’ll find project files to download: http://results.id-eye.eu/eBook/Downloads  Here you’ll find game-related material: http://results.id- eye.eu/eBook/IDentifEYE_Game_Components  Here you’ll find project outcomes: http://results.id-eye.eu/eBook/Project_Public_Outcomes Project video:  Here you’ll find the project video in English: http://results.id-eye.eu/eBook/Promotional_Video/EN  Here you’ll find the project video in Greek: http://results.id-eye.eu/eBook/Promotional_Video/EL  Here you’ll find the project video in Spanish: http://results.id-eye.eu/eBook/Promotional_Video/ES  Here you’ll find the project video in Polish: http://results.id-eye.eu/eBook/Promotional_Video/PL  Here you’ll find the project video in Lithuanian: http://results.id- eye.eu/eBook/Promotional_Video/LT  Here you’ll find the project video in Dutch: http://results.id-eye.eu/eBook/Promotional_Video/NL  Here you’ll find the project video in Augmented Reality: http://results.id- eye.eu/eBook/Promotional_Video_AR
  2. 2. PROJECT VIDEO IN AUGMENTED REALITY Please visit: http://results.id-eye.eu/eBook/Promotional_Video_AR and follow the instructions. Attention. You will need a webcam to experience this. If you would be asked to give your permission to use the camera, please provide it. Hold the marker still, in parallel to your webcam. Make sure that the whole marker is visible to the cam and that you do not cover the marker with your hands. 1
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  4. 4. INSTRUCTOR INTRODUCTION Introduction Welcome instructor! Thank you for being interested in the IDentifEYE project. The overall aim of the IDentifEYE project is to enhance student online safety by empowering student online resilience. But, you will not instruct students. You will instruct teachers. The reason for this is scalability. In order to reach students in a scalable, structured way there are only two gateways: parents and teachers. Because teachers are organized and have a far larger reach than parents they are the ones you will deal with. Teachers are not the easiest group to work with. They feel overburdened and underappreciated. And they have become cynical when it comes to innovations. Education researcher Dylan Wiliam (2011) writes: “Because teachers are bombarded with innovations, none of these innovations has time to take root, so nothing really changes. And worse, not only is there little or no real improvement in what happens in classrooms, but teachers get justifiably cynical about the constant barrage of innovations to which they are subjected.” Your task will be to find a way to win them over. What usually helps is to acknowledge that within the education system they are the most important factor when it comes to improving the quality of education. Teacher quality has the biggest impact on student performance. A good teacher at a bad school turns out better students than a bad teacher at a good school. The IDentifEYE project will not revolutionize teaching. As Dylan Wiliam writes: “there haven’t been any real breakthroughs in teaching for the last two thousand years. Teachers need professional development because the job of teaching is so difficult, so complex, that one lifetime is not enough to master it.” The only thing the IDentifEYE project proposes is for teachers to try out a few new elements in their normal teaching. The project offers a menu card from which, hopefully, some items will be regularly used by teachers in their day-to-day teaching. All items on the IDentifEYE menu card will have a positive impact on student online safety. And all will, at the same time, change teacher student relations for the better. They will help students be more open to feedback, more open to learning, more engaged, and more positively responsive while feeling co-responsible for their learning process and for their reaction to social processes around them. At the same time, the items will open new channels of communication between teachers and students, leading to a more personal trust relationship. As a result, the elements that teachers will encounter in this workshop will make their job in the class room easier and more interesting. And they will make their students more resilient, especially regarding new technologies and online experiences. This resilience will enhance student online safety. That’s what’s in it for teachers. Good practices So, how does the project achieve this? It introduces new elements to teachers on four levels: new topics – (online) identities and a critical view on globalized society – interactive didactics, elements of prophylactics and introductions to new technologies and in particular to Augmented Reality. These elements are customized for two different target groups: teachers teaching students aged 8- 11 and teachers teaching students aged 12 – 14. And it is you who will introduce these teachers to all of this. 3
  5. 5. What you will present to teachers in this workshop are sets of good practices on all four levels. These good practices are elements that can be implemented by teachers in their lessons straight away. You will need background information in order to be able to present these good practices, and lots of it. This background information you will find in this manual. Workshop sessions How does the workshop concretely look like? The workshop consists of six sessions, five of which will be conducted by you. In the first two sessions you will present good practices concerning identities, interactive didactics and prophylactics for teachers teaching 8 – 11 year olds and identities, society, interactive didactics and prophylactics for teachers teaching 12 – 14 year olds. In session three you will present new technology good practices and an educational Augmented Reality game that was the starting point for creating this workshop. The game comes in two versions: for students aged 8 – 11 years about data sharing and online identities and for students aged 12 – 14 year about communication in the class room. At the end of session three you will ask teachers to start creating their own lesson plan, involving workshop good practices from all four levels. In session four the participants will finalize their lesson plans. The creation of lessons plans is the essence of the workshop. It is a first step to get teachers to reflect on how to concretely introduce and test elements from all four levels into their regular, curricular lessons. The fifth part of the workshop does not involve you. During this session teachers implement their individual lesson plans in their own class rooms. They are to experience the effect of the new elements that they decided to test out. During the pilot phase of the project this was the moment that teachers saw the effect of the good practices that they had chosen for their own students. It was the moment that many teachers felt quite insecure, or at least unsure of what to expect. And it was the moment in which they were surprised by the positive response by their students. In none of the pilot sessions teachers experienced a negative reaction in their classes. In the sixth part of the workshop, session five, you meet up with the teacher participants again to evaluate what went well and what did not. Workshop method The structure of the sessions is loosely based on a method called Brain Essential Learning Steps. The creators of the B.E.L.S. method – Brain Essential Learning Steps – define it as “a consistent thematic approach to teach children curricular content retained through interpretation and application”. There are four Brain Essential Learning Steps:  B.E.L.S. 1: Providing an introduction on a subject;  B.E.L.S. 2: Brainstorm and list ideas connected to the subject;  B.E.L.S. 3: Create a plan for action on the subject;  STEP 4. Implement the plan for action. The IDentifEYE project has added a fifth step to these four: Evaluation. 4
  6. 6. The following lifelong learning skills are developed by means of B.E.L.S.:  Problem Solving;  Risk Taking;  Cooperative Learning;  Creativity;  Cognitive Responsibility Systems. Teacher challenges Your role during the workshop is crucial. You are the one who will be confronted with teachers complaining about them having to do yet another chore, while their work schedule is already stretched to the maximum. You will meet a sceptical attitude by teachers about yet another innovative workshop. And you will hear the sighs when teachers hear that they will have to evaluate their implemented lessons because that means yet another few hours of additional work in the evening. Nevertheless, by showing teachers what is in it for them you can win them over. Many teachers struggle with the use of new technology in the class room. This is not so much because they are too ignorant or too conservative but rather because they feel that students in their class room are much better with new technology. They are afraid they will lose authority when touching upon the subject. Also, quite a few teachers have a trust issue with their students. They believe that if they allow technology to be used in the class room students will use it to play games or to communicate with their friends, rather than use it for their assigned task. By means of the IDentifEYE workshop teachers can take a relative safe first or next step, because “it’s only an experiment”. Many teachers also struggle with their current top-down didactics. The downside of this didactics is that teachers know what they teach but only can find out what their students have learned when the students are tested. The test results are important not just for the future of the students but also for the future of the teachers: they are being evaluated on the success rate of their students. Unfortunately when the test results come out it is too late to improve the success rate – the next subject already awaits. The IDentifEYE workshop gives teacher an excuse to experiment with interactive didactics that allows for testing during the lessons. A third major teacher issue is where to draw the line between professional and private. How does one react to (cyber-)bullying? How does one deal with students who have serious problems at home? Does one need to be available for students in the evenings and during the weekends too? By introducing elements of prophylactics teachers get tools to deal with these types of issues too. Student online safety How is this exactly related to student online safety? The good practices that teachers will encounter during the IDentifEYE workshop do not just impact them but will also impact their students. The impact on their students is that student resilience is being empowered. The identity related workshop elements are to make them define themselves in a less all-or-nothing fashion so that they will become less vulnerable for identity meltdowns as a result of online attacks or experiences. The didactics and prophylactics will help them to be embedded in a more trusted environment so that they will always have someone to turn to when things go wrong online. And the new technology elements open up concrete communication channels with their teachers about online experiences. 5
