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The systematic design of instruction dick and carey

The Systematic Design of Instruction by Walter Dick, Lou Carey, James Carey

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The systematic design of instruction dick and carey

  1. 1. The Systematic Design of Instruction- Dick and Carey The Staff Trainer’s Blog Cathy Cousear
  2. 2. Criteria for establishing Instructional Goals • Will the development of this instruction solve the problem that led to it? • Are these goals acceptable to those who must approve this instructional development effort? • Are there sufficient people and time to complete the goal?
  3. 3. Analysis of Learning Context • Compatibility of site with instructional requirements. • Adaptability of site to simulate workplace. • Adaptability for delivery approaches. • Learning site constraints affecting design and delivery.
  4. 4. Steps in Writing Evaluations • Edit goal to reflect eventual performance context • Write terminal objectives to reflect context of learning environment • Write objective for each step in goal analysis for which there are no sub- steps shown. • Write objectives for all subordinate skills • Write objectives for entry behaviors if some students are likely not to possess them.
  5. 5. Four Types of Criterion-Referenced Tests and Their Uses • Entry Behavior Test • Pretest • Practice Tests • Posttest
  6. 6. Test Type(Entry Behavior) Designer’s Design • Are target learners ready to enter instruction? • Do learners possess the required prerequisite skills? Objectives Typically Tested • Prerequisite skills or those skills below the dotted line in the instructional analysis
  7. 7. Test Type (Pretests) Designer’s Decision • Have learners previously mastered the enabling skills. • Which particular skills have they previously mastered? • How can I most efficiently develop this instruction? Objectives Typically Tested • Terminal Objectives • Main steps from the goal analysis
  8. 8. Type Tests (Practice tests) Designer’s Decision • Are students requiring the intended knowledge and skills? • What errors and misconceptions are they forming? • Is instruction clustered appropriately? • Is the pace of instruction appropriate for the learner? Objectives Typically Tested • Knowledge and skills for a subset of objectives within the goal. • Scope typically at the lesson rather the unit level.
  9. 9. Test Type (Posttests) Designer’s Decision • Have learners achieved the terminal objectives? • Is the instruction more or less effective for each main step and for each subordinate skill? • Where should instruction be revised? Objectives Typically Tested • The terminal objective • Main steps and their subordinate skills
  10. 10. Four Categories of Test Item Qualities • Goal Centered • Learner- Centered • Context-Centered • Assessment-Centered
  11. 11. Goal Centered
  12. 12. Learner-Centered Criteria
  13. 13. Context-Centered Criteria
  14. 14. Assessment-Centered Criteria
  15. 15. Types of Items
  16. 16. Sequencing Items
  17. 17. Writing Directions
  18. 18. Evaluating tests and Test Items
  19. 19. Developing Instruments to Measure Performance, Products, and Attitudes • Identify the elements to be evaluated • Paraphrase each element • Sequence the elements on the instrument. • Select the type of judgment to be made by the evaluator • Determine how the instrument will be scored
  20. 20. Developing the Response Format • Checklist • Rating Scale • Frequency Count • Scoring Procedure
  21. 21. Learning Components of Instructional Design 1. Gaining attention 2. Informing learner of the objectives 3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning 4. Presenting the stimulus material. 5. Providing learner guidance 6. Eliciting the performance 7. Providing feedback about performance correctness 8. Assessing the performance 9. Enhancing retention and transfer
  22. 22. Five Major Learning Components 1. Pre-instructional activities 2. Content Presentation 3. Learner Participation 4. Assessment 5. Follow-through activities
  23. 23. Summary of Learning Components A. Pre-instructional Activities B. Content presentation C. Learner Participation D. Assessment E. Follow-through activities
  24. 24. Best Sequence for Developing Instructional Strategy
  25. 25. Developing Instructional Material
  26. 26. Factors that cause compromise in media selection • Availability of Existing Instructional Material • Production and Implementation Constraints • Amount of Instructor Facilitation
  27. 27. Components of an Instructional Package • Instructional Materials • Assessments • Course Management Information
  28. 28. Selecting Existing Instructional Materials • Goal centered criterial for evaluating materials • Learner-centered criterial for evaluating materials • Learning centered criterial for evaluating materials • Context-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materials
  29. 29. Goal-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materials
  30. 30. Learner-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Material
  31. 31. Learning Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materials
  32. 32. Context-Centered Criteria
  33. 33. Steps in the Development of Instruction
  34. 34. Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation of instruction
  35. 35. Types of Data to Collect
  36. 36. Field Trial
  37. 37. Formative Evaluation in the Performance Context
  38. 38. Formative Evaluation Activities
  39. 39. Revising Instruction