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The greenhouse footprint of wood production in NSW - Fabiano Ximenes

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The greenhouse footprint of wood production in NSW - Fabiano Ximenes

  1. 1. The Greenhouse Footprint of Wood Production in NSW Fabiano Ximenes Industry and Investment NSW CCRSPI – February 2011
  2. 2. Weighing 15-year old Radiata tree Presentation Outline <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon in wood products / environmental benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions: harvest and log transport, manufacture and transport markets </li></ul><ul><li>Net greenhouse impact: NSW </li></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Assessment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Project background <ul><li>Climate Action Grant Project (2006-2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>* Development of an energy budget for the main types of wood products used in the NSW building sector </li></ul><ul><li>* Quantification of the GHG impacts of waste disposal options for wood and paper products in NSW </li></ul><ul><li>* Quantification of the rate and extent of decay of wood and paper products in landfills in NSW </li></ul>
  4. 4. Photosynthesis process (www.butler.edu) To produce 0.65 g C – 1 MJ Solar power required (high quality sites)
  5. 5. <ul><li>Consumption of wood in dwellings in Australia </li></ul>Carbon in wood products in dwellings Source: BIS Shrapnel; Sawn Timber in Australia 2008-2022
  6. 6. Wood products in houses <ul><li>Roof frames and trusses: 90% Softwood </li></ul><ul><li>Wall frames: 75% Softwood; 9% Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Flooring: 78% Particleboard; 6% Hardwood </li></ul><ul><li>Decking: 40% Hardwood, 45% Softwood </li></ul><ul><li>Window frames: 48% Aluminium; 27% Softwood; 12% Hardwood </li></ul>
  7. 7. Greenhouse footprint of wood <ul><li>Carbon is sequestered in forests </li></ul><ul><li>Wood products: continued storage in service and in landfills </li></ul><ul><li>Use of processing residues: energy or feedstock for composite materials </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution benefits </li></ul>
  8. 8. Energy and GHG Budget <ul><li>insert text here </li></ul><ul><li>Series of studies – sawmills, MDF and particleboard plants, wall and frame manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Energy audit: including energy required during harvest, transport to the mill, manufacture and installation </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable versus non-renewable energy </li></ul><ul><li>Aim: use in building rating schemes (requiring change of focus) and Life Cycle Assessment </li></ul>
  9. 9. Energy consumption drivers <ul><li>Plant capacity and age </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of plant utilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing process and level of integration </li></ul><ul><li>Site layout </li></ul><ul><li>Overall efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of mechanization of materials handling </li></ul><ul><li>Wood species, size and moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Product type and mix </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of finishing </li></ul><ul><li>Air versus kiln-drying and climate </li></ul><ul><li>Energy prices </li></ul>
  10. 10. Components of the assessment <ul><li>Harvest and log transport: </li></ul><ul><li>Total fuel consumption of harvest machinery, log volumes transported, </li></ul><ul><li>distances between the forest and processing mills and total fuel used in </li></ul><ul><li>haulage. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Volumes of logs processed, electricty and diesel used in the mill, energy </li></ul><ul><li>required for drying, production breakdown with tracking of total mass </li></ul><ul><li>and fate of residues produced, packaging and any other additional </li></ul><ul><li>significant inputs (e.g. glue in panel production – including shipping </li></ul><ul><li>from overseas if required). </li></ul><ul><li>Transport to the market </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed information on distances to markets, average truck loads and </li></ul><ul><li>fuel efficiencies of transport, as well as transport of residues. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Wood-processing facilities
  12. 12. Greenhouse and energy footprint of wood production Facility Tonnes CO 2 -e/ tonne Tonnes CO 2 -e/ m 3 GJ/m 3 GJ/tonne Particleboard 0.861 0.628 5.371 7.358 Plywood mill 0.810 0.583 4.517 6.273 MDF (medium-density fibreboard) 0.765 0.383 4.613 9.225 BB Sawmill 4 0.611 0.536 5.312 6.057 RP Sawmill 2 0.510 0.255 4.493 8.986 RP Sawmill 1 0.485 0.242 4.163 8.326 MHwd Sawmill 5 0.472 0.283 2.293 3.821 RP Sawmill 3 0.196 0.133 3.191 4.703 MHwd Sawmill 6 0.193 0.185 1.669 1.744 Truss and frame 0.179 0.093 1.200 2.317 Mean 0.545 0.359 3.958 6.277 Standard deviation 0.245 0.182 1.299 1.744
  13. 13. Greenhouse and energy footprint of wood production – cont.