  7. 7. The idea that online safety can be increased by student empowerment is not new. The research EU Kids Online II brought to the forefront that the most effective instrument to promote youngster safety online is talking about online experiences with an adult. It also showed that youngsters who are protected by filters and are forbidden by adults to experiment online seldom encounter stressful situations online but when they do the impact of these situations on them may be immense. Youngsters who experiment a lot, on the other hand, become resilient. They encounter a lot of stressful online situations but the impact of these situations is much less severe. The project does not only aim to stimulate better teacher student contacts and teacher student contacts on online experiences. The project also aims to improve peer contact amongst youngsters by means of the project good practices. A study by the University of Sussex found that even one single close friendship empowers resilience among low-income youngsters. Workshop elements In order to present the concrete workshop impact on all three levels – impact on student online safety, teacher impact and student impact - it is time to introduce the workshop elements individually. The topic of identity consists of two components: “identity labels” for all age groups and “learning types” for the age group 8-11. Identity labels refer to the way we define ourselves. All of us create a self-definition of whom we are when we introduce ourselves to someone or present ourselves in an online profile. In these self-definitions we use labels such as “smart” or “pretty” as in “I’m smart” or “I’m pretty”. The type of labels we use is important for our openness to others – or defensiveness. While youngsters from the age of 11 and up start to reflect on general rules they encounter, younger children are mostly focused on their direct surroundings and on themselves. For these younger children, therefore, there is a module on learning types. The way they think they can achieve good results at school affects their resilience and ability to reflect on themselves. The older children of the IDentifEYE target group are served a module on the society they live in order to trigger their reflections on the rules that they follow and the situations they encounter that are the consequence of our current globalization and ultra-consumption. These modules are followed-up by modules on interactive didactics, prophylactics, new technology and the Augmented Reality game in two age-specific versions. Impact tables MODULE IMPACT ON INTERNET SAFETY IMPACT ON TEACHERS IMPACT ON STUDENTS IDENTITY LABELS Less all-or-nothing reactions to online challenges, less prone to being one- dimensionally profiled. More positively responsive students. More open to feedback, more open to learning. LEARNING TYPES Less resignation when meeting online challenges, less prone to being one- dimensionally profiled. More positively responsive students. More engaged, more positively responsive to challenges. 6
  8. 8. SOCIETY More critical attitude online, better skills to deal with “otherness” online. More critically responsive students, more tolerant students. More critical attitude, more civil skills. DIDACTICS Having an adult to communicate with about online experiences is the most effective instrument to enhance student online safety. Focus on student learning rather than on teaching, more frequent and meaningful communication – both teacher/ student and student/ student, formative assessments during the lessons. More student engagement and deeper trust relationships. Co-responsibility for one’s learning process, more engagement. More personal teacher/ student contact. PROPHYLACTICS 8-11 Having an adult to communicate with about online experiences is the most effective instrument to enhance online student safety. Children may enter the online world more consciously and safely when they can ask an adult for help. Having a peer friend is essential to overcome challenges, especially for more vulnerable students. Building conscious relation and sense of trust in the classroom, enlarging teacher’s abilities to communicate with students, more use of interactive methods. Closer relations with their teacher, enlarged risk awareness, a better communication with their peers, a greater involvement in their studying. PROPHYLACTICS 12-14 Having an adult to communicate with about online experiences is the most effective instrument to enhance online student safety. Deeper trust relationships, better teacher responsiveness towards interactivity. Deeper embedding in one’s environment, improving adult – youngster and peer- to-peer communication and stimulating engagement. More personal teacher/ student contact. 7
  9. 9. NEW TECH Having an adult to communicate with about online experiences is the most effective instrument to enhance student online safety. Less teacher anxiety, more openness to new education technology. A deeper trust relationship with students. Getting communication options to talk about new technology and online experiences with teachers. AR GAME (8-11) Provoking reflections on data sharing, online identities and online safety. Being a moderator facilitating peer-to- peer communication. Getting communication options to talk about online experiences peer-to-peer. Temporary higher engagement, higher concentration levels, higher trust levels. AR GAME (12-14) Provoking discussion on teacher – student communications as a starting point for teachers becoming suitable adult to communicate about online experiences. Being a moderator facilitating peer-to- peer communication while hearing student communication preferences. Getting communication options to talk about didactics. Co- responsibility for one’s learning process. Temporary higher engagement, higher concentration levels, higher trust levels. The impact of the workshop methodology, B.E.L.S., is framed in the following table: MODULE IMPACT ON INTERNET SAFETY IMPACT ON TEACHERS IMPACT ON STUDENTS B.E.L.S. Facilitates relevant lessons on online identities, data sharing and online safety. New skill set to create a lesson plan with colleagues or with students. Co-responsibility for one’s learning process, more engagement. Workshop aim and success criteria The aim of the workshop is to positively impact teachers, students and student online safety. All the workshop elements are designed to make a positive impact on all three levels as the table above illustrates. The success criteria for this workshop are:  In the evaluation form teachers state that during their implementation lesson they made a positive impact on their teaching, their students and student online safety by implementing some of the workshop good practices, especially the AR game.  In the evaluation form teachers indicate that there are workshop good practices that they will use again. 8
  10. 10.  During a follow-up meeting a few months after the workshop implementation it appears that teachers are still using some of the workshop good practices. This does not mean that teachers admit to this – the good practices could have been so integrated already in their day-to-day teaching that they forgot about the origin and consider these good practices as elements that were always there. This would be the best possible outcome.  During this follow-up meeting it occurs that teachers have tried out workshop good practices after the workshop that they did not try out in their implementation lesson.  During the evaluation session together with the teacher you draw up a list of Best Practices and lessons learned – and mail this list to the project partners (specifically to Mr. Onno Hansen: onno.hansen@gmail.com). How to read the manual The manual consists of the following elements:  A theoretical background to the workshop age differentiation;  Overviews of the workshop session per age group;  Instructor background information;  Instructor practical documents;  Workshop documents;  Project information. Enjoy your reading! 9
  11. 11. TABLE OF CONTENTS PROJECT VIDEO IN AUGMENTED REALITY............................................................................................1 INSTRUCTOR INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................3 THE SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN IN THE AGE GROUP 8-14................12 WORKSHOP OVERVIEW......................................................................................................................16 WORKSHOP OVERVIEW......................................................................................................................19 SESSION 1...........................................................................................................................................22 SESSION 2...........................................................................................................................................26 SESSION 3...........................................................................................................................................29 SESSION 4...........................................................................................................................................32 LESSON PLAN (45 minutes duration)..................................................................................................33 MODEL LESSON PLAN 2 (45 minutes duration)..................................................................................37 IMPLEMENTATION LESSON.................................................................................................................40 SESSION 5...........................................................................................................................................41 SESSION 1...........................................................................................................................................43 SESSION 2...........................................................................................................................................47 SESSION 3...........................................................................................................................................50 SESSION 4...........................................................................................................................................53 LESSON PLAN (45 minutes duration)..................................................................................................55 MODEL LESSON PLAN 2 (45 minutes duration)..................................................................................61 IMPLEMENTATION LESSON.................................................................................................................63 SESSION 5...........................................................................................................................................64 BACKGROUND TO SESSION 1..............................................................................................................66 BACKGROUND TO SESSION 2..............................................................................................................78 BACKGROUND TO SESSION 3..............................................................................................................94 WHAT IS B.E.L.S.?..............................................................................................................................109 INSTRUCTOR DOCUMENTS...............................................................................................................111 INSTRUCTOR LOGISTICS....................................................................................................................112 PROJECT DESCRIPTION.....................................................................................................................114 DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS..................................................................................................................119 HOW TO PLAY THE AR GAME............................................................................................................121 HOW TO PLAY THE AR GAME............................................................................................................134 Preparations for the copying of the game........................................................................................143 CREATING AN AR GAME...................................................................................................................147 IDentifEYE WORKSHOP – DECLARATION OF CONSENT PARTICIPATION AND USE OF IMAGE..........158 INSTRUCTOR EVALUATION................................................................................................................159 WORKSHOP DOCUMENTS................................................................................................................161 WORKSHOP PRESENTATION 8-11.....................................................................................................162 WORKSHOP PRESENTATION 12-14...................................................................................................167 SUCCESS CRITERIA............................................................................................................................172 LEVEL 1 GOOD PRACTICES................................................................................................................173 LEVEL 1 GOOD PRACTICES................................................................................................................174 LEVEL 2 GOOD PRACTICES................................................................................................................175 LEVEL 3 GOOD PRACTICES................................................................................................................176 LEVEL 3 GOOD PRACTICES................................................................................................................177 LEVEL 4 GOOD PRACTICES................................................................................................................178 AR MARKERS.....................................................................................................................................180 10
  12. 12. IDentifEYE WORKSHOP - AR game task............................................................................................181 IDentifEYE WORKSHOP - AR game questionnaire............................................................................182 LESSON PLAN (45 minutes duration)................................................................................................183 TEACHER EVALUATION......................................................................................................................186 EVALUATION.....................................................................................................................................188 TEACHER EVALUATION TOOLS..........................................................................................................190 CERTIFICATE OF WORKSHOP ATTENDANCE.....................................................................................192 PROJECT PARTNERS..........................................................................................................................193 SUPPORTING PARTNERS...................................................................................................................196 VERY SPECIAL THANKS TO:...............................................................................................................198 11
  13. 13. THE SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN IN THE AGE GROUP 8-14 Introduction Students in the age groups 8-11 and 12-14 clearly differ in behavior, their skills, understanding social norms and the degree of physical, mental and social development. This is what we, adults working with them on a daily basis, should not forget. But what unites these two age groups is the fact that both late childhood and adolescence is a difficult time for the young individual, as well as for their environment. What can be regarded as particularly important is the fact that as adults / teachers in both periods (in which emotional maturity, identity and their own "I" is dynamically shaped) is putting special emphasis on relationship building, dialogue, communication or simply friendship with the students. We assume that this will help students to safely go through certain stage of their development, and for us – to better understand and help them. More detailed characteristics of both groups are given below. Characteristics of age group 8-11 In psychology, the developmental period between 8 and 11 years is most often called the period of late childhood, before entering in puberty. Both late childhood and adolescence are difficult times for a young individual, but also for their environment. The child in earlier stages of development was taught to recognize and express emotions. The child by now is a social being, a member of a group and can have relationships with others. Frequently they have experienced their first friendships. The child creates an ever more complex self-image, begins to expand, diversifies its "I". During this period the child is no longer just a unit, it’s building its identity as a group member. In the words of Strelau the child goes to a "higher operational level of thinking" (Maria Kielar-Turska in: Strelau, J., "Psychology. Academic Handbook", Volume 1, p. 307, GWP, 2002). The child begins to be guided by the principles adopted by the group to which he or she belongs. The child’s cognitive activity becomes more and more systematic. The child can focus its attention better and uses different strategies to remember the absorbed material. There are new mental activities - specific operations on simple tasks, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication or division. With these skills the child can solve tasks that contain complete information. Babies cannot yet formulate the principles, rules or laws based on concrete operations. Looking at the moral development of children aged 8-11 years, it is impossible not to recall the achievements of researchers such as Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg. They believe that moral development of a unit runs in stages, without the ability to override any of the stages of development. Each subsequent change affects the further development of the individual. Both Piaget and Kohlberg claim that the late childhood is followed by one of the milestones of children’s moral development. In the childhood, the unit is guided by the principle based on “crime and punishment” social rules of behavior (Maria Kielar-Turska in: Strelau, J., “ Psychology. Academic Handbook ", Volume 1, p. 308, GWP, 2002). 12
  14. 14. During childhood the child is able to perceive and interpret (understand) the emotional states of others. Guided by the principles and norms applicable in a group it assumes that whatever leads to mutual benefit is the right thing to do. On the other hand, the child treats group policies as external (although respects them) and therefore assumes that in each case the good is what has been (legally) established by the norms and principles. At the end of childhood the child enters the "conventional level of moral development. The child, adopting the perspective of his or her own, takes into account the perspectives of others; shows interest and concern for others and tries to maintain good relations with others" (Maria Kielar- Turska in: Strelau, J., “Psychology. Academic Handbook”, Volume 1, p. 308, GWP, 2002). The period of late childhood is a time of becoming a member of the classroom, which is a formal group. The child develops relationships with peers, builds its position in class, looks for its place in it. This position, however, doesn’t need to be constant, in the course of learning it can change. Friendships during this period become permanent at the end of late childhood. It’s a time of interest development. A very important component of the child's personality is a self-image. It’s affected by the opinions of adults and comparisons with others. A self-esteem is being formed. Characteristics of age group 12-14 In psychology, the development period called adolescence is assumed contractually as a time between 12 and 18 years old. Its beginning designates the physical changes, which signalizes biological maturation. Changes in the physique, gaining weight, deepening of the voice or appearance of hair in different parts of the body, are serious, often difficult changes to accept for a young individual. There are also series of changes in the mental sphere, resulting in the achievement by an individual the psychological maturity. Both late childhood and adolescence are difficult not only for a young individual, but also for their environment. In the first phase of adolescence, beyond observable physical changes, we can often notice a deterioration of motor coordination. The movements lose their fluidity and lightness, they are less precise. Sometimes hyperactivity appears. According to Jean Piaget (source: Strelau, J., "Psychology. Academic Handbook", Volume 1, p. 311, GWP, 2002) during adolescence a unit enters the period of formal operations in thinking. For example, a young individual sees the connection between the premise and a possible consequence (eg. if you read a given material, you will answer the questions during the quiz). Deductive reasoning is formed. The young individual reason creates hypotheses and looks for an opportunity to check them in reality. What gradually appears in thinking during adolescence is the reflexivity, criticism, own opinions and shaping of independence from other people’s opinions. Also the imagination develops. Growing up, a young individual seeks his own identity. According to Erik Erikson it's then when "an identity crisis in the development appears " (Erikson, 1997, for: Strelau, J., "Psychology. Academic Handbook", Volume 1, p. 314, GWP, 2002). The solution to this crisis is to merge one's own past and the present to what he already knows about himself and what he learns or discovers. The effect of a positive solution to the crisis is a strong sense of one’s own "I". In Piaget's concept of moral development, autonomous morality drops in the adolescence stage. A young individual learns that "the complex of social situations require high plasticity of conduct, and absolute application of the rules may lead to conflicts" (Strelau, J., "Psychology. Academic Handbook", Volume 1, p. 315, GWP, 2002). 13
  15. 15. The young individual firmly commits to free himself from the influence of adults. It is not easy. Many times parents, not wanting to let their children grow up too quickly, put a number of restrictions against which the young individual rebels. Many conflicts can occur in parent-child relationship. The child becomes more critical, learns that any question can be examined from many sides. In accordance with the principle of moral conformism, in his action, he often adapts to the group and is affected by the opinion of majority. Summary - Characteristics of the age groups described Age group 8-11 A child in the earlier stages of development learned to recognize and express emotions, is a social being, a member of the group, is able to establish relationships with others.  A self-image is being created, the child begins to expand and diversify its "I" – it’s no longer just a unit, the child builds its identity as a group member;  The child starts to be guided by the principles adopted by the group to which it belongs;  More and more systematic becomes cognitive activity, the child better focuses attention, also uses different strategies to remember absorbed material;  There are new mental operations - such addition, subtraction, multiplication or division. With these skills the child can solve problems that contain complete information. Babies cannot yet use concrete operations to formulate the principles, rules, or laws;  Late childhood is one of the milestones in moral development of children;  The child can already perceive and interpret (understand) the emotional states of others;  The period of late childhood is a time of becoming a member of the classroom, which is a formal group; the child develops relationships with peers, builds its position in class, looks for their place in it;  Friendships in the period of late childhood become permanent;  It’s the time of interests development;  A very important component of the child's personality is the self-image; children are affected by the opinions of adults, compare with others;  Self-esteem is being shaped. Age group 12-14 This age is marked by psychologists as a "crisis of identity development" often manifested as "rebellion" and risk behaviors.  Physical changes which are the signal of biological maturation are often difficult to accept by a young individual;  There is a number of changes in the mental sphere, resulting in the achievement of the mental maturity;  Deductive reasoning is being shaped; a young individual argues by forming a hypothesis and looks for an opportunity to check it in reality;  Reflexivity, criticism, own opinions and the development of the independence from other people’s opinions appear; imagination is being developed;  A young individual growing up seeks for his own identity; according to Erik Erikson it is then when "an identity crisis is marked in the development";  A young individual firmly commits to free himself from the influence of adults;  Many conflicts in parent - child relationship can occur; the child becomes more critical; 14