  14. 14. GHG and energy footprint of wood production Softwoods Mill 1 Mill 2 Mill 3 Mill 1 Mill 2 Mill 3 % CO2 % CO2 % CO2 % GJ % GJ % GJ Electricity (includes kiln and boiler) 33.4 51.1 53.0 4.7 10.1 10.2 Transport of products 23.9 18.5 17.4 13.3 14.4 13.2 Transport of residues 16.0 5.7 11.4 8.9 4.4 8.6 Diesel-mill 11.0 2.3 3.5 6.3 1.8 2.6 Log transport 5.6 15.9 6.7 3.1 12.3 5.0 Log harvest 5.0 4.3 5.7 2.8 3.3 4.3 Transport of preservatives 2.5 0.3 0.3 1.4 0.3 0.2 Kiln - residues 2.0 1.3 1.3 58.2 52.4 54.1 Packaging 0.6 0.7 0.6 1.3 0.9 1.7 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100
  15. 15. GHG and energy footprint of wood production Hardwoods Mill 1 Mill 2 Mill 3 Mill 1 Mill 2 Mill 3 % CO2 % CO2 % CO2 % GJ % GJ % GJ Electricity 49.2 52.8 44.4 16.8 22.1 16.7 Transport of residues 17.6 1.1 3.3 23.7 1.7 4.8 Log harvest 13.9 16.4 18.6 18.6 27.0 27.4 Log transport 8.0 11.7 19.8 10.7 19.2 29.2 Transport of products 5.7 9.0 5.5 7.6 14.8 8.1 Diesel-mill 5.0 8.1 8.0 6.7 13.4 11.8 Packaging 0.4 1.0 0.4 2.0 1.8 2.0 Kiln 0.2 0.0 0.0 13.8 0.0 0.0 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100
  16. 16. GHG and energy footprint of wood production Activity Particleboard MDF Plywood % CO2 % GJ % CO2 % GJ % CO2 % GJ Electricity 45.9 20.1 61.4 24.3 65.4 18.4 Kiln 42.3 68.9 27.3 65.7 0.7 44.0 Transport of products 2.6 4.5 2.5 3.9 10.9 12.1 Log transport 2.5 4.3 2.6 4.1 2.0 2.2 Log harvest 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.6 3.1 3.4 Diesel-mill 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.5 2.1 2.4 Transport of residues 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 6.0 6.6 Packaging 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.4 Other 5.9 0.5 5.3 0.4 9.6 10.6 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100
  17. 17. GHG and energy footprint of wood production Activity Softwoods Hardwoods % CO2 % GJ % CO2 % GJ Electricity (includes kiln and boiler) 45.8 8.3 48.8 18.5 Transport of products 19.9 13.6 6.7 10.2 Transport of residues 11.1 7.3 7.3 10.1 Log transport 9.4 6.8 13.1 19.7 Diesel-mill 5.6 3.6 7.0 10.6 Log harvest 5.0 3.5 16.3 24.4 Kiln - residues 1.5 54.9 0.1 4.6 Transport of preservatives 1.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 Packaging 0.6 1.3 0.6 1.9 Total 100 100 100 100
  18. 18. Greenhouse emissions from wood production in NSW in 2009 (t CO 2 -e)
  19. 19. GHG emissions and long-term storage
  20. 20. Long-term storage from wood production in NSW in 2009 (t CO2-e)
  21. 21. Summary <ul><li>GHG emissions from wood-processing facilities generally low </li></ul><ul><li>GHG emissions from EWPs typically higher than for sawmills </li></ul><ul><li>Energy footprint much greater than greenhouse footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture is typically the biggest contributor to overall GHG emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity (drying) is the main contributor to GHG emissions in manufacture </li></ul>
  22. 22. Summary – cont. <ul><li>Long term carbon storage in wood products: easily outweighs emissions </li></ul><ul><li>When LTS is factored in: annual production of wood products results in storage of 3 Mt CO 2 -e </li></ul><ul><li>Results highlight the importance of considering whole of life emissions and storage </li></ul><ul><li>Implications: Building rating schemes / Life Cycle Assessments </li></ul>
  23. 23. Acknowledgements This project was financially assisted by the NSW Government, through its Climate Action Program. The cooperation from all wood-processing facilities involved in the study was greatly appreciated.
  24. 24. Machins
  25. 25. Mford
  26. 26. Mford
  27. 28. ANZSIC code Industry Classification Emissions (Mt CO2-e) Change in emissions (%) 1990 2007 2008 2007 to 2008 1990 to 2008 23-4 Wood, paper and printing 1.7 2.5 2.4 -3.5 43.4
  28. 29. Greenhouse benefit – Life cycle perspective
  29. 31. From the log dump to the rubbish dump Forest Sawmill 62% Dressing 47% Wall frame 44% In service 42% Landfill
  30. 32. Australia’s GHG Emissions By Sector Source: DCC 2008 Total emissions: 559 Mt CO 2 -e. Emissions per capita: 1990: 32.2 t CO2-e 2005: 27.6 t CO2-e
  31. 33. Wood – environmental benefits <ul><li>Renewable resource </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon storage </li></ul><ul><li>Low energy-intensity in manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Processing residues used to generate energy </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution benefits </li></ul>
  32. 34. Energy breakdown <ul><li>Kiln-drying may account for 70-90% of the sawmilling energy </li></ul>Process Energy usage (MJ/kg) Planting/tending 1.0 Harvesting 0.61 Transport to mill 0.99 Sawmilling 1.1 Drying 8.5 Planning 0.29 Transport 0.73 Packaging 0.07 Total 13.3
  33. 35. Carbon Trading Time to move on from the forest!
  34. 36. Substitution effect
  35. 37. 44 years in landfill
  36. 38. Carbon Storage in Australia's Forest Plantations, Wood Products in Service and in Landfill
  37. 39. Sink in Australian Plantation Forests (KP) DCC 2008
  38. 40. Life Cycle of Wood Products

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