  16. 16.  In accordance with the principle of moral conformism a young individual often adapts to the group in his actions and is affected by the opinion of majority;  A young individual looks for his way through experiencing different, often risky, situations. Despite the fact that both periods of development in many ways significantly differ from each other, for us adults - parents / teachers - it's important to remember that in both these periods, young people need us as "wise adults", i.e. friends, guides and teachers. Without us they often cannot handle difficult and threatening situations. 15
  17. 17. WORKSHOP OVERVIEW Age group: 8-11 SESSION 1 The objective of this session is to transfer knowledge of identities and learning types. Success criteria: The teacher participants are able to explain the impact effects of identity labels and learning types on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION 15 Explaining aim of the workshop 10 Identity labels 10 Good practices 5 Discussion 10 Learning types 10 Good practices 5 Discussion 10 Identity theories 10 New online technologies and identity 5 Discussion SESSION 2 The objective of this session is to transfer knowledge on interactive didactics and prophylactics. Success criteria: The teacher participants are able to explain the impact effects of interactive didactics and prophylactics on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION 10 Interactive didactics 20 Good practices 15 Discussion 15 Elements of prophylactics 15 Good practices 15 Discussion 16
  18. 18. SESSION 3 The objective of this session is to transfer knowledge of education technologies and Augmented Reality (AR) and on how to create and play an Augmented Reality game. Success criteria: The teacher participants are able to explain the impact effects of educational technologies and the AR game on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION 10 Educational technologies 25 Playing the AR game 20 Creating an AR game 15 Discussion 5 Teacher perspective on the lesson plan 15 First lesson plan sketch SESSION 4 The objective of this session is that teachers will fill out the lesson plan template or choose an existing lesson plan (one of the two model lessons). Success criteria: The teacher participants are able to write down hypotheses on the impact effects of their lesson plan on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION 80 Teachers create individual lesson plans 10 Discuss the evaluation template IMPLEMENTATION SESSION The objective of this lesson is for teachers to implement and evaluate their lesson plan, their decisions and their chosen good practices. Success criteria: The teacher participants are able to test the impact effects of their lesson plan on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION 45 Teachers implement their own lesson plan at their school 30 Teachers fill out the evaluation template 17
  19. 19. SESSION 5 The objective of this session is to evaluate the individual teacher sessions and create a set of Best Practices and Lessons learned (BP/LL). Success criteria: The teacher participants are able to evaluate the impact effects of their lesson plan on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION 30 Teacher summaries of their implementations 50 Discussion leading to a BP/LL list 10 Handing out certificates 18
  20. 20. WORKSHOP OVERVIEW Age group: 8-11 SESSION 1 The objective of this session is to transfer knowledge of identities and the concept of “liquid life”. Success criteria: The teacher participants are able to explain the impact effects of identity labels and the concept of “liquid life” on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION 15 Explaining aim of the workshop 10 Identity labels 10 Good practices 5 Discussion 10 “Liquid life” 10 Good practices 5 Discussion 10 Identity theories 10 New online technologies and identity 5 Discussion SESSION 2 The objective of this session is to transfer knowledge of interactive didactics and prophylactics. Success criteria: The teacher participants are able to explain the impact effects of interactive didactics and prophylactics on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION 10 Interactive didactics 20 Good practices 15 Discussion 15 Elements of prophylactics 15 Good practices 15 Discussion 19
  21. 21. SESSION 3 The objective of this session is to transfer knowledge of education technologies and Augmented Reality (AR) and on how to create and play an Augmented Reality game. Success criteria: The teacher participants are able to explain the impact effects of educational technologies and the AR game on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION 10 Educational technologies 25 Playing the AR game 20 Creating an AR game 15 Discussion 5 Teacher perspective on the lesson plan 15 First lesson plan sketch SESSION 4 The objective of this session is that teachers will fill out the lesson plan template or choose an existing lesson plan (one of the two model lessons). Success criteria: The teacher participants are able to write down hypotheses on the impact effects of their lesson plan on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION 80 Teachers create individual lesson plans 10 Discuss the evaluation template IMPLEMENTATION SESSION The objective of this lesson is for teachers to implement and evaluate their lesson plan, their decisions and their chosen good practices. Success criteria: The teacher participants are able to test the impact effects of their lesson plan on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION 45 Teachers implement their own lesson plan at their school 30 Teachers fill out the evaluation template 20
  22. 22. SESSION 5 The objective of this session is to evaluate the individual teacher sessions and create a set of Best Practices and Lessons learned (BP/LL). Success criteria: The teacher participants are able to evaluate the impact effects of their lesson plan on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION 30 Teacher summaries of their implementations 50 Discussion leading to a BP/LL list 10 Handing out certificates 21
  23. 23. SESSION 1 Description for age group 8-11 TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION PPT SLIDE HANDBOOK SECTION 15 Explaining aim of the workshop 1 INSTRUCTOR INTRODUCTION PROJECT DESCRIPTION WORKSHOP POWERPOINT 8-11 SUCCESS CRITERIA DECLARATION OF CONSENT 10 Identity labels 2 DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS SESSION 1 BACKGROUND 10 Good practices 3 LEVEL 1 8-11 GOOD PRACTICES 5 Discussion 4 10 Learning types 5 DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS SESSION 1 BACKGROUND 10 Good practices 6 LEVEL 1 8-11 GOOD PRACTICES 5 Discussion 7 10 Identity theories 8 SESSION 1 BACKGROUND 10 New online technologies and identity 9 SESSION 1 BACKGROUND 5 Discussion 10 Start the PowerPoint presentation. Make sure you’ll show the right slide at the right moment during the workshop, as indicated in the table. Hand out the success criteria document. Ask for the remaining teacher Declaration of consent documents. Explaining the aim of the workshop After you have introduced yourself you explain the aim of the workshop:  You [teacher] will learn in this five-session workshop to create, implement and evaluate 45-minutes lesson plans for your students aged 8-11. The lessons are to enhance student resilience to deal with online experiences – and thereby enhance student online safety.  Important tools to achieve this aim are an Augmented Reality game, interactive didactics and elements of prophylactics.  You will individually create one lesson plan during this workshop.  You will implement this lesson plan at your own school.  After the implementation we will meet again to evaluate and create a common list of best practices and lessons learned. Then you provide the session objective:  The objective of this session is to transfer knowledge of identities and learning types.  You [teacher] will get an introduction on these subjects as well as good practices to understand the relevance of these subjects for your teaching, your students and for the online safety of your students. 22
  24. 24. Success criteria:  The teacher participants are able to explain the impact effects of identity labels and learning types on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. Now you will ask the teachers to introduce themselves one-by-one.  You will notice that the first participant will need some time to answer. The next participant and those following will answer quicker. The reason for this is that the first participant needs to frame the answer. The first participant needs to choose which identity labels – see below – are appropriate. They might choose age, profession and amount of children, for instance. The next participants can then build on this framing of the first participant.  The next participants can either follow the framing of the first participant or choose an alternative framing.  Whether the majority of the participants choose to follow or not to follow the framing of first participant, you can explain that this is how identities are formed – by means of individual framing (the first participant and those not following the first participant) or collective framing (all those following the first participant).  Resilience now is not giving in too much to peer pressure on our identities but at the same time being open to feedback and learning.  We will look into identities and resilience by the following introductions on identity labels, learning types, identity theories and on the effect of new technologies on identities. Identity labels Present an introduction on identity labels, based on the session 1 background section. The most import elements to highlight are:  If we take identities as self-narrations, identities are made up by identity labels. These labels can be broader or less broad.  The less broad our identity labels are, the less we are open to feedback and thus to learning.  In situations of trust we are more open for feedback. Good practices Present the good practices:  Let students repeat and understand the following three sentences: o Sometimes I make mistakes; o Sometimes my motivation is egoistic; o I am part of the problem. And explain the sense behind it. By saying the sentence “Sometimes I make mistakes” we exclude the possibility that we are always right. This ensures us a degree of humility: we might be wrong, even now. Saying “Sometimes my motivation is egoistic” makes sure that we cannot feel morally superior. And saying the sentence “I am part of the problem” precludes that we can divide the world in “us” and “them” in which “they” are the problem.  Ask your students whether they agree or not and how they feel saying these sentences.  Give students feedback and let them distinguish between coaching and evaluation;  Give students evaluation and let them distinguish between assessment, consequences and judgment;  Have students create a second scoring card to record how they reacted to a first situation. 23
  25. 25. Impact table Explain the impact of identity labels and the good practices on the teacher, their students and student online safety. Online safety Teacher Student Less all-or-nothing reactions to online challenges, less prone to being one- dimensionally profiled. More positively responsive students. More open to feedback, more open to learning. Learning types Present an introduction on the concept of learning types, based on the session 1 background section. The most import elements to highlight are:  There are learners who see their achievements as the results of given attributes and those who see them at least partially as the result of their efforts.  The latter type will perform better. Good practices Present the good practices:  Make students aware what kind of learners they are;  Allow for failure in learning;  Create a situation of “flow”: o Present them with a task that challenges available skills but is within reach; o State clear goals; o The effect: concentration, loss of self-consciousness, loss of feeling of time. Impact table Explain the impact of the concept of learning types and the good practices on the teacher, their students and student online safety. Online safety Teacher Student Less resignation when meeting online challenges, less prone to being one- dimensionally profiled. More positively responsive students. More engaged, more positively responsive to challenges. Identity theories Present an introduction on identity theories, based on the session 1 background section. The most import elements to highlight are:  Erving Goffman’s interpretation;  Paul Ricoeur’s interpretation;  Anthony Giddens’s interpretation. 24
  26. 26. New online technologies and identity Present an introduction on the effect of new technologies on our identities, based on the session 1 background section. The most import elements to highlight are:  No segregation of audiences;  Algorithms and Big Data instead of nonverbal communication;  Templates for profiles;  Different narrations simultaneously;  No consistency and no continuity in self-narratives. 25
  27. 27. SESSION 2 Description for age group 8-11 TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION PPT SLIDE HANDBOOK SECTION 10 Interactive didactics 11 DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS SESSION 2 BACKGROUND 20 Good practices 12 LEVEL 2 8-11 GOOD PRACTICES 15 Discussion 13 15 Elements of prophylactics 14 DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS SESSION 2 BACKGROUND 15 Good practices 15 LEVEL 3 8-11 GOOD PRACTICES 15 Discussion 16 SESSION 2 BACKGROUND Session objective Provide the session objective:  The objective of this session is to transfer knowledge of interactive didactics and prophylactics.  You [teacher] will get an introduction on these subjects as well as good practices to understand the relevance of these subjects for your teaching, your students and for the online safety of your students. Success criteria:  The teacher participants are able to explain the impact effects of interactive didactics and prophylactics on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. Interactive didactics Present an introduction on interactive didactics, based on the session 2 background section. The most import elements to highlight are:  Students are to be co-responsible for their learning;  We need to engage all students in the class room;  Teaching and learning are two different domains. Only interaction can establish how much of the teaching is actually learned. Good practices Present the good practices:  Ask diagnostic questions during the lesson;  Let students indicate whether they still follow you; if not let another student explain who indicate they still follow;  Not the typical students’ “hands in the air” decides which students answer a question but a random selection by drawing. Impact table Explain the impact of interactive didactics and the good practices on the teacher, their students and student online safety. 26
  28. 28. Online safety Teacher Student Having an adult to communicate with about online experiences is the most effective instrument to enhance online student safety. Focus on student learning rather than on teaching, more frequent and meaningful communication – both teacher/ student and student/ student, formative assessments during the lessons. More student engagement and deeper trust relationships. Co-responsibility for one’s learning process, more engagement. More personal teacher/ student contact. Elements of prophylactics Present an introduction on prophylactics, based on the session 2 background section. The most import elements to highlight are:  Maintain a continuity of work with youngsters, do not to work episodically. Only a systematic continuity of activities brings results - create regular interaction opportunities, avoid apparent one- off interactions.  It is advisable to diagnose the class: discover what students can do, what they're interested in, what problems they have and what they need as a group from adults. Then bring out and enhance students’ potentials and resources: strengthen their social skills, give them a room to develop, provide and teach responsibility. Focus on teaching them those competencies and life skills that will help them to cope in difficult situations in the future.  Treat the child as a subject, as an active participant in the interaction with adults - and not as an object.  An important element of prophylactics in this age group is to involve parents.  Be an authority for your students – children need wise adults.  Build protecting relationships and trust through teacher-student dialogues. Good practices Present the good practices:  Use interactive methods, in which the teacher initiates the interaction and engages the children. The children are active participants and influence the course of interaction. For instance the Project-based Learning Method.  Activities in which the teacher acts as an adviser, friend or mentor and only coordinates and moderates ideas, plans and activities formed by the students themselves are the most effective ones.  Based on the diagnosis of students the teacher plans what skills they should gain and experience during the project. The teacher implies a very clear and specific educational aim.  Implement elements such as: discussion, brainstorm, task division, summary of each implementation stage, evaluation of the whole project, discussion on lessons learned.  It is essential to sustain the motivation and faith of students, the faith of the teacher in the possibilities of the children helps them to endure failure, learn from mistakes and thus learn persistence.  „Treat yourself as a tool” – this applies to the teacher self-improvement process – as a tool you need to improve - so develop and train yourself, take care of your professional skills and develop skills useful for working with young people. This assumption can also have another aspect - if you can convince young people to this approach at an early age, they will learn the value and power of self-development. 27
  29. 29.  “I’m part of the problem” - this approach to oneself should greatly facilitate your work and cause more credibility as an adult in relationships with children. It is a difficult approach to your work, because it assumes that in most problematic student situations you can have a distinct contribution - not necessarily a positive one. For example, if a student does not understand the lesson/ topic, analyze what you do or don’t do to cause a lack of progress before you will give them a grade. This teacher attitude builds in the child a sense of justice, faith in adults and increases their self-esteem (as a young individual who is treated as a subject, and not as an object). Impact table Explain the impact of prophylactics and the good practices on the teacher, their students and student online safety. Online safety Teacher Student Having an adult to communicate with about online experiences is the most effective instrument to enhance online student safety. Children may enter the online world more consciously and safely when they can ask an adult for help. Having a peer friend is essential to overcome challenges, especially for more vulnerable students. Building conscious relation and sense of trust in the classroom, enlarging teacher’s abilities to communicate with students, more use of interactive methods. Closer relations with their teacher, enlarged risk awareness, a better communication with their peers, a greater involvement in their studying. 28
  30. 30. SESSION 3 Description for age group 8-11 TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION PPT SLIDE HANDBOOK SECTION 10 Educational technologies 17 SESSION 3 BACKGROUND 25 Playing the AR game 18 SESSION 3 BACKGROUND PLAYING THE AR GAME 8-11 GAME MARKERS AR FORM AR QUESTIONNAIRE 20 Creating an AR game 19 SESSION 3 BACKGROUND CREATING AN AR GAME 15 Discussion 20 5 Teacher perspective on the lesson plan 21 LESSON PLAN 15 First lesson plan sketch 22 LESSON PLAN Session objective Provide the session objective:  The objective of this session is to transfer knowledge of education technologies and Augmented Reality (AR) and on how to create and play an Augmented Reality game.  You [teacher] will get an introduction on these subjects as well as good practices to understand the relevance of these subjects for your teaching, your students and for the online safety of your students. Success criteria:  The teacher participants are able to explain the impact effects of educational technologies and the AR game on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. Educational technologies Present an introduction on educational technologies, based on the session 3 background section. The most import elements to highlight are: Educational technology is "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.” Types of skills 21st cent. Skills Supporting Web 2.0 tools Learning Skills Critical Thinking Creative Thinking Collaborating Communicating  Blogs  Wikis  Tagging and social bookmarking applications  Multimedia sharing  Collaboration & Communication services  Aggregation services Literacy Skills Information Literacy Media Literacy Technology Literacy  Blogs  Wikis 29
  31. 31.  Tagging and social bookmarking applications  Multimedia sharing  Collaboration & Communication services  Office-like applications  Aggregation services Life Skills Flexibility Initiative Social Skills Productivity Leadership  Wikis  Tagging and social bookmarking applications  Multimedia sharing  Audio blogging and podcasting  Social networks  Collaboration & Communication services  Aggregation services Impact table Explain the impact of educational technologies on the teacher, their students and student online safety. Online safety Teacher Student Having an adult to communicate with about online experiences is the most effective instrument to enhance online student safety. Less teacher anxiety, more openness to new education technology. A deeper trust relationship with students. Getting communication options to talk about new technology and online experiences with teachers. Playing the AR game Present an introduction on Augmented Reality, based on the Playing the AR game 8-11 section. The most import elements to highlight are: Augmented Reality (AR) consists of a real-time video stream generated by a camera to which digital elements are added that appear in reaction to a predefined trigger.  AR triggers interest in our surroundings or in our identities.  The AR game evokes interest in the emergence of online identities as a result of online data sharing. Good practices Present the good practices:  Play the game with the whole class;  Get a student to play the game;  Use the game as a stimulus for discussion;  Ask students who of them has an opinion on the question themes;  Let students interpret the augmentations. Show the AR task and the AR questionnaire. Impact table Explain the impact of the AR game and the good practices on the teacher, their students and student online safety. 30
  32. 32. Online safety Teacher Student Provoking reflections on data sharing, online identities and online safety. Being a moderator facilitating peer-to-peer communication. Getting communication options to talk about online experiences peer-to-peer. Temporary higher engagement, higher concentration levels, higher trust levels. Now play the game on data sharing and online identities with the teachers. Read Playing the AR game 8-11 section on how to prepare, play and interpret the game.  URL: http://identifeye.ezzev.eu/. Creating an AR game In order to create an AR game you need to implement the following steps:  Establish a theme;  Create questions;  Create answer options;  Create augmentations per answer option;  Create texts and sounds (optional);  Create static blocks and pages;  Translate (optional);  Create a lesson plan. Teacher perspective on the lesson plan It’s now time that teachers start preparing their lesson plan. Hand out the lesson plan template and all the good practices minus the educational technology good practices. Explain that the teachers now need to make some decisions regarding the lesson plan template they are about to fill out:  Will their lesson plan concern a curricular or extra-curricular lesson?  Which challenge or opportunity will be addressed? When they have made their decisions they need to choose from all four levels at least one good practice per level: o Level one: Identity labels & learning types; o Level two: Interactive didactics; o Level three: Prophylactics; o Level four: Playing the Augmented Reality game or create a new AR game; optionally, if the anxiety of a teacher appears to be too big the teacher can choose to implement a different educational technology good practice. First lesson plan sketch Teachers now fill out their lesson plan template individually and in silence. They are to use the break between the third and the fourth session to reflect on the first lesson plan sketch they create. 31
  33. 33. SESSION 4 Description for age group 8-11 TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION PPT SLIDE HANDBOOK SECTION 80 Teachers create individual lesson plans 23 LESSON PLAN 10 Discuss the evaluation template EVALUATION PPT TEACHER EVALUATION EVALUATION PPT Session objective Provide the session objective:  The objective of this session is that teachers will fill out the lesson plan template or choose an existing lesson plan (one of the two model lessons). Success criteria:  The teacher participants are able to write down hypotheses on the impact effects of their lesson plan on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. Teachers create individual lesson plans  Teachers fill out the lesson plan template.  While teachers fill out the templates you have one-on-one “speed dating” sessions with individual teachers. Please sit for a few minutes with each individual teacher and support them in their task to fill out the template. Ask them about their decisions (in session 3) and about their choice of good practices to implement. If needed brainstorm with them or advise them.  If a teacher appears to be very anxious about using the AR game in their lesson or has no idea how to implement a lesson with the AR game hand them the two age appropriate model lessons as an option.  If a teacher would still to be anxious about using the game even after having considered the two model lessons you should suggest that the teacher chooses another educational technology from the list of good practices and apply this in their lesson plan. Please hand them the printed out educational technology good practices. Discussing the evaluation template  Hand out the printed evaluation template and show the evaluation PowerPoint presentation on a big screen.  Walk the teachers through the evaluation template slide by slide. Tell the teachers that they need to fill out the evaluation template after their lesson implementation. Ask them to send it to you by email before the fifth session and provide them your email address. Let the teachers know that they can contact you in the mean time if they have any questions. 32
  34. 34. LESSON PLAN (45 minutes duration) Age group: 8-11 FIRST AND LAST NAME SCHOOL DATE EMAIL ADDRESS LESSON NAME ID-EYE - STANDARD COURSE - "lesson model" CURRICULAR X EXTRA-CURRICULAR IF CURRICULAR WHAT SUBJECT CHALLENGE/ OPPORTUNITY Children start their online presence at an early age. This lesson is an opportunity for teachers /adults to build protecting relationships with students and to increase their future online safety. LEARNING OBJECTIVES - Students and teachers build closer relationships with each other; - Increased awareness of the risks associated with being online while sharing data and better ways to respond to risky online situations among the students; - Better communication with the group/ class; - As an additional result: greater commitment to education and the school community. SUCCESS CRITERIA - Increased awareness and reflection on the dangers that comes with presence online; - Increased integration of the class/ group and a more positive relationship with the teacher; - Improved communication within the class/ group, and between students and the teacher; - Greater awareness of children about the dangers of the Internet and of where to get help in an emergency situation. GOOD PRACTICES CHOSEN LEVEL 1 – SUBJECTS 3 sentences LEVEL 2 – DIDACTICS  DIAGNOSTIC QUESTION  RANDOMLY CHOOSE A STUDENT WHO WILL READ A GAME QUESTION AND WHO WILL SUGGEST AN ANSWER  RANDOMLY CHOOSE A PARTICIPANT WHO REPLIED NO TO THE DIAGNOSTIC QUESTION AND ASK WHETHER THEY COULD EXPLAIN WHY THEY HAVE CHOSEN (NO)  CHOOSE A PARTICIPANT WHO REPLIED YES TO THE DIAGNOSTIC QUESTION AND INVITE THEM TO EXPLAIN WHY THEY HAVE CHOSEN (YES) LEVEL 3 – PROPHYLACTICS  Focus on listening and creating a dialogue / relationships that one can use in the future with the group.  Be attentive, listen and build trust-based relationship - 33
  35. 35. young people need wise adults who want to listen to them and talk to them. INCLUDING AR GAME YES NO IF NO WHY NOT - IF NOT WHAT EDTECH - PLANNED IMPACT ON MY TEACHING Building conscious relation and sense of trust in the classroom, better communication with students and the use of interactive methods. ON MY STUDENTS A closer relationship with the teacher, risk awareness, better communication with the group, greater dedication to studying. ON STUDENT ONLINE SAFETY The presence of adult in learning about the presence on the Internet and the opportunity to talk about the risks and about their experiences online, is an effective tool to increase the safety of children Children may enter the online world more consciously which makes them safer. They will have less hesitations asking for help from adults ASSESSMENT TYPES Discussion at the end of the lesson LESSON PLAN DESCRIPTION STEP 1 – 2’ EXPLAIN THE PURPOSE OF THE LESSON Children at this age cannot keep their attention for too long. Try to briefly and concisely deliver the purpose of your lesson.  THIS LESSON AIMS TO EXPLAIN WHAT ONLINE "IDENTITIES" ARE AND HOW THEY ARE BUILT. STEP 2 – 2’ DISCUSS THE RULES  WE ARE GOING TO PLAY A GAME – IT MEANS WE ARE GOING TO DISCUSS VARIOUS OFFLINE AND ONLINE SITUATIONS  IT IS IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER IN THIS DISCUSSION ABOUT 3 SENTENCES, WHICH YOU WILL REPEAT AFTER ME: o SOMETIMES I MAKE MISTAKES o SOMETIMES MY MOTIVATION IS SELFISH o I AM A PART OF THE PROBLEM STEP 3 – 20’ PLAYING THE GAME  Choose who will be playing - you or a student. If a student wants to be the person playing, they should do so, because placing them in a role in the foreground will increase their self-esteem and self-confidence, and the rest of the group will participate more actively in the lesson. If none of the students decides to play, then you as a teacher should assign yourself as a 34
  36. 36. player, which can be a certain attraction for students and can give a greater commitment to the lesson. In case a student will play, remember to have contact with them before the lesson and calibrate the game to their features. This will allow you to implement your lesson smoothly and without disruption.  The game is the central point of your lesson. Play it in such a way that children keep up with you, do not hurry. This will help them to focus attention.  FOR EACH QUESTION RANDOMLY CHOOSE A STUDENT WHO WILL READ THE QUESTION AND WHO WILL SUGGEST AN ANSWER  ASK WHO AGREES WITH THE SUGGESTED ANSWER AND WHY?  ASK WHO DOESN’T AGREE WITH THE SUGGESTED ANSWER AND WHY?  CONDUCT A VOTE Take frequent and longer breaks, to discuss upcoming questions. Students of this age do not have a lot of patience; they want to understand, to learn as soon as possible. This will allow you to maintain order in the classroom and continue the lesson. Listen carefully to the questions and the comments of the students, try to catch as much information from them while speaking about the views and needs of your students. EXAMPLE: QUESTION 6 Do you normally fill out all the fields during a registration, even if they are not mandatory? If the answer YES is selected these are suggested deliberations: - What do you think happens with the information you entered in the fields that are not mandatory to fill out? - What do you think the site or app responsibles do with the information about you that you enter? Do you think that anyone will get to see it on the web? If the answer NO is selected these are suggested deliberations: - Why don’t you share all the information? - What do you think happens with your data if anyone has access to it? If the answer SOMETIMES is selected these are suggested deliberations: - When do you enter all the information about yourself, and when not? - Why do you sometimes leave fields empty? QUESTION 8 Imagine that your colleague published a photograph of you from five years back on his profile. What do you think? If you select an answer I LIKE THIS these are suggested deliberations: - Why do you like it? - Imagine that others do not like this picture, and maybe write a comment that does not appeal to you. How would you feel then? If you selected answer I DON’T LIKE THIS these are suggested deliberations: - Did this happen to you, or maybe any of your friends have been in a similar situation? - How do you think the person whose picture was placed without their knowledge online feels? - What can you do in this situation? 35
  37. 37. STEP 4 – 6’ AFTER THE GAME – DISCUSSION ASK YOUR DIAGNOSTIC QUESTION PREPARED BEFORE: IS IT POSSIBLE TO BE ONLINE AND NOT TO BUILD YOUR ONLINE IDENTITY? EVERYONE NOW HAS TO SHOW A GREEN CARD: (YES) OR A RED CARD: (NO)  CHOOSE A PARTICIPANT WHO REPLIED NO AND ASK WHETHER THEY COULD EXPLAIN WHY THEY HAVE CHOSEN (NO)  CHOOSE A PARTICIPANT WHO REPLIED YES AND INVITE THEM TO EXPLAIN WHY THEY HAVE CHOSEN (YES)  THEN – LET THE STUDENTS VOTE AGAIN  EXPLAIN YOUR POINT OF VIEW, EXPLAIN WHY THE ANSWER SHOULD BE (NO) - EVERY ACTION ONLINE BUILDS OUR IDENTITY. EXPLAIN WHY, USING EXAMPLES FROM THE GAME: USE THE QUESTION / ANSWER OPTION - GAME NOTES: No. 8, 9 My justification (the teacher): Each online action adds to building our online identities – It’s worth to show the children that almost every activity on the Internet, especially on social networking sites, leaves a trace. Profile updates, photos, videos and comments often cause people form their own opinion about us, not always consistent with our self-image. Uploaded information may live "their lives", which means it can be available and disseminated by other people, that we don’t know. We have less control over comments by others and places where they are published. Those information can build an unwanted image. Put a particular emphasis on the thinking and online safety, If there's anything students do not understand, let them ask for an explanation and help from adults. In the world of both offline and online there is a "golden" rule - "What you give is what you get", the sooner we can help students understand this, the faster they will be at least a little more aware and safe in the virtual world. STEP 5 – 10’ DRAWING – MY SELF-PORTRAIT ONLINE TASK 1 – DISTRIBUTE THE FORM  INVITE STUDENTS TO DRAW THEIR SELF-PORTRAITS ONLINE – THEIR ONLINE IDENTITY  AFTER THE DRAWING – ASK ALL INDIVIDUALLY TO SHORTLY DESCRIBE WHAT THEY HAVE DRAWN STEP 6 – 5’ QUESTIONNAIRE 36
  38. 38. MODEL LESSON PLAN 2 (45 minutes duration) Age group: 8-11 FIRST AND LAST NAME SCHOOL DATE EMAIL ADDRESS LESSON NAME MEET THE PARENTS X CURRICULAR EXTRA-CURRICULAR IF CURRICULAR WHAT SUBJECT INFORMATICS CHALLENGE/ OPPORTUNITY Challenge: Parents hardly talk with their children on online experiences even though children want to. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Students present their view on how to communicate with parents on online experiences and new technology. SUCCESS CRITERIA The answers show an envisioned communication that is: - Open - Non-moralistic - Non-divisive. GOOD PRACTICES CHOSEN LEVEL 1 – SUBJECTS Provide coaching. LEVEL 2 – DIDACTICS Random selection by drawing sticks (2 times). LEVEL 3 – PROPHYLACTICS Project learning. Involving student environments beyond the school environment. INCLUDING AR GAME YES NO IF NO WHY NOT - IF NOT WHAT EDTECH - 37
  39. 39. PLANNED IMPACT ON MY TEACHING More openness towards edtech, more openness in the curriculum towards seemingly private subjects. ON MY STUDENTS Opening a new communication channel with adults (teacher and parents) on online experiences and new technology. ON STUDENT ONLINE SAFETY New communication channels on online experiences and new technology hopefully will lead to a situation in which - when something goes very wrong online - students feel that they can talk about it with an adult: teacher, parent or other. The game will provide more insights on online data sharing and online identities. This should lead to more student resilience. ASSESSMENT TYPES Formative assessment during the process of filling out the answers by the several groups. Discussion at the end of the lesson on the answers provided. LESSON PLAN DESCRIPTION STEP 1 – 10’ Introduce the learning objective, a list with questions and success criteria. The list of questions:  In what respect would adults need help when playing the game?  What would be simple for adults when playing the game?  Would adults answer the questions honestly?  What could you do to help adults play the game? Divide the class in 4 groups by random sticks selection. Hand out the list of questions to each group. STEP 2 – 20’ 38
  40. 40. Let each group play the game as a group with the list of questions in hand. Let them then answer the list of questions as a group. The teacher coaches and exchanges information and knowledge with each group. STEP 3 – 15’ The teacher randomly selects a representative per group by means of drawing sticks. The representative reads the group answers. The teacher discusses with them. This is implemented for all four groups. 39
  41. 41. IMPLEMENTATION LESSON Description for age group 8-11 TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION PPT SLIDE HANDBOOK SECTION 45 Teachers implement their own lesson plan at their school - - 30 Teachers fill out the evaluation template - - Objective  The objective of this lesson is for teachers to implement and evaluate their lesson plan, their decisions and their chosen good practices. Success criteria:  The teacher participants are able to test the impact effects of their lesson plan on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. Teachers implement their own lesson plan at their school Teachers now individually implement the lesson plan they have written during sessions 3 and 4. They either use one of their regular lessons or an extra-curricular lesson, depending on their choice. You are not present. Teachers fill out the evaluation template After the implementation of the lesson plan teachers fill out the evaluation template and sends it to you by email before the fifth session. 40
  42. 42. SESSION 5 Description for age group 8-11 TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION PPT SLIDE HANDBOOK SECTION 30 Teacher summaries of their implementations 25 TEACHER EVALUATION 50 Discussion leading to a BP/LL list 26 10 Handing out certificates 27 CERTIFICATES Session objective Provide the session objective:  The objective of this session is to evaluate the individual teacher sessions and create a set of Best Practices and Lessons Learned (BP/LL). Success criteria:  The teacher participants are able to evaluate the impact effects of their lesson plan on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. Teacher summaries of their implementations Have teachers answer one-on-one the following questions – based on the evaluation template they’ve filled out:  Was your lesson curricular or extracurricular?  What challenge or opportunity did you want to address?  What good practices did you chose?  What was the impact of the chosen good practices on your teaching?  What was the impact of the chosen good practices on your students?  What was the impact of the chosen good practices on student online safety? Optionally record the teacher answers on camera. If you’d do so, please share a copy with us. You can send it to one of the project authors and partners, Mr. Onno Hansen: onno.hansen@gmail.com. Discussion leading to a BP/LL list Provide a discussion with the teachers about their answers. Keep the following topics in mind:  Did similar good practices have a positive impact on the teachers’ teaching, their students and on student online safety?  Did similar good practices have no impact or a negative impact on the teachers’ teaching, their students and on student online safety?  Under what conditions did good practices have a positive, negative or neutral impact on the teachers’ teaching, their students and on student online safety? 41
  43. 43. Summarize the discussion by drafting a list of good practices that had a positive impact on the teachers’ teaching, their students and on student online safety for many teachers (“best practices”) and the conditions under which they worked out and a list of good practices that had no impact or a negative impact on the teachers’ teaching, their students and on student online safety for many teachers (“lessons learned”) and the conditions under which they failed. Please share a copy with us. You can send it to one of the project authors and partners, Mr. Onno Hansen: onno.hansen@gmail.com Handing out certificates The workshop draws to an end. The only task you have left is handing out the workshop certificates to each teacher individually. 42
  44. 44. SESSION 1 Description for age group 12-14 TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION PPT SLIDE HANDBOOK SECTION 15 Explaining aim of the workshop 1 INSTRUCTOR INTRODUCTION PROJECT DESCRIPTION WORKSHOP POWERPOINT 12-14 SUCCESS CRITERIA DECLARATION OF CONSENT 10 Identity labels 2 DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS SESSION 1 BACKGROUND 10 Good practices 3 LEVEL 1 12-14 GOOD PRACTICES 5 Discussion 4 10 “Liquid life” 5 DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS SESSION 1 BACKGROUND 10 Good practices 6 LEVEL 1 12-14 GOOD PRACTICES 5 Discussion 7 10 Identity theories 8 SESSION 1 BACKGROUND 10 New online technologies and identity 9 SESSION 1 BACKGROUND 5 Discussion 10 Start the PowerPoint presentation. Make sure you’ll show the right slide at the right moment during the workshop, as indicated in the table. Hand out the success criteria document. Ask for the remaining teacher Declaration of consent documents. Explaining the aim of the workshop After you have introduced yourself you explain the aim of the workshop:  You [teacher] will learn in this five-session workshop to create, implement and evaluate 45-minutes lesson plans for your students aged 12-14. The lessons are to enhance student resilience to deal with online experiences – and thereby enhance student online safety – while at the same time empowering their conscious, creative and critical stance as evolving responsible citizens.  Important tools to achieve this aim are an Augmented Reality game, interactive didactics and elements of prophylactics.  You will individually create one lesson plan during this workshop.  You will implement this lesson plan at your own school.  After the implementation we will meet again to evaluate and create a common list of best practices and lessons learned. Then you provide the session objective:  The objective of this session is to transfer knowledge of identities and the concept of “liquid life”.  You [teacher] will get an introduction on these subjects as well as good practices to understand the relevance of these subjects for your teaching, your students and for the online safety of your students. 43
  45. 45. Success criteria:  The teacher participants able to explain the impact effects of identity labels and the concept of “liquid life” on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. Now you will ask the teachers to introduce themselves one-by-one.  You will notice that the first participant will need some time to answer. The next participant and those following will answer quicker. The reason for this is that the first participant needs to frame the answer. The first participant needs to choose which identity labels – see below – are appropriate. They might choose age, profession and amount of children, for instance. The next participants can then build on this framing of the first participant.  The next participants can either follow the framing of the first participant or choose an alternative framing.  Whether the majority of the participants choose to follow or not to follow the framing of first participant, you can explain that this is how identities are formed – by means of individual framing (the first participant and those not following the first participant) or collective framing (all those following the first participant).  Resilience now is not giving in too much to peer pressure on our identities but at the same time being open to feedback and learning.  We will look into identities and resilience by the following introductions on identity labels, society as a context for our identities, identity theories and on the effect of new technologies on identities. Identity labels Present an introduction on identity labels, based on the session 1 background section. The most import elements to highlight are: • If we take identities as self-narrations, identities are made up by identity labels. These labels can be broader or less broad. • The less broad our identity labels are, the less we are open to feedback and thus to learning. • In situations of trust we are more open for feedback. Good practices Present the good practices:  Let students repeat and understand the following three sentences: o Sometimes I make mistakes; o Sometimes my motivation is egoistic; o I am part of the problem. And explain the sense behind it. By saying the sentence “Sometimes I make mistakes” we exclude the possibility that we are always right. This ensures us a degree of humility: we might be wrong, even now. Saying “Sometimes my motivation is egoistic” makes sure that we cannot feel morally superior. And saying the sentence “I am part of the problem” precludes that we can divide the world in “us” and “them” in which “they” are the problem.  Ask your students whether they agree or not and how they feel saying these sentences.  Give students feedback and let them distinguish between coaching and evaluation;  Give students evaluation and let them distinguish between assessment, consequences and judgment;  Have students create a second scoring card to record how they reacted to a first situation. 44
  46. 46. Impact table Explain the impact of identity labels and the good practices on the teacher, their students and student online safety. Online safety Teacher Student Less all-or-nothing reactions to online challenges, less prone to be one- dimensionally profiled. More positively responsive students. More open to feedback, more open to learning. “Liquid life” Present an introduction on the concept of “liquid life” by Zygmunt Bauman, based on the session 1 background section. The most import elements to highlight are:  Globalization;  Ultra-consumerism;  Fast changes so that new habits and interpretation frames are prone to fail;  All suffer from anxiety to become superfluous. Good practices Present the good practices: The only way to have a chance on self-respect is by gaining civil skills that facilitate us in living with Others:  Conducting a dialogue;  Conducting a negotiation;  Gaining mutual understanding;  Managing and resolving conflicts;  Being able to learn and to react to new situations. Impact table Explain the impact of the concept of “liquid life” and the good practices on the teacher, their students and student online safety. Online safety Teacher Student More critical attitude online, better skills to deal with “otherness” online. More critically responsive students, more tolerant students. More critical attitude, more civil skills. Identity theories Present an introduction on identity theories, based on the session 1 background section. The most import elements to highlight are:  Erving Goffman’s interpretation;  Paul Ricoeur’s interpretation;  Anthony Giddens’s interpretation. 45
  47. 47. New online technologies and identity Present an introduction on the effect of new technologies on our identities, based on the session 1 background section. The most import elements to highlight are:  No segregation of audiences;  Algorithms and Big Data instead of nonverbal communication;  Templates for profiles;  Different narrations simultaneously;  No consistency and no continuity in self-narratives. 46
  48. 48. SESSION 2 Description for age group 12-14 TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION PPT SLIDE HANDBOOK SECTION 10 Interactive didactics 11 DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS SESSION 2 BACKGROUND 20 Good practices 12 LEVEL 2 12-14 GOOD PRACTICES 15 Discussion 13 15 Elements of prophylactics 14 DIAGNOSTIC QUESTIONS SESSION 2 BACKGROUND 15 Good practices 15 LEVEL 3 12-14 GOOD PRACTICES 15 Discussion 16 SESSION 2 BACKGROUND Session objective Provide the session objective:  The objective of this session is to transfer knowledge of interactive didactics and prophylactics.  You [teacher] will get an introduction on these subjects as well as good practices to understand the relevance of these subjects for your teaching, your students and for the online safety of your students. Success criteria:  The teacher participants are able to explain the impact effects of interactive didactics and prophylactics on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. Interactive didactics Present an introduction on interactive didactics, based on the session 2 background section. The most import elements to highlight are:  Students are to be co-responsible for their learning;  We need to engage all students in the class room;  Teaching and learning are two different domains. Only interaction can establish how much of the teaching is actually learned. Good practices Present the good practices:  Ask diagnostic questions during the lesson;  Let students indicate whether they still follow you; if not let another student explain who indicate they still follow;  Not the typical students’ “hands in the air” decides which students answer a question but a random selection by drawing. Impact table Explain the impact of interactive didactics and the good practices on the teacher, their students and student online safety. 47
  49. 49. Online safety Teacher Student Having an adult to communicate with about online experiences is the most effective instrument to enhance online student safety. Focus on student learning rather than on teaching, more frequent and meaningful communication – both teacher/ student and student/ student, formative assessments during the lessons. More student engagement and deeper trust relationships. Co-responsibility for one’s learning process, more engagement. More personal teacher/ student contact. Elements of prophylactics Present an introduction on prophylactics, based on the session 2 background section. The most import elements to highlight are:  Maintain a continuity of work with youngsters, do not to work episodically. Only a systematic continuity of activities brings results - create regular interaction opportunities, avoid apparent one- off interactions.  It is advisable to diagnose the class: discover what students can do, what they're interested in, what problems they have and what they need as a group from adults. Then bring out and enhance students’ potentials and resources: strengthen their social skills, give them a room to develop, provide and teach responsibility. Focus on teaching them those competencies and life skills that will help them to cope in difficult situations in the future.  Treat the child as a subject, as an active participant in the interaction with adults - and not as an object.  An important element of prophylactics in this age group is to involve parents.  Be an authority for your students – children need wise adults.  Build protecting relationships and trust through teacher-student dialogues.  Good replaces evil: Target your students' energy to perform tasks and socially useful activities that build up their self-esteem. This promotes the extinction of disturbed behavior.  Real life: Make sure the development of your students’ social life skills takes place through tasks that are implemented in their natural environment. This contributes to a real change in the relationship with their environment.  Pay It Forward: Stimulate students using the competences that they have developed to empower others – something they already do by themselves. Good practices Present the good practices:  Use interactive methods, in which the teacher initiates the interaction and engages the children. The children are active participants and influence the course of interaction. For instance the Project-based Learning Method.  Activities in which the teacher acts as an adviser, friend or mentor and only coordinates and moderates ideas, plans and activities formed by the students themselves are the most effective ones.  Based on the diagnosis of students the teacher plans what skills they should gain and experience during the project. The teacher implies a very clear and specific educational aim.  Implement elements such as: discussion, brainstorm, task division, summary of each implementation stage, evaluation of the whole project, discussion on lessons learned. 48
  50. 50.  Young people need to confront their ideas with adults – therefore you should not avoid "difficult issues".  It is essential to sustain the motivation and faith of students, the faith of the teacher in the possibilities of the children helps them to endure failure, learn from mistakes and thus learn persistence.  „Treat yourself as a tool” – this applies to the teacher self-improvement process – as a tool you need to improve - so develop and train yourself, take care of your professional skills and develop skills useful for working with young people. This assumption can also have another aspect - if you can convince young people to this approach at an early age, they will learn the value and power of self-development.  “I’m part of the problem” - this approach to oneself should greatly facilitate your work and cause more credibility as an adult in relationships with children. It is a difficult approach to your work, because it assumes that in most problematic student situations you can have a distinct contribution - not necessarily a positive one. For example, if a student does not understand the lesson/ topic, analyze what you do or don’t do to cause a lack of progress before you will give them a grade. This teacher attitude builds in the child a sense of justice, faith in adults and increases their self-esteem (as a young individual who is treated as a subject, and not as an object). Impact table Explain the impact of prophylactics and the good practices on the teacher, their students and student online safety. Online safety Teacher Student Having an adult to communicate with about online experiences is the most effective instrument to enhance online student safety. Deeper trust relationships, better teacher responsiveness towards interactivity. Deeper embedding in one’s environment, improving adult – youngster and peer- to-peer communication and stimulating engagement. More personal teacher/ student contact. 49
  51. 51. SESSION 3 Description for age group 12-14 TIME IN ‘ MODULE DESCRIPTION PPT SLIDE HANDBOOK SECTION 10 Educational technologies 17 SESSION 3 BACKGROUND 25 Playing the AR game 18 SESSION 3 BACKGROUND PLAYING THE AR GAME 12-14 GAME MARKERS AR QUESTIONNAIRE 20 Creating an AR game 19 SESSION 3 BACKGROUND CREATING AN AR GAME 15 Discussion 20 5 Teacher perspective on the lesson plan 21 LESSON PLAN 15 First lesson plan sketch 22 LESSON PLAN Session objective Provide the session objective:  The objective of this session is to transfer knowledge of education technologies and Augmented Reality (AR) and on how to create and play an Augmented Reality game.  You [teacher] will get an introduction on these subjects as well as good practices to understand the relevance of these subjects for your teaching, your students and for the online safety of your students. Success criteria:  The teacher participants are able to explain the impact effects of educational technologies and the AR game on three levels: their teaching, their students and student online safety. Educational technologies Present an introduction on educational technologies, based on the session 3 background section. The most import elements to highlight are: Educational technology is "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.” Types of skills 21st cent. Skills Supporting Web 2.0 tools Learning Skills Critical Thinking Creative Thinking Collaborating Communicating  Blogs  Wikis  Tagging and social bookmarking applications  Multimedia sharing  Collaboration & Communication services  Aggregation services Literacy Skills Information Literacy Media Literacy  Blogs  Wikis 50
  52. 52. Technology Literacy  Tagging and social bookmarking applications  Multimedia sharing  Collaboration & Communication services  Office-like applications  Aggregation services Life Skills Flexibility Initiative Social Skills Productivity Leadership  Wikis  Tagging and social bookmarking applications  Multimedia sharing  Audio blogging and podcasting  Social networks  Collaboration & Communication services  Aggregation services Impact table Explain the impact of educational technologies on the teacher, their students and student online safety. Online safety Teacher Student Having an adult to communicate with about online experiences is the most effective instrument to enhance online student safety. Less teacher anxiety, more openness to new education technology. A deeper trust relationship with students. Getting communication options to talk about new technology and online experiences with teachers. Playing the AR game Present an introduction on Augmented Reality, based on the Playing the AR game 12-14 section. The most import elements to highlight are: Augmented Reality (AR) consists of a real-time video stream generated by a camera to which digital elements are added that appear in reaction to a predefined trigger.  AR triggers interest in our surroundings or in our identities.  The AR game evokes interest in the emergence of the atmosphere in the class as a result of didactics. Good practices Present the good practices:  Play the game with the whole class;  A teacher plays the game;  Use the game to collect data for a subsequent discussion after the game;  Ask specific individual students for their opinion on the question themes;  Ask students to review the game. Show the AR questionnaire. Impact table Explain the impact of the AR game and the good practices on the teacher, their students and student online safety. 51

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